DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED TRAFFIC OFFENCE SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED TRAFFIC OFFENCE SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Computerised Traffic Offence System is a powerful web based and database program that records all the traffic offences committed nationwide. The system helps the Federal Road Safety Commission keep adequate records of all traffic offences that has been committed and that will still be committed by road users and also maintain the databases of the commission (FRSC).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Prior to the establishment of Federal Road Safety Commission in 1988, there was no concrete and sustained policy action to address the carnage on Nigerian roads. Earlier attempts in this direction were limited to discrete and isolated attempts by some states of the Federation and individuals.The unpleasant trend in the nation’s road traffic system which resulted in upsurage in road traffic accidents made the Federal Government initiate a search for a credible and effective response to the challenge. In February 1988, the Federal Government established the Federal Road Safety Commission through Decree No .45 of the 1988 as amended by Decree 35 of 1992 refered to in the statue books as the FRSC Act cap 141 laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN). Passed by the National Assembly as Federal Road Safety Commission (establishment) Act 200. Around the world road traffic injuries are a major public health challenges that requires concerted efforts for effective and sustained prevention.An estimated 1.2million people are killed in road crashes every year and as many as 50million suffer injuries. The world health organisation believes that these figures could increase by more than half over the next 20years unless there is a firm commitment to road safety and accident prevention, especially in Nigeria, most adults will know of someone who has been killed or injured in a road

traffic accident. It is a dead fact that many of these accidents and their consequences would have been avoided. Therefore the Computerised Traffic Offence System will help to keep records of all traffic offences committed by road users and also maintain the databases of the commission (FRSC).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The present system of traffic offence system which is the manual system known as (Notice of Offence Sheet) has alot of problems which are mentioned below:
TIME:Going by the present system of operation, time is consumed in the manual handling of operation involved in road traffic documentation.
COST:This is the greatest problem of ths Federal Road Safety Commission. The commission tends to lose alot of money running the agency manually.
DOCUMENT INTEGRITY:This is viewed in the contest of safety, in validity of the records in document files used in report generation. In terms of safety, the nature of the system makes it vulnerable to theft, fire or accidental destruction. This makes the system unsafe as the time needed to replace lost data or files is enormously large.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to help Federal Road Safety Commission to document all road traffic offences incurred by the road users.This study also tries to give an in-depth look in the easiest and most effective way for the growth and development of the Federal Road Safety Commission of Nigeria, in order to control and render its services to Nigerians and other countries.

 

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous values to the Federal Road Safety Commission and any organisation that deals with offence documentation data/information. Huge files kept through the manual method in offices will no longer be there again because information will be stored on the computer with the help of the Computerised Traffic Offence System. It will help to keep a comprehensive record of traffic offence documented.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
 To provide better services to the public and users making the highway safe for motorists and other road users.
 To keep records that are complete, integrated and up to date, also recommending works and devices designed to eliminate or minimise accidents on the highways and advising the Federal and State Government including the Federal Capital Territory Administration and relevant governmental agencies on the localities where such works and devices are requred.
 To produce a system where information and output report will be produced or made available much faster, more accurately and more detailed to the commission and the public by educating motorist and members of the public on the importance of discipline on the highway.
 Maintaining the validity period for drivers’ licences which shall be three years subject to renewal at the expiration of the validity period as well as designing,resgistering and producing vehicle plate number.
 Conducting researches and also the standardization of highway traffic codes.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is strived at finding out how effective the Computerization of Nigerian Road Safety Commission will improve the operation of the commission. However, the research is limited to traffic offence section.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Owing to the scope of this project as mentioned above, this project work is limited to computer literates. It is important to mention that time and cost was a major constraint in the course of fact finding. It is also wise to mention here that some information needed to work with was not collected because of the unwillingness of the agency to reveal such information.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
 INFORMATION: This is the assembling of data into a meaningful form.
 DATA: This is a fore runner of information. It is an unprocessed fact.
 DATABASE: Is a collection of information that is related to a particular subject or purpose.
 INTERNET: Is a collection of computer networks that operate to common standards and enable the computer and the program they run to communicate directly.
 SOFTWARE: This is a logically written program that hardware uses to perform its operation.
 FRSC: Federal Road Safety Commission is body responsible for the control of Road users in a country (Nigeria).
 COMPUTERIZATION: Refers to the application of computer in performing operations.
 SYSTEM: Is the collection of hardware, software,data information procedures and people.

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED RESTURANT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED RESTURANT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

 ABSTRACT
This project work is primarily designed to give an insight to computer based restaurant management information system. It is as a result of problem associated with the existing system which involves the use of manual method in keeping information in the system. So among the numerous problems associated with the existing system are; staff are spending far too much time chasing mistakes instead of tending to customers, sales going unrecorded, inventory doesn’t match your tallies and other. Computerized management information system database information system used by restaurant personnel to collect data, process it and also store it for future use. Researcher used visual basic in designing the system and Microsoft office as the database system.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Computerised restaurant management information system is database program that keeps record of all transaction carried out in the restaurant on daily bases. The system helps the restaurant management to keep adequate record of all transactions carried out and does that will still be carried out by the restaurant and maintain the database of the restaurant.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Various types of fall into several industry classifications based upon menu style, preparation methods and pricing. Additionally, how the food is served to the customer helps to determine the classification.
Historically, restaurant referred only to places that provided tables where one sat down to eat the meal, typically served by a Waiter. Following the rise of Fast food and restaurants, a Retronym for the older “standard” restaurant was created, sit-down restaurant. Most commonly, “sit-down restaurant” refers to a casual dining restaurant with Table service, rather than a or a “diner”, where one orders food at a Countertop. Sit-down restaurants are often further categorized, in North America, as “family-style” or “”.
In, the term restaurant almost always means an eating establishment with table service, so the “sit-down” qualification is not usually necessary. Fast food and takeaway (take-out) outlets with counter service are not normally referred to as restaurants. Outside of North-America, the terms fast casual dining restaurants, family style, and casual dining are not used and distinctions among different kinds of restaurants is often not the same.
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In France, for example, some restaurants are called “bistros” to indicate a level of casualness or trendiness, though some “bistros” are quite formal in the kind of food they serve and clientele they attract. Others are called “brasseries,” a term which indicates hours of service. “Brasseries” may serve food round the clock, whereas “restaurants” usually only serve at set intervals during the day.
In Sweden, restaurants of many kinds are called “restauranger,” but restaurants attached to bars or cafes are sometimes called “kök,” literally “kitchens,” and sometimes a bar-restaurant combination is called a “krog,” in English a “tavern.”
In Dishing It Out: In Search of the Restaurant Experience, Robert (2002) argues that all restaurants can be categorized according a set of social parameters defined as polar opposites: high or low, cheap or dear, familiar or exotic, formal or informal, and so forth. Any restaurant will be relatively high or low in style and price, familiar or exotic in the cuisine it offers to different kinds of customers, and so on.
Context is as important as the style and form: a taqueria is a more than familiar site in Guadalajara, Mexico, but it would be exotic in Albania. A Chris restaurant in North America may seem somewhat strange to a first time visitor from India; but many Americans are familiar with it as a large restaurant chain, albeit one that features high prices and a formal atmosphere.
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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Sales and services are the fundamental tools in any business organization the profit and loose of any business depends on detailed information on sales and services made to aid in decision making and implementation, if accountability is not checked, then the business is sure to collapse, as a result in a any retail and hospitality business there is a need for a system that gives feedback to the management to aid decision making, this is where computerized management information system comes handy
Besides, staffing a restaurant can be tricky because demand for food will likely fluctuate dramatically, often due to variables that you cannot track. Identify any variables you do observe that influence traffic in your restaurant, such as weather and day of the week. Build a weekly schedule to staff your restaurant in accordance with these variables, such as scheduling additional staff on Saturday night if that is your busiest shift.
Compile data about sales and employee hours to determine a profitable ratio of employee hours to sales totals. Restaurant personnel training systems are also vital to success, ensuring that employees know company protocol and systems, and are capable of delivering a high quality product. Write a comprehensive employee manual detailing information that each member of your staff should know.
Besides, customers are not able to ask about quality of food or ask for any specialized diet foods. It is more difficult to ask for gluten free or allergy free foods with computerized ordering. Also, it is more possible for a customer to place an order, but never pick up the order which can lead to waste of food and possibly a loss of profits.
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1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the study are the Design, Documentation and Implementation of a Computerized Restaurant Management Information System. While the subsidiary objectives are: To determine how computerized management information system has facilitated increase productivity, decrease paperwork, and ability to analyze trouble spots. To determine how the system will increase the level of services quality and
Customer satisfaction To determine how the system will help the restaurants to have the ability to build competitive and strategic advantages by better understanding the needs and wants of the guests, hence building repeat business. To determine how the system can lead organization towards better decision making and building a competitive advantage over its competitors. To determine how computerized management information system will improve the operating efficiencies, provide restaurant and support center management with timely access to financial and operating data and reduce administrative time and expense
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is primarily aimed at increasing efficiency in operation, reducing time and running cost, monitoring and the recording of the activities and total administration in Jeveniks Restaurant Ltd Enugu by introducing a computerized Restaurant Management information System.
Besides, this study is significance because its conclusions would be useful to:
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1. Human Resources Managers in the hotel and restaurants business
2. The Federal, State and Local Government
3. Scholars in the field of hotel and restaurant management
4. Management of Jeveniks Restaurant Ltd Enugu
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work is narrowed to Jeveniks Restaurant Ltd Enugu. It deals with the Design, Documentation and Implementation of a computerised Management Information System. The program will concentrate on keeping records of the total management activities.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Most constraint experienced during the course of writing this project is that of detailed information about their major operations, the personnel manager was a little diplomatic in answering my questions in order to reveal information that may indent the company’s image, though that did not stop me from writing and researching for detailed information.
Due to time constraint, finance and confidentiality of information, program developed covers all aspect of employment, customer satisfaction, services to customers, recording activities, buying and selling of food. What ever is left out is as a result of the stated limitations.

 

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED CAREER GUIDANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED CAREER GUIDANCE INFORMATION SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Man in search of comfort struggle to meet up with good career and for this to be achieved, it has to be started as early as possible. From the time man is born, expectations abound to know what likely he will be able to do as he grows up. This has to do with his natural behaviour and mental exercise display. This continues in family/parents and other relaxation acting as counselling unit until the child goes in to school. In school the teacher takes over the counselling, it is a continuous exercise until one finds one‟s feet, then he can continue from there and equally be in a position to guide and counsel others.
The stages where much work is carried out on counselling is in secondary schools .This is a stage when a child is grown to be able to understand maturely and when the child‟s attitude is fully studied in line with academic performance . In all secondary school across the country , there exist a guidance and counsellor office where people knowledgeable in the area of psychology are employed in order to help advise the younger ones in school which way forward to their future career . There people through class visitation, Observing students during recreation and calling on them at intervals for questioning, came to know the students betters and be able to guide and counsel them in their future career probably in university or in any other area of endeavour.

The job of counselling in secondary school is not an easy job to be taking into consideration the number students involved with respect to the number of staff involved. It is always very difficult to handle all the students and to remember everything about the students. This Counselling exercise needs a sophisticated system for the operation of counselling alliterates some of the problem associated with exercise.
Personal behaviour and area of interest, they keep very close marks with the students to make sure that no stone is left unturned. This aspect of one‟s life is taken very seriously in schools because that is mainly the reason people go to school for the academics tests and examination only. The battle of career choice is handed over to individual when he/she attain a stage of being able to duct for himself what he/she really wants and how best possible to get such height. The person can steer the wheels directly to his destination or deviate in the other way due to carelessness or youthful exuberance; but the end justifies the means. Sometimes, due to laxity and incapability on the side of the career guidance and counsellor in schools, most of the students are led astray.
Hoyfield (1997) argues that a good career in life, makes a lot of meaningful process in life. He queried „‟what is comfort and where comfort without a good career‟‟. In his own views, it takes a long and rough way to arrive and clinch a good career but when one finally gets to it, life comes to be what nature made it be. He made it clear and that life is associated with a good career and that such a career is what can give full meaning of life a priceless gift of nature. Statistics shows that people who find good career are enjoying high standard of living and the unlucky ones cry of frustration and negatives social factors that limits life.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
The number of students involved in schools counselling are very enormous and few staff in counselling cannot handle the job effectively.
It is always very easy to forget information about students and to reach all the students, contributes and problems.
Another major problem of the counselling is information storage. The made of storage of information observed from the students in different forms is not reliable and this makes the counselling to apply guess work in trying to direct students in their future career work.
This is a very big delay in taking decision on students concerning their future career. This is also because referencing to students information for decision making takes a very long time.

 

1.2 Aims/Objectives
The primary aim of this projects work is to provide lasting solution to the problem affecting counselling exercise in secondary schools. The following objectives below are the study
 To make the criteria and process involved in the exercise of counselling very easy and flexible
 To carefully take care of the burden, the staff faces in trying to do the work of counselling manually.
 To provide adequate enabling environment for counselling on student to give them better career perspective
 To maintain adequate observed information on students for future reference and quick decision taking.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this project work is to probe into the developing a counselling software for schools with a view of creating awareness of the use computer in counselling with due consideration of this new technology advancement.
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1.4 Significance Of The Study
This study is of numerous important to the guidance and counsellor department and the society in general in different ways:
 It will help the counsellor to always direct the students in their best career area with happiness because it will be result oriented.
 It will also help to eliminate the word frustration among the people which is very common in the society.
 It will ease of the stress of the counsellor using his/her brain trying to store information about different students in their large number and each student‟s area of interest he/she is fit for.
 Using an automated system in this situation would be very efficient especially in information storage.

1.5 Scope/ Delimitation Of The Study
The study covers the design and implementation of computerized career choice counselling system in secondary schools.

1.6 Constraints / Limitations
The major constraints identified in the course of this work are as follows:
 There are many secondary schools in primitive/rural areas that have little or no technological facilities in the school. Implementation of this system in such a situation becomes a problem.
 There may also be staff in the school who do not have knowledge on proper usage of computer. If such staff works in the guidance and counselling unit, it would be cumbersome for him/her to operate the computerized system.
Recommended solution to these problems is that there should be a room for proper training of personnel who cannot operate computers properly. Also, government should help provide technological facilities in those schools in the rural areas that have little or no level of technology.

1.7 Definition Of Terms
COUNSELLING: To give advise to another
SOCIETY :This is an organized group of people living together and having things together
AUTOMATED: Less independent of human direction and utilizes techniques of automation.
PROMPT: To motivate an action
SYSTEM: A combination of parts organized in a whole working together to achieve a common purpose
PSYCHOLOGY: The study of mind and it‟s function
DATA: This is a raw and unprocessed facts and figures obtained from experiments, research, surveys etc. used to develop something or make decision.
RECORD: To write down event so that it can be remember d
COMPUTER : This is an electronic device that accept raw facts as data and processes it to give useful information.
INFORMATION: Data that has been processed.

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR A MULTI SERVICE RENTAL CO

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR A MULTI SERVICE RENTAL CO

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Most rental service firms today still use manual information system because their information needs are of moderate size and managers of such firms have probably been enjoying the manual system as regards to their relatively and comfortable low level of transaction activities.
With the high level of social activities been experienced, It is only the rental firms with very large information or high capacity of rental service with rapid rate of renting per item that are likely to survive pressure, and therefore should link information system to business strategy. With this pressure, there is a need to improve corporate effectiveness through their own involvement in system planning to ensure that business strategy is developed in the context of the computerized environment.
Among the many rental service centers, majority adopted a great variety of manual information system for management activities most of which are single file system. This single file system does not offer opportunities for easy manipulation of data to provide managers an insight into transaction reports such as to rapid statistics for operation analysis, it does not provide instant access to information for controlling and directing the firm. At this point we can see that the world of rental service business lacks conclusion data in the relative effectiveness of manual information system versus computerized information system.
Different rental service centers at various level of activities with different critical level will agree that stress, confusion and errors increase with increase in volume of information as the transaction activities rises, and there is a great point where manual information system will not operate successfully.
In this respect, computerized rental service management information system has been developed to provide BRAHAM RENTALS with consistency, comprehensive and reasonable accurate information for planning directly and controlling the activities for which they are responsible and for making timely and effective decision.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are problems faced by the management of BRAHAM RENTALS , this problems can be attributed to the fact that they use manual information processing in their activities. These problems include:
* Errors and inaccuracy since all computations are done manually.
* Updating activities are time consuming very poor and lacks accuracy.
* Lack of adequate information for decision making.
* Inconsistency and redundancy are often encountered in the information processing system for the generation of management information.
* Processing of information is usually time consuming and most times with undesired out
This project work is prompted by the problems of Braham Rentals to find a lasting solution to these problems.

 

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to design a computerized information system that will replace the manual procedures of carrying out operations in the existing management information system of BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES.
The designed system will be able to:-
1 make entries of all transactions made.
2 Make necessary equals of relevant information about all the transaction made between the firm and the client.
3 produce reports for managerial use to make good plans, Direct and control the activities in the firm as well as. Taking effective decision to suit any decision.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
The aims and objectives of this project is to design a computerized rental services management information system for BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES that will aid in the following:
* to reduce the average response time to management enquiry concerning transaction status.
* To produce timely accurate and up to date report for management purpose.
* To aid the administration and management to eliminate avoidable inefficiency.
* Finally to explore all capacities of computer in the area of speed, efficiency and security of data.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this covers the normal operational procedures of data processing and information about all rental transactions made on BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES. The project scope extends from the point of customers booking of items to the point these items are leased.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This work is limited to the application of computerized information management system in BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES. However during the course of this project work, there are factors militated against my carrying out of this work. they include:-
* lack of time
* High cost of production
* lack of adequate research materials.
1.6 ASSUMPTION
Some assumptions made while carrying out this work was that the data I collected from BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES and some rental services centers was accurate and valid due to their maximum co-operation and interest with regards to the study concerned.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some technical term have been used on this work and the whole system will be meaningless if the terms are not the explicitly explained.
Data: These are facts and figures which are examined to produce information
File: this is a collection or group of related records.
Flowchart: this is a system analysis tool that provide a graphical presentation of a sequence to represent the operation.
Information: this refers to data that have been processed in such a way as to be useful to the recipient.
Transaction: this refers to business carried out between people, usually buying and selling of goods and services
Record: this is a written account of something that is kept, so that it can be looked at and used in future. It is also a set of related fields in a given system.

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED BILL OF MATERIAL PROCESSING PROJECT

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED BILL OF MATERIAL PROCESSING PROJECT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Material Procurement can be defined as the purchase of goods or services at a total cost of the optimum possible in the correct amount and quality of procurement. These goods and services are also purchased at the right time and location to express profit or the use of Government, business, business, or individuals by signing a contract.
The process of acquisition of goods or services that are required as a raw material (direct procurement) or for operating purposes (indirect procurement) a company or a person might call acquisition. The procurement process involves not only the purchase of commodities, but also the quality and quantity of controls. Typically, providers are listed and pre-determined by the contracting company. This makes the smoother process, the promotion of a good relationship between the buyer and the supplier.
The synonyms for procurement, which are the gain, purchase, and acquire, can shed light on the meaning of procurement. The procurement process may vary from company to company, and a Government entity can have a slightly different procurement process compared to a private company.
Acquisitions can also be defined simply as the procedure in which the goods or raw materials are purchased when prices are low. Procurement is advantageous if the goods are purchased in large quantities. E-procurement is another method of electronic media is used for the acquisition or purchase of goods. Everything is processed electronically, the search for the right bidder delivery and payment.
The procurement procedure may vary depending on the product and the uses of the product. Health team must be efficient and reliable, and the procurement process is carried out carefully in order prevent the defective equipment purchase. Another important factor that usually includes definitions of the procurement is the amount purchased the product. This is important because the quantity of purchased goods is inversely proportional to their cost.
Thus, acquisition is a process that is carried out by the company almost every individual and for their own personal benefit or benefits, involving the purchase of commodities by choosing the appropriate provider.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Most company’s are suffering some set backs due to their procurement system. Most often low quality goods are purchased and they end up loosing money. Also at times, they lack a steady supply, resulting to lack of materials for production, hence the need for computerization of bill of material processing system.
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The main objective is to computerized bill of material processing system of business transactions. This will help the manager know when to make purchases of items, ascertain the exact number of each items or stock available, to
ascertain the materials that are either mostly or sparsely used as well as knowing the exact number of each material or items that are lacking thereby helping to improve workflow in the organization. Moreover to reduce time wasted in data processing and information retrieval. And finally to improve management activities, which will lead to improved productivity, accountability and business management of the organization.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This purpose of this study is to design a computerized bill of material processing system for a company. This will help in monitoring their material procurement.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The project is aimed at designing, a new better alternative system to help the organization in material procurement thereby making the management system to be more effective. Also the software designed will help management to: –
(a) Maintain a database of materials procured.
(b) Safeguard data and information in the system.
(c) Reduced workload in the present system.
(d) Keep accurate record on material procurement
(e) Reduce time wasted in data processing.

 

1.5 Scope of Study
This project work is designed to cover all aspect of purchases of materials in a company. The system incorporates materials procurement recording and stock taking.
1.6 Constraints and Limitations
During the process of this research work some drawbacks were encountered while trying to get adequate needed data and information.
They include the reluctance of the management of the firm under study to release vital information, which they feared would jeopardize the security of the organization. And secondly, time and financial constraints which had great influence to this work.
1.7 Assumptions
It is assumed that all information gathered with respect to material procurement management information system is correct as implemented by computers.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Procurement: It can be defined as the purchase of goods or services at a total cost of the optimum possible in the correct amount and quality of procurement.

Receipt: Receipt is the process of accepting from sources, all materials or items used in the organization.
Issue: This is the process of giving out items from store to various departments in the organization.
Computer Program: This is a set of instruction that guides the computer on the action to perform.
Flowchart: This is graphical representation of step by step by which computer can follow to execute a task.

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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
This work intends to provide a computer based system for the maintenance of personnel records of employees in organization. The work addresses limitations identified with manual method of handling personnel records of employees in a firm by providing a better platform to eliminate fraud, corruption, file hiding and misplacement, records falsification, duplication, fragmentation, inconsistencies and other vices attendant with manual method of handling personnel records. The Personnel Information System (PIS) software is a user friendly package that gives one the fit to accurately monitor employees’ records effortless. With Personnel Information System (PIS), the personnel records of employees in a firm regardless of their place of assignment are simultaneously integrated and rationalized through the creation of a single system that provides accurate information to all in a time and cost efficient manner. This software is designed for stand-alone windows environment, but has the ability to be networked. The interface is Visual Basic language with the structured query language (SQL). The implementation of the system will provide speedy retrieval of data as well as enhancing effective and efficient data.

CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION: This chapter introduces and presents the baseline of the thesis. It provides an overview of the study and the important issues that will be discussed and investigated

1.2 RATIONAL/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: Personnel Information System is a computer based system for the maintenance of the service registers of individuals in an organization. According to Hicks and Gullet (19974; 316), “An information system may be defined as an organized way of sending, receiving and recording messages”. Traditionally, personnel record for federal public servants of any organization in a country like ours are held in three places namely: Open and secret register of the organization at the headquarters for all the staff of the organization in the nation. The state offices for all the staff in each particular state and local government area offices for staff posted to the local government area where applicable.
There are also operational departmental records for staff at the headquarters and states head offices. This, however, led to duplication, fragmentation and inconsistencies in records of staff. Whereas, a firm’s information system should be unified, there should be no contradictions, no overlaps, and no gaps.
Information needed by many departments should be collected by one source, stored and made available to any section of the organization that needs it (Unamka and Ewurum 1995; 329). Therefore, the Data are inaccurate and thus unreliable as a basis for decision making. Unamka and Ewurum (1995; 329) say, “Unless a manager has the correct information at the right time, he is unlikely to make the right decision”. Since the data are inaccurate and unreliable, the information generated therein is of low quality and decisions taken likely to be wrong in confirmation to; “The higher the quality of the information, the better the result of the decision Eating” (Unamka and Ewurum 1995; 329). For instant, the name of a deceased local government area staff may continue to be appearing in the register or nominal roll of the organization at the quarters years after the staff demise, whereas his/her name has been removed from the state register or nominal roll list. Secondly, there are cases where officers obtained additional qualification beside the ones they were employed with, but these qualifications are not accredited to them at the headquarters whereas they have them at their states office files. Another case is where a couple of staff were employed at the same time, place on the same grade level and step and posted to different states, but few years later, the officers started earning different amount of money as salaries because of one manipulation or the other. Thus data gathering and updating are subject to delay or worse when files are lost. Though the existing manual system of recording information is useful, however, with the development of PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM (PIS) software, personnel records will be simultaneously integrated and rationalized. It should then be seen as a route to eradicating all the problems of manual method of handling records through the creation of a single system that would provide accurate information to all in a time and cost efficient manner. According to Unamka and Ewurum (1995; 329), “Information that is useful in business should be accurate and timely”. With Personnel Information System (PIS), the details pertaining to personnel postings, qualifications, departmental test passed, training attended, family details, etc are stored in this system. With the help of nice friendly graphical interface, retrieval of information is possible based on any individual or on collective information grouped by certain categories. These categories could be designation, retirement time, length of service, place of work or location, etc. Thus the issue of ghost workers, hiding of files, falsification of records, and other vices that are often associated with manual system will be things of the past. Therefore, Personnel Information System is very much in need for every organization.

1.2.4 BRIEF HISTORY OF NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION (NPopC): The present National Population Commission was established in April 1988 by the legal instrument creating it (Decree No.23 of 1989). The Commission is made up of the board members headed by the chairman and 37 federal commissioners, one each from all the states of the federation and federal capital territory. Also on the board is the Director General (DG) who happens to be the accounting officer of the commission. The board also has appointed secretary called the secretary to the commission, who oversees the secretariat of the commission. The board has the responsibility to formulate policies as directed by the federal government, while the core civil servants are saddled with the responsibilities to carry out the policies. The commission in other to carry out its functions effectively has eight departments and each department is headed by a director. The departments are

• ADMIN AND SUPPLY

• CARTOGRAPHY

• CENSUS

• FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS

• INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

• PLANNING AND RESEARCH

• PUBLIC AFFAIRS

• VITAL REGISTRATION

The commission has its headquarters in Abuja and offices in all states capitals of the federation including the federal capital territory. It also has offices in the 774 local government areas of the country. Presently, the total staff strength of the commission is about five thousand. The personnel information gathering, processing and management of all the staff of the commission is carried out by the Admin and Supply department. According to Unarnka and Ewurum (1995; 135), “Personnel Management also called human resource management is the management of people at work. That also refers to the functions and operations of a single department of the corporation which has the responsibility and authority to select and train personnel”. This department in order to carry out the complex challenges of managing human resources is subdivided into divisions to enhance efficiency. The divisions are as follows: •

ESTABLISHMENT:- Under which we have Open and Secret Registry, nominal roll, salary variations, leaves and disengagement sections.

WELFARE:- Here we have Pensions, Gratuity, Stores, and Loans Sections •

TRAINGS:- Here we have Manpower Development and Structure sections. •

APD: – Here we have Appointments, Promotions, and Discipline sections.
TRANSPORT: – Here we have vehicle Maintenance, Communications and Supply sections. •

LEGAL. 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. For the past four decades, manual personnel data management system has been used. This method has its problems and it has been proved to be very ineffective and inefficient, and some of the problems identified are: • Manual method of preparing, gathering and processing data as a personnel management function entails considerable manual efforts. Thus manual method is cumbersome, tiresome, boring, frustrating and time consuming. • Manual method has a lot of discrepancies. • Manual method encourages frauds and corruption. Figures are easily falsified and changed with perhaps some exchange of money. • Manual method inflicts severe hardship on the staff due to avoidable human errors, like misplacement of files. When there are errors, then the reliability, accuracy, neatness, tidiness, and validity of the data would be in doubt. • Since it is the function of the Admin Department to raise variation advice for the use of the finance and account department (pay roll), manual method requires staff that have some numerical background to do the job reliably.

This group of people are grossly inadequate, hence, we have a set of staff that were employed at the same time, place on the same grade level and step, and posted out to different states, but they earn different salaries years after due to variation preparation. • Manual method results in incomplete service records of staff which undermines the personnel management function that depends upon the information gathered from the earliest stages of employee’s career. For instance, additional qualifications obtained after the initial one presented on employment may not be used to place an employee adequately due to lack of updating data or information. Further, management needs adequate information to resolve disciplinary cases fairly, otherwise there may be costly delay in obtaining decision for there is a dictum which says, ” justices delayed is justices denied or unfair decisions may be made in order not to deny justices. Besides, a great deal of staff time may be wasted tracking down missing documents. • Manual method of handling personnel information involves waste of paper materials. • The size of the paper records with attendant management problem has significant logistic implications to the commission. • Manual method encourages waste of man-hour and resources because staff employed to carry files from one point to another do some time use the time to do something else instead of doing the job they were employed for. To see that this job is done more staff are employed than ordinary should be. • Manual method does not allow for the processing of large volume of data on a regular and timely basis. Given these above scenarios, this study seeks to evaluate the various contributions of Personnel Information System (PIS) toward the improvement of inadequacies accompanying the manual method of handling personnel information issues in National Population Commission (NPopC).

 

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This project seeks to design and develop an efficient and effective Personnel Information System (PIS) using National Population Commission as a case study. It also aims at identifying the importance of Personnel Information System in handling personnel records against the manual method. Specifically, the following are the objective of the study. • To identify the various problems of manual approach towards handling Personnel Information System in the Commission. • To identify and eliminate the major problems encountered through the use of manual method of processing personnel information like falsification of records, ghost workers among others.
• To develop an integrated and rationalized Personnel Information System in NPopC. • To suggest other measures that will help in eradicating the problem associated with manual method of handling personnel information matters.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS.

Three Null (Ho) hypothesis though not tested are proposed to strengthen the concept of the project work.
• HI Personnel Information System will enhance significantly the processing of staff records in the National Population Commission. • HO Personnel Information System will not enhance significantly the processing of staff records in the National Population Commission. • HI Personnel Information System will significantly affect adversely the staff strength of the Commission. • H0 Personnel Information System will not significantly affect adversely the staff strength of the Commission. • HI Personnel Information System will eradicate fraud, corruption and other malpractices in the Commission. • HO Personnel Information System will not eradicate fraud, corruption and other malpractices in the Commission.

1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY: This study is significant in the sense that it determines the benefit accruable to the staff of the Nation Population Commission through the use of Personnel Information System against the manual method. These include: • It supports large volume of data processing and storage; promote information retrieval, addition, deletion, as well as other database updating activities. • It provides relevant, complete, accurate and timely information to the management and staff. • It exposes and equips the staff of the Commission to the field of information technology by sending them to training to acquire necessary skills in Information Technology (IT). • It evaluates quickly the establishment and payment changes. • It demonstrates the importance of modernization of information and communication. • It improves the quality of information communication by making it available to all the staff of the Commission at the time of their need. • The system will enable the managers of the Commission discharge their managerial function easily on any staff at any level due to availability of information.
• It demonstrates how business needs could be met efficiently and effectively through the application of information tools made available by the advances in the field of science and technology. • The software will be able to compliment personnel database with payroll database. Hence, enhancing the Personnel Management Information System and tighten the control of the payroll database.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: In the course of carrying out this project some factors tried to hinder the free flow of the work. These factors include: FINANCE: Finance constituted major problem as there was no sufficient fund to round for the required materials, visit library, and cybercafẻ.

LACK OF MATERIALS: It was not easy to get written text on the subject matter from libraries and internet.

ACCESS TO PERSONAL FILES OF STAFF: It was not easy to have access to personal files of staff. A lot of persuasion and conviction was applied before the management could grant permission for us to have access to the staff files, where we extracted the form, format we used as a model in this project. TIME: Time was not at my liberty being a student| who is fully engaged with my studies, it was not easy for me to squeeze out time for me to out the project.

1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY: This project seeks to design and develop Personnel Information System. Our focus is on National Population Commission. Our major area is to identify and modernize the specific function of Admin and Supply Department as regard to the management of personnel information. The software will be able to complement personnel database with payroll database. The sample size will be the staff of National Population Commission Enugu state office. The design will have three levels of users. They include: •

AN INDIVIUAL USER: Here an individual is able to view his records. •

THE ADMINISTRATIVE USER: Here the administrator has access to all the users’ record of the department. •

THE SUPER USER: Here the officer has access to all the users of all the departments. The individual user can login and access their data/records only.

1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF SOME TERMS: Application: An application is the executable file and all related files that a program needs to function which serve common purposes. The word is sometimes used synonymously with program.

ASCII: This is an acronym for ‘American Standard Code Information Interchange’. It is used to describe the byte values assigned to specific character. For instance, the letter ‘a’ has ASCII code of 65. CLIENT: 1 Is anything that requires the service of something else. Example, in Object Pascal, a client is any code that uses one or more features of an object or unit. In windows, a client is the code that makes use of windows Application Program Interface (API). Is a database system, in which a workstation connected to a server can request for data from the server. The client workstation can process data locally and write it back to the server.

COMPILER: This translates a program source written in a high level language to an object code which consists of instructions that the computer can understand.

COMPONENT: The element of visual basic application ionized on the component palette in the visual basic programming environment. Component including forms are object one can manipulate. It is always self contained and provides access to its features through properties.

DATA ACCESS COMPONENT: Data objects are based within a visual basic program to manipulate database as well as the tables and indexes within the database. The data objects are the representations (in program code) of the physical database, data tables, fields, indexes and so on.

DATABASE: A collection of operational data of organization stored in related tables.

DATA CONTROL COMPONENT: Data control component means a visual basic component that enables a developer to create the interface of a database application.

DATA SET: This is a collection of data determined by a Ttable or Tquery component. A dataset defined by Ttable includes every row in a table and dataset defined by a Tquery contains a selection of rows and columns from the tables that meet the condition specified in the query.

END USER: This is a member of an application’s intended audience synonymous with user but emphasized the fact that the programmer is not the user. According to Delphi document, end user is referred to as the users of application developed in a programming environment such as Delphi.

EXCEPTION, EXCEPTION-HANDLER: An exception is an event or condition that if it occurs, breaks the normal flow of execution. Code assigned to resolve the situation in run-time environment that raises the exception and/or restores the environment to a stable state is called exception handler.

EVENT, EVENT-HANDLER: Event is a user action such as a button click or a system occurrence such as a preset time interval recognized by a component. Each component has a list of specific events to which it can respond. Code that is executed when a particular event occurs is called an event-handler.

FIELDS: These are rows of information that stores data of particular records. FILE: This is a group of related records.

INFORMATION: This is a processed data/facts obtained by assembling them into meaningful form.

LOOK-UP-TABLE: This is a secondary table that enables database systems to use a small code field to enable many records in a primary table to referring to information stored in another. This can be used as a means of ensuring that values entered in a primary table are legitimate values, thus safeguarding data integrity.

METHOD: This is a procedure or function associated with a particular object. MODEL,

MODELESS: This represents the run-time state of a form designated as a dialog box in which the user must clear the form before continuing with the application. A model box restricts access to other areas of the application. If the user can switch focus away from the dialog box without first closing it, then the run-time state is called modeless.

NON-WINDOWED CONTROL: A non windowed control is a control that can not receive focus, that cannot be the parent of any other control and which does not have a window handler.

OBJECT LINKING AND EMBEDDING (OLE): OLE is a method of sharing complex data among applications. With OLE, data from a server application is stored in a container application using the OLE object.

PRIMARY INDEX: Primary index is an index on the key field of a database table. An index performs the following tasks: • Determine the location of the record • Keeps record in sorted order • Speed up search operation A primary index typically has a requirement of uniqueness that is no duplicate key can exist. PROGRAM: Set of coded instructions written in any of the programming languages to perform a specific task. RELATIONAL DATABASE: This is a database management model in which data is stored in rows and columns and which the data in one table can access the data in other tables by means of common data field. The database assigned to specific characters. For instance, the letter V has ASCII code of 65. SOFTWARE: This is a procedure in machine-readable instruction called program that directs the activities of the computer.

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COMPUTERIZED GUEST INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM

COMPUTERIZED GUEST INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

NTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY.
Information technology is an essential tool to guest tracking. The faster and more effectively it works, the safer our business management is.
Information system (IS) refers to a system that comprises of persons, data records and activities that process data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization‟s manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization.
The term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. The information technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information database.
Since the first wave of computerization in the 1970‟s, the implementation of information technology within policing has been questioned and often met with resistance. The development of an information technology strategy must be viewed in the context of increasing expectations and pressure for reform within organizations.
The business environment in which banks operate is changing; increased demands for efficiency has led to information technology being recognized as a valuable and innovative addition to guest tracking system.
Over the last decade, computer and telecommunication technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate. Increased computer power, advances in data transmission, attractive and user-friendly graphic interfaces present bank with unprecedented capacity to collect, store, analyze and share data with stakeholders inside and outside of bank.
Historically, the innovation of information systems has served as the catalyst for dramatic changes in the organization work and has presented both opportunities and challenges to operators.
Some banks have made tremendous efforts in creating databases for guest information system for security purposes.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Keeping record of visitors in a bank has been a big task for the management. Often the identity of the guest is forgotten as soon as he/she leaves the bank. This is a big security risk as there is need to maintain an automated record of daily visitors to the bank in case security issues arise.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to design software that will serve as an electronic register to keep record of daily guest to the bank. The software will maintain a centralized database system for the purpose of information sharing.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The software developed will be beneficial to the bank management in so many ways:
1. Maintain a centralized database for Guest records
2. Retrieve previous information on guest from the system easily using serial query language
3. Have a good surveillance on the guest information for security purposes
4. Know the number of guest they receive on daily basis
5. Track the frequency of a guest visitation to the bank

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research work is to develop a system that should be able to achieve the following:
1. To provide an electronic register to keep record of guest visit to the bank
2. To produce a system where information and output report will be produced much faster, more accurately and more detailed.
3. Keeping record of total number of guest coming to the bank on daily basis.
4. Keep track of old guest in case of any security breach.
5. Provide password to prevent unauthorized users from accessing and manipulating information.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research project covers only records on the banks managers guest and some other management staff, as it will be difficult to maintain guest record on every staff of the bank.

1.7 CONSTRAINS AND LIMITATION
Due to time constraint and limited resources, the use of biometric could not be incorporated into the work for authentic identification of guest.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ARRIVAL FILE: This is master file consisting of the guest name, companies name and address, state, country, nationality, profession etc. which also include the mode of payment to be used by the guest.
DATABASE: This is the collection of related data/information
GUEST: This guest are used in the contest of the work refers to individual, companies or corporate bodies that visited the bank

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COMPUTER BASED SECURITY AND MONITORING SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC EXPERTS

COMPUTER BASED SECURITY AND MONITORING SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC EXPERTS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The world is becoming a smaller place in which to live and work. A technological revolution in communications and information exchange has taken place within business, industry and homes. Most developed and developing countries are substantially more invested in information processing and Management than manufacturing goods, and this has affected their professional and personal lives. We bank and transfer money electronically and we are much more likely to receive an E-mail than a letter. It is estimated that the worldwide internet population is 349 million (Commerce Net Research Council 2000).
In this information technology age, some traditional crimes especially those concerning finance and commerce, continue to be upgraded technologically. Crimes associated with theft and manipulations of data are detected daily. Crimes of violence also are not immune to the effects of the information age. A serious and costly terrorist act could come from the internet instead of a truck bomb. The diary of a serial killer may be recorded on a floppy disk or hard disk drive rather than on paper in a notebook. Just as the workforce has gradually converted from manufacturing goods to processing information, criminal activity has to large extent also converted from physical dimension. There calls a need for computer forensic experts and computer based monitoring and security system for easy capture of evidence of intruder who compromises a network or computer.
This project dealt with the design and implementation of a computer based security and monitoring system for forensic experts, an ideal way for tracking the activities of an account user and also for recovering digital evidence of crime committed in a computer system.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
With the evolution of computer and the internet which has made the world a global village, so has criminals also taken advantage of this technological advancement to engage in different forms of cyber crime ranging from terrorism, internet fraud to the release of sophisticated viruses which is difficult to trace the perpetrators due to lack of sophisticated software that can retrieve information of such activities. This led to the design of a computer based security and monitoring system for forensic experts which will help in tracking the activities of internet users and for recovery of digital evidence of crime committed in a computer system.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objectives of this system are to:
(i) Design and implement a computer based security and monitoring system for forensic experts.
(ii) Realize a system for capturing, collecting, analyzing, preserving and presenting evidence of computer crime in an acceptable manner.

 

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This application when implemented will be able to monitor the activities of a computer user by taking screenshots of internet activities, process capture and capture the content of the index.dat file which will help forensic expert with substantial evidence to prosecute cyber criminals.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This project is designed to monitor the activities of computer users to investigate and fish out cyber criminals. The project employed Java programming language in ensuring the design and implementation of a Computer Based Security and Monitoring system that will aid forensic experts in their investigations and prosecution of criminals.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Most people see security and monitoring systems as an intrusion of people‟s privacy.
A major setback of computer forensics is presentation of evidence in a way that is admissible to the law court that is the Computer Forensic Analyst presenting it in a way to show that it was not tampered with.
Another limiting factor is that the programming language (JAVA) used to implement the system is case sensitive sometimes in JAVA, An executing program may want to divide by zero, and this will display an error message. Run time errors can come up as program runs during the process of programming with JAVA. Fatal runtime error can occur causing the program to terminate without successfully completing its job. Java programs tend to execute slowly because the JAVA virtual machine would execute and interpret one byte code at a time.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

E-mail – Electronic mail: Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since approximately 1993, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. CF – Computer Forensic: Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law. The goal of computer forensics is to perform a structured investigation while maintaining a documented chain of evidence to find out exactly what happened on a computing device and who was responsible for it. PC – Personal Computer: A personal computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer, whose size, capabilities, and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. GUI – Graphic User Interface: Graphical user interface (GUI, sometimes pronounced ‘gooey’) is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices using images rather than text commands.

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COMPUTER BASED SCRABBLE GAME

COMPUTER BASED SCRABBLE GAME

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Project
Scrabble is an old classic board game, with game rules that are not very complicated. Compared to other classic board games, such as Chess, there are more factors to take into consideration when making a move in Scrabble. Apart from anagramming and generating words, there are other crucial decisions to make. A player would probably find several legal moves in one round, and then would have to decide which one to place. Choosing the move that generates the highest score is not always the ideal way to go. It could be that making such a move would create a situation in the next round where nothing could be done, or let the opponent score highly.
Making the choice of which move to use include many factors, and there are several different techniques and strategies one can follow to make the decision easier. Hitting the bonus squares can generate an extremely high score, hence one strategy is to try to always hit the bonus squares and prevent the opponent from doing the same. Another way of being successful is to prioritize using letters with high score, since they would not only generate a high total score to the player, but could also create difficult situations in the future if not used as soon as possible.
Scrabble game is a simple game played by four, three, two even one person. Scrabble game is also played with tiles and encountered on a special and well-designed board. The game can be played with a board disserted with a cross-like path. In between any of the two arms of the cross path is a center square calved out as a square box, which has a symbol of star.
At the down side of this board, there is a device called a Rack where the tiles are been placed before they are picked. This rack can be any colour depending on the developer or the user, titles and the rack can have the same colour. This rack is occupied by seven tiles at a starting and can be change or shuffle when the need arises. Each player has a starting point (middle) where he/she will place the tiles when picked. This spot is of different colour as the box (others) and is called the starting point. Other features of the board include smaller square boxes that make up the steps on the path which each tile steps on as it enters the path to produce a word. There are double and tripple word squares on the board. In the double word lines or square if two tiles that will generate a meaning are placed there, the player will score a high mark likewise the tripple word square. There are tiles, which are used to call for placement, which determine how the score is been ranked on the score device. Some makes use of the standard set number, while some make use of only seven (7) depending on the players.
When the game is being played, the objective of each player is to navigate his tile on the path to achieve a meaningful word. And any player whose tiles finished first wins the games or any player that scores the highest point wins the game i.e. top score or best player. But in other hand, the player whose tiles remain after number-of- players have finish, come last and become the worst looser. Each player must abide by the rules and regulation of the game that will be specified in subsequent chapters.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Because scrabble game is played manually, young people do not have much interest in it. But making it computer based will make young people to enjoy it.

 

1.3 Objective of the Project
The objective of this study is stated as following:
To make scrabble game join the most other games in computer “world”
To handle cheating in scrabble game and to standardize the game.
To simulate scrabble game using computer.

1.4 Project justification
This project is justified because making scrabble computer based enhances learning.

1.5 Scope of the Project
The scope of this project is to design a computer based scrabble game.

1.6 Project Report Organization
This project is organized into six chapters. Chapter one is the Introduction, chapter two is the Literature Review, chapter three is the Methodology and System Analysis, chapter four is the System Design, chapter five is the System Implementation and Testing and chapter six is the Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation.

1.7 Definition of terms
Anchor square: Vacant board square adjacent to a placed tile.
Bag: Tiles that have not been drawn by players.
BOR: Balance on rack player.
BS: Bonus square player.
Cross check set: Set of possible letters on an anchor square with regard to adjacent word going vertical from named square.
DAWG: Directed acyclic word graph.
HSW: High score word player.
Vowel ratio: Ratio describing how many of the total number of tiles are vowels.
Game: game is any activity which is executed only for pleasure and without conscious purpose
Programming: The act of instructing a computer to do your bidding
Center star Square: This is a start square n the board that doubles the word.
Database: Organized store computerized data.
Entertainments: This is a condition that is considered favourable
Exchange: The act of taken and replacing.
Hints: Piece of practical formation.
Human: This is a type of game choose in scrabble
I spy: This is a game played by order children.
Kits: Instruments used in playing scrabble game.
Play Now Button: A command button that make the game to start.
Premium Square: This is a start up square, which double the words.
Quit Button: A button used to terminate the operation of the game.
Rack: A device that holds the tiles in a scrabble game.
Score: To win or obtain a point in a competitive activity.
Scrabble Game: A game played on a board covered in square in which player wins point by combining letter.
Scrabble Dictionary: A device in the scrabble game where words are listed
Shuffle: Often to give an appearance of activity when nothing useful is being done.
Solitaire: One persons game e.g. word game.
Submit: This makes the letter to be permanent on the board and also score the player.
Tiles: A piece of plastic used in playing game.
Triple word score: This triples the number of word on it.
Triple letter score: This triples the number of letter placed on it.

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COMPUTER BASED CENSUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

COMPUTER BASED CENSUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
The researcher chose to research on this topic “Computer Based Census Management System” because of its relevance to the society. Meanwhile, the manual method so far has its attendant problem of being tedious. The researcher, in order to solve this time consuming, monotonous, and repetitive manual census activities went into a thorough study of the existing system. In the report proper, the Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) was adopted and explained. The high level model of the proposed system was also designed and displayed in a format easily understandable to the user. The high level model of the proposed system was designed architecturally and detailed designed through its separate components. There were four modules in all, each taking care of specific function like: the staff management module that maintains records about the staff; the department management module manages information about departments in the commission; the register person, the register states, and the register LGA modules that do the actual registration of individuals. Finally, the parallel change over methodology was adopted to enable the commission compare the results of the two systems (old and new) before implementation.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Census has been a reliable exercise from time, from where government rely for decision-making, and aids for administration and planning. According to Robert M. Groves, (2010) Director of the United States Census Bureau;
“Just like we cannot survive without roads and bridges, the country does not function well without an updated census to distribute funds to areas that most need them and to support community decisions and their own future.”
The increasing complexity of modern life means a greater need to plan housing, schools, roads, transportation, and a vast range of social and economic requirement for nation. This cannot be done without a detailed count of the population. Census is being officially managed by some organizations or government, for example the National Population Commission (NPC).
The installation of computer in these organizations or bodies that manages census information will assist not only in fast-recording information but also in solving certain problems, which cannot be easily resolved manually. The human resource of any enterprises are considered to be their most valuable assets, if they are properly harnessed and are well motivated to perform their assigned tasks in such a manner as to enhance the enterprises goals and objectives.
Therefore, adequate population records will provide all the necessary information that is associated with people, which include the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labour force and socio-economic characteristics, unlike in the manual method which makes access to data and information very tedious. The integration of different databases so that these databases can be merged and processed together and mainly other reasons, prompted the researcher to develop software for this organization, National Population Commission (NPC).

 

1.1 Background of the study
Census taking in Nigeria can be traced to have started from as far back as 1966 after the colonization of Lagos by our colonial masters. Since then, there have been several attempts to count Nigeria population. However, these censuses are characterized by some difficulties and deliberate and ill-minded attempts to inflate population figures; just in favour of one geopolitical zone or the other. This does not and cannot represent the nation‟s image as regards to human population. As a result of this, the National Population Commission (NPC) was established using the Decree No. 23 of 1989. The brain behind this was to have successful censuses each time and as well accurate demographic data. It is no doubt that this Commission (NPC) was vested with a lot of powers and functions some of which are; To undertake the periodic enumeration of the nation‟s population through census, sample surveys, etc. To establish and maintain the machinery for continuous and universal registration of births and deaths To collect, collate and publish data on migration statistics To reach and monitor national population polity and set up national population information data bank.
Unfortunately, Nigeria still relies on foreign statistics population information data bank for most of their population estimation.

1.2 Statement of the problem
There are many problems affecting the National Population Commission from maintaining a steady reliable figures and estimates. These are the more reasons, why the researcher embarked on this research;
 inadequate manpower
 lack of equipments
 poor organisation
 unstable polity
 manual bulk carrying of data

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are summarized as follows:
 To develop computerized software that automatically stores and retrieves all information on human population.
 To develop a reliable system that could be used in collecting data/information on human population.
 To develop a system that will support direct access to the specific and required information

1.4 Significant of the Project
 The system will solve problem associated with the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information on human population with ease.
 A timely retrieval of information is anticipated with efficiency and reliability.
 It will provide security to data that are unauthorized, users will not gain access to those files and fraud will be minimized in the society which will lead to improvement in administration processes.

1.5 Scope of the Project
The major aim of the project is to design a system that will have all information about human population and retrieving of data when ever needed in the society. It focuses on the registration, retrieval and management of information about individuals in the society.

1.6 Limitation of Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are;
 Lack of finance

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COMPUTER BASED CENSUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

COMPUTER BASED CENSUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
The researcher chose to research on this topic “Computer Based Census Management System” because of its relevance to the society. Meanwhile, the manual method so far has its attendant problem of being tedious. The researcher, in order to solve this time consuming, monotonous, and repetitive manual census activities went into a thorough study of the existing system. In the report proper, the Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) was adopted and explained. The high level model of the proposed system was also designed and displayed in a format easily understandable to the user. The high level model of the proposed system was designed architecturally and detailed designed through its separate components. There were four modules in all, each taking care of specific function like: the staff management module that maintains records about the staff; the department management module manages information about departments in the commission; the register person, the register states, and the register LGA modules that do the actual registration of individuals. Finally, the parallel change over methodology was adopted to enable the commission compare the results of the two systems (old and new) before implementation.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Census has been a reliable exercise from time, from where government rely for decision-making, and aids for administration and planning. According to Robert M. Groves, (2010) Director of the United States Census Bureau;
“Just like we cannot survive without roads and bridges, the country does not function well without an updated census to distribute funds to areas that most need them and to support community decisions and their own future.”
The increasing complexity of modern life means a greater need to plan housing, schools, roads, transportation, and a vast range of social and economic requirement for nation. This cannot be done without a detailed count of the population. Census is being officially managed by some organizations or government, for example the National Population Commission (NPC).
The installation of computer in these organizations or bodies that manages census information will assist not only in fast-recording information but also in solving certain problems, which cannot be easily resolved manually. The human resource of any enterprises are considered to be their most valuable assets, if they are properly harnessed and are well motivated to perform their assigned tasks in such a manner as to enhance the enterprises goals and objectives.
Therefore, adequate population records will provide all the necessary information that is associated with people, which include the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labour force and socio-economic characteristics, unlike in the manual method which makes access to data and information very tedious. The integration of different databases so that these databases can be merged and processed together and mainly other reasons, prompted the researcher to develop software for this organization, National Population Commission (NPC).

1.1 Background of the study
Census taking in Nigeria can be traced to have started from as far back as 1966 after the colonization of Lagos by our colonial masters. Since then, there have been several attempts to count Nigeria population. However, these censuses are characterized by some difficulties and deliberate and ill-minded attempts to inflate population figures; just in favour of one geopolitical zone or the other. This does not and cannot represent the nation‟s image as regards to human population. As a result of this, the National Population Commission (NPC) was established using the Decree No. 23 of 1989. The brain behind this was to have successful censuses each time and as well accurate demographic data. It is no doubt that this Commission (NPC) was vested with a lot of powers and functions some of which are; To undertake the periodic enumeration of the nation‟s population through census, sample surveys, etc. To establish and maintain the machinery for continuous and universal registration of births and deaths To collect, collate and publish data on migration statistics To reach and monitor national population polity and set up national population information data bank.
Unfortunately, Nigeria still relies on foreign statistics population information data bank for most of their population estimation.

 

1.2 Statement of the problem
There are many problems affecting the National Population Commission from maintaining a steady reliable figures and estimates. These are the more reasons, why the researcher embarked on this research;
 inadequate manpower
 lack of equipments
 poor organisation
 unstable polity
 manual bulk carrying of data

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are summarized as follows:
 To develop computerized software that automatically stores and retrieves all information on human population.
 To develop a reliable system that could be used in collecting data/information on human population.
 To develop a system that will support direct access to the specific and required information

1.4 Significant of the Project
 The system will solve problem associated with the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information on human population with ease.
 A timely retrieval of information is anticipated with efficiency and reliability.
 It will provide security to data that are unauthorized, users will not gain access to those files and fraud will be minimized in the society which will lead to improvement in administration processes.

1.5 Scope of the Project
The major aim of the project is to design a system that will have all information about human population and retrieving of data when ever needed in the society. It focuses on the registration, retrieval and management of information about individuals in the society.

1.6 Limitation of Study
During the course of this study, many things militated against its completion, some of which are;
 Lack of finance
xiii
 Refusal of the National Population Commission Awka, to give detailed answers and in some cases no answer at all to some questions
 This project is limited to all the data associated with census population figure gotten from the National Population Commission.
 Due to time factor, not all the commissions were reached for source of data and information.

1.7 Definition of terms
 DEMOGRAPHY: Demography is the scientific study of the changing number of births, deaths, diseases, etc in a community over a period of time.
 POPULATION: Population is the total number of people living in a particular area, city or country.
 CENSUS: A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
 ENUMERATION: Enumeration is the head to head count of all individuals in a given society within a period of time.
 MIGRATION: Migration is the act of moving from one region or country to another. It is the movement of a group of people, births, or other animals that move in group from one region to another.
 ESTIMATION: Estimation is the act of making an approximate calculation of something.
 PROJECTION: Projection is an estimate of the rate or amount something.

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A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (GIRS)

A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (GIRS)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
According to Chang, K. T. (2008), Geographic Information Retrieval System (GIRS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIRS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information a study which refers to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information system. In simplest terms GIRS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology.
A geographical information retrieval system can be thought of as a system which digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose or application- oriented. Generally, a GIRS can be custom designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIRS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose. What goes beyond a GIRS is a spatial infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.
In general sense, the term GIRS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares and displays geographic information for informed decision making. GIRS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user – created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps and present the result of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications and systems.
The link between geography and information technology can not to a very large extent be over- emphasized.
Using Enugu State tourism board as a case study has helped to give a comprehensive understanding of the importance and the need of a geographic information system, as it is believed, information technology has a significant role in geographic information system and high level of expectations would and is already being demanded from its use both in Nigeria and the world at large.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In our daily lives as humans, most of our endeavors involve moving from one location to another for one thing or the other. A problem emerges when there is no proper direction or a system as to give accurate direction in locating our destination, what the said destination contains and what is has to offer. This is the problem the state has as concerning tourism, whereby a good number of tourists (most especially tourists visiting for the very first time) and other individuals wanting to visit tourist sites in the state but cannot do so because of the lack of a well detailed system to provide them (tourists) with an accurate geographic information system as to how to locate these sites within the state.
Due to the lack of an accurate geographic information retrieval system as far as tourism is concerned, most tourists are discouraged from exploring these tourist locations within the state, this in turn hampers the positive impact that tourism is meant to have on the development in the state and the Nigerian society at large.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To examine the existing / current system in regards to how geographic information for tourism is provided for tourists in and outside the state.
2. To improve on the already existing system by designing a geographic information retrieval system that is well detailed and easily accessible.
3. This study also seeks to help in broadening the scope of tourism in the state through providing a comprehensive geographic information retrieval system.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to show that a link between geography and other professions can be created on the platform of information technology. i.e. to show that with information technology the problem of location can and is solved to a very large extent.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to tourist locations and hotels within the state using the Enugu state tourism board as a case study in view of providing / improving on the existing geographic information system of the board for tourism in the state.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Time was a major constraint faced during the research for this project work and limited the effort in developing a much more comprehensive package needed in the design and implementation of the geographic information retrieval system.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS GEOGRAPHY

Geography is a science that deals with the distribution and arrangement of all elements of the earth‟s surface. The word geography was adopted in the 200s BC by the Greek Scholar Eratosthenes and means „earth description.‟

INFORMATION SYSTEM: An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM: A “geographic information system” (GIRS) is a computer-based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze, store and display information based on its location
LOCATION: The position, site or sitting of somebody or something.
MAP: A diagrammatic drawing of something such as a route or area made to show the location or how to get there.
TOURISM: Travel to benefit from a particular service or activity that is unavailable at home.
COMPUTER : An electronic device that can accept data/ information inform of input , process the data /information in order to produce an output and also has the capability to store the information for future use.
DATA: Data refers to raw or unprocessed information.
SOFTWARE: This is the logically written instruction that controls the operations of the hardware.

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UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
In common with other public sector institutions, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are seeking to maintain the three „Es‟ of efficiency, effectiveness and economy, by adopting private sector managerial techniques. Business Process Re-Engineering is currently been used as a change management strategy in a number of UK Higher Education Institutions. A number of interrelated pressures have created the need for change in polytechnics: expansion of higher education; changing student profile; pressures from industry; increased competition; information technology (IT) capability.
At Caritas University, the need for an effective and efficient automated management information system cannot be overemphasized. This is because it is a private University whose major source of funding is by fee payment from the students , receipts are then issued to the students as evidence of payments which they must present before; taking exams, getting accommodation in the campus, submission of course forms, lab test and treatment, accessing school library, getting ID cards etc. Over the past few years, enrollment of students into the university has steadily increased with its attendant demanding more on the school doctor, who personally and manually goes through students receipt before attending to student even on emergency cases, the clearance officer is not an exemption as he personally and manually goes through all the students‟ receipts and certifies them by issuing clearance cards before examinations, in the library either Identity or clearance card must be presented before been allowed to enter the library . The school registrar case is worst as final year data are been examine critically before final clearance as he personally access all students data before their finally clearance,. This manual processing system has caused loss of receipts, clearance cards, ID cards and time delay during the clearance period, treatment and even in accessing library. In order to speed up this process and simplify this manual record processing system, the development of an electronic database system is thus being proposed in this project work.
This computer based management information system has promising prospect for educational institutions in order to enhance the entire management system. The proposed system would store, route, display and issue receipt electronically. This system not only enhances the university‟s document management, It also allows decisions to be made faster and more effectively and efficiently.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Caritas University is a private university approved by the federal government of Nigeria on December 16 2004. It is situated in Enugu and was officially opened on January 21, 2005 by the then Minister of education Prof. Fabian Osuji with all its student staying in hostel. It is the second catholic University in Nigeria founded by Rev Fr Prof Emmanuel Paul Mathew Edeh C.C.Sp OFR. The proprietor of the University is the sisters of Jesus the Savior, a religious congregation founded by him.
Caritas university source of fund is based only on students payment no external funding like other public universities. To these effect proper documentation of student payments record are highly essential hence the need to present receipts as evidence of payment before been render services like Hostel accommodation, Students Registration Number, Students Identity Card, Medical Treatment, Given access to library etc. Students who do not present these receipt are been denied these services even when there have paid or not in order word it is expected by all students in the institution to always carry along their receipt whenever the are in need of these services. At these juncture it may interest to know that the above service are been paid into one account and the receipt issue is one. Going about with these receipt throughout an academic year has really been challenging for the students as many has lost theirs or others been turn which has lead majority into frustration or been force to pay extra money for a new receipt.
It is also observed that even with the receipt there is a high delay in services render to the student these is because of their growing large number and the manual process of assessing their records before been render services.
Since development come, that triggered the necessity to record information in different areas of endeavor, it has always been difficult to manage large amount of data. This is still a serious problem not only to the institution but to Nigeria economy as a whole. The present system used manual way of writing on paper and recording. These process is very slow and the proposed system, management information system been introduced to solve all this problems. This new system will be capable of retrieving data from its database where payment records can easily be access, updates, delete without any receipts for confirmation.
The new system will also meet the need of fast processing which greatly reduced response time.
1.1.1 Organizational chart
Fig.1.0 Caritas Organizational chart

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The management of human resources has remained the most complex aspect of many organizations. In fact, this had been the reason why most management
VISITOR CHANCELLOR
GOVERNING COUNCIL
THE SENATE
VICE CHANCELLOR
DVC ADMINISTRATION
DVC ACADEMICS
Dean Of Faculties
University Liberian
Head of Academic Department
Coordinator academic program
Academic Adviser
Security Dept
Director Medical Services
Dean Of Student‟s affairs Affairs
Bursar
Registrar
Director of Works
Head Of Administrative Registry Departments

scientists in the research identified human resources management as a backbone of any organization.
Caritas University Enugu, is really facing a lot of challenges when it comes to human resources management as students move around with files, document and receipt before been render services like accommodation, medication, given access to library and the worst part is clearance for examination. These constant moving about with receipts, files and documents have really resulted into files getting missing, receipts being turn and even the school cabinet getting jammed, delaying the presentation of certain information about the student, destruction of files and records, time required to record as well as presenting an information and also the cost of purchasing files, paper and furniture and fixtures.
The lack of a computerized method of record keeping further compounds the problem.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to design and implement a prototype of human resources management system which can be used to manage human resources in the institution. With the following objectives
i. Eliminate heavy paper processing during clearance, exams, medical treatment, hostel allocation and exams
ii. Provide a more efficient and simpler means of handling and updating students fees, staff promotion and other records
iii. To provide a quick, accurate and timely query response system
iv. To provide solutions to the problems of inaccuracy, alteration, delay, loss of receipts and irregularities in the manual system of clearance

v. Maintaining timely preparation of school fees receipts
vi. Enable parents or guardians know if their children are truly paying fees.
vii. Reduce queuing up of students during exam, clearance, accommodation, lab test etc.
viii. Help management in decision making.
ix. Generate receipt and clearance card immediately after payment.
x. To reduce stress and gain easy access to both students and staffs record.
It also aims at providing a well secure database management system. Most importantly, this project work aims at eliminating the problems encountered in the manual system of human resources management system .

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at replacing the inefficient and ineffective time-wasting manual school registry management system in accessing students information whose negative impact is highly display during exams clearance as Lectures are sometimes missed by students as a result of presenting their payment credentials before obtaining clearance form without which they will not sit for their exams. Thus this study is significant to eliminate these inefficiencies.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work will concentrate on both students and staff in the institution covering students admission form which include name ,sex, date of birth, date of admission, department, faculty it also covers all the services they pay for which are; school fees, medical fees, library fees, hostel fees etc. Staff employment form which includes the name, sex, location, in fact information about the staff, performance assessment, retirement and handling of some queries like; updating staff record, deleting staff record on retirement or withdrawal and searching for staff information as the case may be.

1.6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
This project work is organized into five chapters. Chapter1 covers introduction: Background of the study, Statement of the problem, Aims and objective of the study, Significance of the study, Scope of the study and definition of terms. Chapter2 elaborate on the different review by various authors. Chapter 3 is on system analysis and design which entails the following: research methodology, method of data collection, analysis of the existing system, limitation of the existing system, system design, database design, System flow chart, top down design, Chapter 4 on Implementation testing and integration; choice of development tools, system requirement , software requirements, Hardware requirement, implementation, testing while chapter 5 is on summary, limitation, recommendation, BEME, conclusion.

1.7 DEFININATION OF TERMS
HUMAN RESOURCES: It is a department in an organization that deals with employees records, hiring and retirement.
MANAGEMENT: It is the co-ordination of all the resources in an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

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TELECONFERENCE SYSTEM A PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED

TELECONFERENCE SYSTEM A PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED

This project topic, Teleconference System, is one of the state of the art invention and need of many organizations for purpose of reducing cost, risk and time wastage. This project strives to bridge the geographical
distance between two or more organization. Other importance of Teleconference includes: (i) For organizations, delivery costs are reduced with resultant cost benefit in terms of time, travelling and spread of resources over large groups. (ii) Delivery of full courses, lessons, tutoring, project work and training can be provided to the students through teleconferencing. The study outlines the main concepts of the analysis and design methodology of the proposed system, compares it to the existing and goes further to explain the design and implementation of the system. System was achieved using visual basic 6.0 and run on a windows xp or higher versions. The fact finding techniques employed is interview, observation, online and library research.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
As computer and electronics technology continues to grow over the ages, many new innovations continue to flood the industry, creating machine and avenues through which human activities can be enhanced.
The development video messaging over media is an important aspect of this growth in technology. Such information was then able to be packaged and transmitted remotely from source to intended users. But this was rarely a real time scenario. The best we can get out of this was a live coverage of an event, which was usually of high cost and difficult for individuals to own.
The advent of the internet offered better opportunity for inventors to think of better ways of making the communication of video information from source to target in real time and with less cost. Many equipment have been developed to this effect. Further improvement has given birth to what is now known as teleconference.
The word ‘tele’ means distance. The word ‗conference‘ means consultations, discussions. Through teleconferencing two or more locations situated at a distance are connected so that they can hear or both see and hear each other. It allows the distant sites to interact with each other and with the teaching end through phone, fax, and e-mail. The interactions
occur in real time. This means that the learners/participants and the resource persons are present at the same time in different locations and are able to communicate with each other. In some situations, questions can be faxed/e-mailed early for response by the resource persons
conference is further described by Matthew Lombard and Theresa Ditton as ―an illusion that a mediated experience is not mediated.” Today, it often considers the effect that people experience when they interact with a computer-mediated or computer-generated environment. The conceptualization of presence borrows from multiple fields including communication, computer science, psychology, science, engineering, philosophy, and the arts. The concept of presence accounts for a variety of computer applications and Web-based entertainment today that are developed on the fundamentals of the phenomenon, in order to give people the sense of, as Sheridan called it, ―being there.” Since teleconferencing is actually a useful tool in organizations because it is solely used to bridge the geographical distance between two or more companies, and from my research, I have discovered that it is only big companies that can actually afford it, so I designed this project inorder to
curb that trend that is allow smaller companies purchase and also make use of it.

 

1.2 Aims and Objectives
The major objective of this work is to develop a Computer Based Teleconference. It also targets at contributing to academic research work.

1.3 Justification for the project
The need for a teleconference system is obvious for several reasons as shown below:
a. It Impacts on education by allowing live participation without physically being present for a lecture
b. Legal issues can still be treated even when a person is not fit to go to court
c. Press men can attained international conferences without having to be physically present
d. Telemedicine is possible because of teleconference
e. It makes the best use of the available resources by expanding the learning opportunity and taking the resources to the learners.
f. It overcomes time or scheduling problems for the learners who can assemble at a learning center for a limited period only because of their full time or part time work, and family and community commitments.
g. It can be designed to meet local specific requirements of training in terms of content, language and conditions.
h. Training is of high quality and consistent. There is exposure to multiple perspectives from the primary sources, and therefore as the input from the resource persons is direct, there is little loss of quality in transaction.
i. There is greater appeal, motivation and retention of information as a variety of teaching methodologies are used.

1.4 Scope of the Project
The scope of this work will include the following
a. A dynamic Network system that can communicate in real time
b. To be able to implement a video streaming server.
c. Explore the power of visual basic in data handling
1.5 Project Report Organization
This report is organized into five chapters. The first chapter takes care of introduction: background, aims and objectives, justification, and scope of the project. Chapter two is the literature review. Chapter three is the project methodology, analysis, limitations of the existing system, system design, system flowchart and top down design were done. The input, processing and output modules are critically analyzed.
In chapter four, system implementation, testing and integration: choice of development tools, system requirements, and testing were carefully done. Finally chapter five closes up with summary, recommendations and conclusions: limitation, Bill of Engineering Measurement and Engineering (BEME), bibliography, appendices

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ONLINE MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSING SYSTEM

ONLINE MOTOR VEHICLE LICENSING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
Motor vehicle administration is a composite process and revolves around the management and the control of motor licensing. Vehicle licensing is the payment of a fee for the use of motor vehicle on public roads. Vehicle licensing in Nigeria began over 100 years ago starting from the colonial administration and the records then was manually kept which did not help in raising efficiency of the general automotive services. Motor vehicle licensing system on the other hand is a phenomenon that is still estranged to the Nigerian terrains. Though many western countries e.g. United States of America and some Asian countries have implemented online licensing in one form or the other; it is yet to gain popularity in this part of the world. The obvious merit of online motor vehicle licensing system prompted this research project to see ways of integrating our vehicle licensing to the internet for speed, efficiency, reliability and customer satisfaction. This work was designed to aid the framework for a client server distributed database system for licensing and registration of automobiles in Nigeria online. The project integrated the three government agencies empowered by law for vehicle licensing and registration. The system was implemented using PHP scripting language, HTML, MySQL Server and Macromedia Dreamweaver.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Traffic laws and regulations in Nigeria were inherited from colonial administration. The first Edith is the 1920 Road Traffic Ordinance of Lagos Colony and Southern Protectorate of Nigeria which was applied to the operations of all motor vehicles until the country was demarcated into regions (Northern, Western and Eastern). Thereafter, each region was empowered to promulgate its traffic regulations.
Before 1939, vehicle inspection was carried out by the Directorate of works, while Motor Licensing was supervised by the Motor Licensing office under finance. As a result of critical issue with the colonial regiment of England during the world war, the Inspector General of Police was mandated to undertake the responsibility of vehicle inspection as well as motor licensing until the 1958 constitution of Nigeria which conferred powers on regional (state) government to create their own traffic laws.
On 1st January 1949, the road Traffic Act was promulgated which is available to the Road Traffic Act chapter 548 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (1990). It is this Act (1949) that gave birth to Vehicle Inspection Office. Vehicle registration is the process of adding a vehicle to the motor vehicle register and issuing it with registration plates. Vehicle licensing is the payment of a fee for the use of motor vehicle on public roads. When the fee is paid, you receive a label indicating the expiry date of the license. This label must be displayed on the vehicle.
In Nigeria, there are three arms of government agencies that are responsible for automobile licensing, registration and control. They are Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), the state Vehicle Inspection Officer (VIO) and the state Board of Internal Revenue (BIR). The usual practice is for an owner to visit these three arms for the necessary payment, data collection and issuance of necessary documents and materials such as plate numbers.

The state board of internal revenue collects fees for new automobile licenses and registration from owners through a designated bank. They may request more documents such as custom papers, purchase receipt, or a change of owner certificate on automobile.
Every automobile within the nation must be registered under a state and a local government before a license plate is issued. Nigerian automobile registration plates often have the state written at the top and have a group of three letters at the right hand side, indicating the district of registration followed by their main town to aid in tracing and identifying location. License plates serve to help law enforcement, motor vehicle authorities and others identify a vehicle while simultaneously indicating that the registrant has paid the proper registration fee and taxes on the automobile. License plates also offer information such as the weight class, the country, state and local government in which the vehicle is registered, use restrictions (private or commercial) and the age and engine capacity. In addition, some license plates show whether the owner of the vehicle is a member of special organization or group such as the police force, custom and the federal road safety commission. Moreover proof of ownership certificates are issued to owners of automobiles on payment of certain fee by the board.
Apart from other advantages, this will now replace the manual process of registering vehicle, issuing during licensing, renewing expired licenses, as well changing of ownership of the vehicle. Since the computerize mode of operation is flexible and accurate record keeping assured, it will give the management of the motor licensing authority enough time for planning and decision making rather than being immersed in the detail of routing function (manual work).
This is necessary since the control of any establishment alternatively lies in the hand of management. Also, the computerized operations of the licensing authority will ensure a very fast retrieval of necessary information about (e.g.) vehicle information to the police in terms of urgent need like during that of road accident.

 

In this research work, interaction will be created on the computerization and implementation of motor vehicle licensing authority at the three level organization; vehicle inspection officer, (VIO), Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Board of Internal revenue, which are required to monitor the processes that are involved starting from the exact date of motor vehicle is registered, licensed, renewed, etc.
In the early 80s, the vehicle licensing system then was that each vehicle was licensed based on the local government issuing the licenses. For instance, a vehicle licensed from Ikorodu could bear (LAG 28 IKD) as plate number. Later with the formation of the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) in February 18, 1988, many procedures were changed, the plate number format and their various slogans. Also it was made constitutional under the motor vehicle administration as a Residual issue under the 1999 Nigerian constitution that a person seeking for vehicle licensing must first possess the National driving license.
Motor vehicle administration is a composite process and revolves around the management and the control of motor licensing including driving and other related licenses which include the following matters:
1. Issuance and renewal of:
 Motor vehicle licenses
 Local driving license
 Learners permit
 Certificate of Roadworthiness of all licenses issued
2. Registration of vehicle
3. Preparing and keeping of statutory Registers of all licenses issued.
4. Collection of fees emanating from its operation and payment of same into the appropriate subhead of the state government’s account.

Motor vehicle licensing system on the other hand is a phenomenon that is still estranged to the Nigerian terrains. Though many western countries e.g. United States of America and some Asian countries have implemented online licensing in one form or the other; it is yet to gain popularity in this part of the world. The obvious merit of online motor vehicle licensing system prompted this research project to see ways of integrating our vehicle licensing to the internet for speed, efficiency, reliability and customer satisfaction.
In a highly populated country such as Nigeria, where a number of car owners increases yearly, and the registration of motor vehicle is a slow process and sometimes in the sense of it a difficult task. This is true in the sense that motor vehicle licensing authority/ system attend to thousands of cars per year; thereby keeping records of license and their registrations manually was a tedious work. It resulted in files containing records of application being misplaced, damaged or misfiled due to the way the manual method of writing these records. Also writing records of applicants in books affected the span of the record materials, and since the continue use and re-use of these booklets everyday might lead to wear and tear which eventually led to loss of important information.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The basic problems facing motor vehicle licensing are: lack of proper security in the system that creates avenue for fraud and manipulation of stored data in the system, lack of proper, accurate and concise information about the vehicle owner, poor performance of the system during information retrieval due to inefficient storage of data, lack of proper and accurate record keeping of stored information and finally lack of review process: this is a situation where there is no avenue created for review. This hinders adequate maintenance of the system.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aims of this study are:

 To develop software that will link by computerization all the procedures of motor vehicle licensing system in motor license authority (that is, to have a centralized system).
 To improve the system performance and efficiency.
 To enhance the database for proper information and record keeping.
 To provide a reliable security access in order to avoid tempering with stored data.
 To provide a means of accessibility in case of accident and emergency.
 To enhance speedy recovery of stolen vehicles
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to serve better than the existing system, enhance database and improve effectiveness, efficiency and security of the system. Also to give appropriate attention and quick access to prospective application. It is also intended that the study will assist in the development of a new and hopefully better computer aided system.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is restricted to motor vehicle licensing procedure that can take place in the motor licensing office. This procedure involves an individual registering to obtain vehicle license if the client meets up with the procedure.
1.6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
This research work has five distinct chapters. Chapter one contains introduction, background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study and the scope of the study. Chapter two is the review of related literature, while chapter three is the system analysis and design. Chapter four presents the system implementation with choice of programming language and the system requirements. Chapter five contains summary, recommendations and conclusion. There is also bibliography and appendix.

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED MODERN POULTRY FARM (A CASE STUDY IMO POULTRY FARM LTD)

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED MODERN POULTRY FARM (A CASE STUDY IMO POULTRY FARM LTD)

The introduction of the magical machine has led to the further growth of Agricultural products. The technological know how and scientific research reveals that a lot of work can be carried out by the computer in agriculture and help in the growth.

It therefore deems imperative that computers should also be employed and utilized in forms. This thesis centers how computer systems can be useful in a large scale poultry farm, keeping of general stock of the birds, weight of individual birds and finally the accountability of the farm.

Computerized system has been design to take care of all the mentioned activities in a modern poultry farm. The activities will be carried out solely by the computer and any odd actions taken should be notified by the computer.

The work is implemented with the DBASE programming language to control the activities of the computer.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Tittle page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

INTRODUCTION

Statement of the problem

Statement of the sub problem

The significant / objectives of the study

Limitations

Delimitation.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3

ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY

Feed production

Machines of diet formulation

Processing / preparation of feeds

Stock keeping

Preparation of brooders

Arrival of chicks

Stocking density

Feeding

Laying span

Stock control

CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Input and output design

File design

System requirement

Software requirement.

CHAPTER 5

Implementation

Program design

CHAPTER 6

Documentation

CHAPTER 7

Recommendation

Conclusion

Bibliography.

CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The huge shape as seen by astrologers from the moon, and discovered and called the earth an enormous planet, has been transformed to small place where activities can easily be carried out with less intervention, thanks to the Polar behind the magical influence of computers.

Computers have been employed in nearly all of the human field, from Business and Banking, Insurance, Agriculture and Technology. Difficult and strenuous jobs that were carried out by humans in the past have today been easily and effectively carried out by computers.

In the development and maintenance of life, Agriculture plays an enormous role. As the population of human increases so also the requirement of food and their need for other agricultural products will be high in order to satisfy the huge population with food, shelter and raw materials for their industries.

Since human being have limit in all they do, it deems imperative therefore that services of this great and tireless machine be put into all of man’s activities including the Agricultural sector for mass production and provision of food and other agricultural benefits to man.

In the field of animals husbandry, whose services are also needed for further (addition) production to satisfy every aspect of man’s wants, because of the usefulness of this sector of Agriculture it is necessary that computer are introduced, in order that its activities be easily carried out for better results.

This projects is concerned with computerizing a poultry farm but our center of attraction is in general stock keeping and other activities that will be done easily and effectively by computers. It is worthy to note that a poultry farmer who engages a large scale production encounters a lot of problems, these problem may include stock keeping proper account of their daily activities and also keeping tracks on feeding the birds.

 

This project will see the design of a system that will take care of the above mentioned problems. Above all, it will serve as a guide to poultry farmers on how to keep proper stocks and the system of feeding their birds to avoid stunted growth.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.

The purpose of this study is find out the affect in implementing a computerized in a poultry farm. The introduction of computer in a poultry can have a positive or negative response to the society.

However precaution, principles and strategies should be undergone before innovating a computer system in the farm or organization, so that the effect can be treated. Certain factors should be considered before innovation of the computerized system will take shape such factors include

(1) Statement of the Sub problem

(2) Limitation

(3) Delimitation.

STATEMENT OF THE SUB – PROBLEM.

The statement of the sub – problem centered mainly on the following.

(a) The way it should be handled

(b) The merits towards the computerization of the poultry farm, to farm and society.

(c) The demerit or short coming in innovating a computer system to the society.

(d) The problem it may produce

(e) The ability to keep electricity supply constant in the poultry site

DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The computer system when fully introduced into our poultry farm will be very during the daily transactions that will be carried out. Birds and feeds when purchased can dully accounted for by registration using the system, each feeds/bird has its distinctive way of being classified and recorded. Provision also exist in case of dead birds, if a bird dies it must be recorded in the system and the computer now uses this for proper stock keeping. Sales can easily be carried out using this system, because when you provide the computer with the quantity and unit price of the birds we want to sell it immediately provides in its display menu the total amount you will sell the bird.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

COMPUTER SYSTEM: This an electronic device that accepts data as input, process this data and provides information as output, storing it at electronic speed under a controlled program.

FILE: These are group of inter – related records on a particular subject.

SYSTEM: A network of interrelated, interdependent and interacting procedures that are joined together to perform an activity accomplish a specific goal.

It is a combination of their attributes and their interaction that are organized in the pursuit of a common objectives.

SOFTWARE: Are sets of electronic instructions given to the computer to tell it what to do, when and how to do it. It is frequently made up of group of related program.

THE SIGNIFICANCE / OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Since computers are tireless electronics machines, it entails that there would be less need of human labor but the system if design properly will aid efficiency and productivity in the poultry because it has few or no restrictions. The introduction of computer in poultry has enormous objectives.

1. The ease it bring to the difficult and strenuous job.

2. To give accurate and also keep accounts.

3. To reduce cost in terms of paying workers (laborers)

4. Save considerable time needed to carryout all activities.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The poultry farm ha a lot of departments, so to computerized the whole activities of the poultry will not be totally possible at our stage, the problem of time and cost highly restricted. The scope of our study when giving proper and comfortable time with the right resources the study can be totally carried out, leading to the complete computerization of the whole department / section of the poultry farm

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NETWORK PROGRAMMING (SECURED CLIENT-SERVER CHAT APPLICATION)

NETWORK PROGRAMMING (SECURED CLIENT-SERVER CHAT APPLICATION)

ABSTRACT
Several network systems are built to communicate with one another as well as made available through service-oriented architectures. In this project, the client server architecture is used to develop a chat application. Firstly a chat application is created for both Client and Server which is based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) where TCP is connection oriented protocol and is a reliable connection protocol. As security is the key factor while communicating over a network, so in this project, MySQL SSL protocol and hash function was used for the Database based on a numbers of benefits. The hash values of the real password and the random generated number (salt) is stored in the database. The original password is not stored on the system, making cracking of password much harder

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Several network systems are built to communicate with one another and are made available through service-oriented architectures. In this project, we use the client server architecture to develop a secured Client-Server chat application. A chat application is created based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) where TCP is connection oriented protocol and in the end, multithreading is used to develop the application.
A client-server chat application consists of a Chat Client and a Chat Server and there exists a two way communication between them. Here, Message Processor is used to interpret message from the user, Message Interpreter is used to extract and pass the received message. Message Maker is used to construct back the message and Client Manager is used to maintain the clients list which the sender and receiver at both sides use to interact with each other.
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In general, the server process will start on some computer system; in fact, the server should be executed before the client. Server usually initializes itself, and then goes to wait state or sleep state where it will wait for a client request. After that, a client process can start on either the same machine or on some other machine. Whenever the client wants some service from the server, it will send a request to the server and the server will accept the request and process it. After the server has finished providing its service to the client, the server will again go back to sleep, that is, waiting for the next client request to arrive. This process is repeated as long as the server processes is running. Whenever such request comes, the server can immediately serve the client and again go back to the waiting state for the next request to arrive.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Client server model is the standard model which has been accepted by many for developing network applications. In this model, there is a notion of client and notion of server. As the name implies, a server is a process (or a computer in which the process is running) that is offering some services to other entities which are called clients. A client on the other hand is process (which is running) on the same computer or other computer that is requesting the services provided by the server.
A chat application is basically a combination of two applications:
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 Server application
 Client application
Server application runs on the server computer and client application runs on the client computer (or the machine with server). In this chat application, a client can send data to anyone who is connected to the server.
Java application programming interface (API) provides the classes for creating sockets to facilitate program communications over the network. Sockets are the endpoints of logical connections between two hosts and can be used to send and receive data. Java treats socket communications much as it treat input and output operations; thus programs can read from or write to sockets as easily as they can read from or write to files.
To establish a server connection, a server socket needs to be created and attached to a port, which is where the server listens for connections. The port recognizes the Transmission Control Protocol service on the socket. For instance, the email server runs on port 25, and the web server usually runs on port 80.
Server Execution: At server the side, a thread is created which receives numerous clients’ requests. It also contains a list in which Client’s name and IP addresses are stored. After that, it broadcast the list to all the users who are currently in chat
15
room and when a client logs out then server deletes that particular client from the list, update the list and then broadcast the list to all available clients.
Client Execution: A client firstly must have to register itself by sending username to the server and should have to start the thread so that system can get the list of all available clients. Then any of two registered clients can communicate with each other.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The client-server communication model is used in a wide variety of software applications. Where normally the server side is sufficiently protected and sealed from public access, but client applications running on devices like notebooks and desktops are considered insecure and exposed to security threats.
The main weakness of client-server chat application is that there is no security provided to data which is transferred between clients. Any unauthorized client can hack the client account and can change the data. This is the main objective of this project (To develop a secured Client-Server Chat Application).
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to develop a reliable and secure network programming (Client-Server chat model) which can perform a multithreaded server client chat
16
application based on Java socket programming using Transport Control Protocol (TCP). As security is the key factor while communicating over a network, hash function with salt is used for the Database based on a number of benefits. MySQL became the choice for the implementation of this application based on its scalability and flexibility, high performance, high availability, strong data protection, web and data warehouse strengths, management ease, lowest total cost of ownership and open source freedom.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Apart from just performing the regular client server chat, this client-server chat is robust and significant in the following ways:
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This random salt is used with the hash function to significantly increase the strength of encrypting passwords and thus

 

makes cracking greatly impossible. This makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured.
Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This is is is where two users can chat in private. The messages between the users are not displayed / seen in the general chat display text field. The messages are displayed only within the private message display text field.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project shall consider among other things the following issues:
1. To provide a better understanding of how network programming in java works.
2. Develop a reliable network communication for a Client-Server chat application.
3. Analyses of network programming in java (Multithreaded Client-Server Chat applications) for better understanding of the solutions.
4. Conduct an experimental result in order to establish the parameter of the problem. In conclusion, suggest ways the problems can be eliminated and recommends how the problems can be prevented.
1.7 LIMITATIONS

The previous Client-Server Chat system implements only hash function with the password before the encryption which is then stored in the Database. Thus, the database can be compromised easily to compute the original password.
Some drawbacks of the Client-Server Chat are as follows:
 As the server receives as many requests from clients so there is a chance that server can become congested and overloaded.
 In case of server fails then the users also suffers.
 A lost password is irrecoverable.
 Any unauthorized client can hack the client account and can change the data.
1.8 ORGANISATION OF THE WORK
In this project, a secure java chat application is considered which relies on the client-server paradigm to exchange the information. It is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one is the introduction which consists of the background of study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, organization of the work and the definition of terms.
The second chapter focuses on the literature review of relevant scholar’s opinions relevant to this study such as socket programming in java, overview of secure socket layer, hash function e.t.c.

The third chapter gives details of the main methodology and system design to implement the client-server chat application in java. First of all the application is developed by using TCP then and in the end multithreading is used to develop the application. At the end of chapter weaknesses (deadlocks) of multithreading is discussed which can be removed by using synchronizing threads.
Chapter four is the implementation of the secured Java Client-Server Chat Application: it test and analysis the implementation of the application.
Chapter five ends the project report. Firstly, a short summary highlights the main points of the whole project. Next, a number of conclusions and recommendations
are given and lastly Appendix.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Socket: Socket is a standard connection protocol that supports data communication over the network between connected terminals. The standard connection supports the data transmission both by the TCP and UDP protocols between the terminals.
TCP: TCP is a transport layer protocol used by applications that require guaranteed delivery of data. Basically, it is a connection-oriented protocol. To communicate over TCP one must first have to establish a connection between pair of sockets, where one socket is client and the other belongs to server. After the

connection is established between them then they can communicate with each other.
Client: A client is a system that accesses or desires for a service made accessible by a server.
Server: A server is a system (hardware or software) program running to provide the service requests of other system programs.
Port: Port is a software mechanism that allows the centralized connected Servers to listen for requests made by clients. Port is actually purposed as a gateway to listen for the requested parameters by the server terminals or other machines. It is a software address on a system that is on the network. Entire request response proceeding among this Application is carries through machine ports.
Network: This refers to a system were computers are linked to share software, data, hardware and resources for the benefit of users.
Interface: This may be software or hardware that upon an agreed method spells out the manner a system component can exchange information with another system component.
Secure socket layer (SSL): This refers to Secure Sockets Layer protocol that is used for encryption of data for secure data transmission.

IP: This refers to Internet Protocol; it is the reasonable network address of device on a network. It is notational called dotted-decimal (for instance: 128.1.0.1).
Thread: A thread is a section of code which is executing independently of others threads in a same program. Java has a class Thread which is defined in java.lang package. Thread is the most powerful feature that JAVA supports from other programming languages.

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NETWORK PROGRAMMING (SECURED CLIENT-SERVER CHAT APPLICATION)

NETWORK PROGRAMMING (SECURED CLIENT-SERVER CHAT APPLICATION)

ABSTRACT
Several network systems are built to communicate with one another as well as made available through service-oriented architectures. In this project, the client server architecture is used to develop a chat application. Firstly a chat application is created for both Client and Server which is based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) where TCP is connection oriented protocol and is a reliable connection protocol. As security is the key factor while communicating over a network, so in this project, MySQL SSL protocol and hash function was used for the Database based on a numbers of benefits. The hash values of the real password and the random generated number (salt) is stored in the database. The original password is not stored on the system, making cracking of password much harder

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Several network systems are built to communicate with one another and are made available through service-oriented architectures. In this project, we use the client server architecture to develop a secured Client-Server chat application. A chat application is created based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) where TCP is connection oriented protocol and in the end, multithreading is used to develop the application.
A client-server chat application consists of a Chat Client and a Chat Server and there exists a two way communication between them. Here, Message Processor is used to interpret message from the user, Message Interpreter is used to extract and pass the received message. Message Maker is used to construct back the message and Client Manager is used to maintain the clients list which the sender and receiver at both sides use to interact with each other.
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In general, the server process will start on some computer system; in fact, the server should be executed before the client. Server usually initializes itself, and then goes to wait state or sleep state where it will wait for a client request. After that, a client process can start on either the same machine or on some other machine. Whenever the client wants some service from the server, it will send a request to the server and the server will accept the request and process it. After the server has finished providing its service to the client, the server will again go back to sleep, that is, waiting for the next client request to arrive. This process is repeated as long as the server processes is running. Whenever such request comes, the server can immediately serve the client and again go back to the waiting state for the next request to arrive.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Client server model is the standard model which has been accepted by many for developing network applications. In this model, there is a notion of client and notion of server. As the name implies, a server is a process (or a computer in which the process is running) that is offering some services to other entities which are called clients. A client on the other hand is process (which is running) on the same computer or other computer that is requesting the services provided by the server.
A chat application is basically a combination of two applications:
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 Server application
 Client application
Server application runs on the server computer and client application runs on the client computer (or the machine with server). In this chat application, a client can send data to anyone who is connected to the server.
Java application programming interface (API) provides the classes for creating sockets to facilitate program communications over the network. Sockets are the endpoints of logical connections between two hosts and can be used to send and receive data. Java treats socket communications much as it treat input and output operations; thus programs can read from or write to sockets as easily as they can read from or write to files.
To establish a server connection, a server socket needs to be created and attached to a port, which is where the server listens for connections. The port recognizes the Transmission Control Protocol service on the socket. For instance, the email server runs on port 25, and the web server usually runs on port 80.
Server Execution: At server the side, a thread is created which receives numerous clients’ requests. It also contains a list in which Client’s name and IP addresses are stored. After that, it broadcast the list to all the users who are currently in chat
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room and when a client logs out then server deletes that particular client from the list, update the list and then broadcast the list to all available clients.
Client Execution: A client firstly must have to register itself by sending username to the server and should have to start the thread so that system can get the list of all available clients. Then any of two registered clients can communicate with each other.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The client-server communication model is used in a wide variety of software applications. Where normally the server side is sufficiently protected and sealed from public access, but client applications running on devices like notebooks and desktops are considered insecure and exposed to security threats.
The main weakness of client-server chat application is that there is no security provided to data which is transferred between clients. Any unauthorized client can hack the client account and can change the data. This is the main objective of this project (To develop a secured Client-Server Chat Application).
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to develop a reliable and secure network programming (Client-Server chat model) which can perform a multithreaded server client chat
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application based on Java socket programming using Transport Control Protocol (TCP). As security is the key factor while communicating over a network, hash function with salt is used for the Database based on a number of benefits. MySQL became the choice for the implementation of this application based on its scalability and flexibility, high performance, high availability, strong data protection, web and data warehouse strengths, management ease, lowest total cost of ownership and open source freedom.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Apart from just performing the regular client server chat, this client-server chat is robust and significant in the following ways:
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It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. 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It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. It also uses random generated numbers then stored in the Database. 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As a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, 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the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes a result, even if the database is compromised, salt added to hash values makes it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute the original password. it harder to compute 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This random salt is used with the hash function to significantly increase the strength of encrypting passwords and thus

makes cracking greatly impossible. This makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable makes the chat application server reliable and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured. and more secured.and more secured. and more secured.
Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This Another significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. ThisAnother significance of this application is private chatting. This is is is where two users can chat in private. The messages between the users are not displayed / seen in the general chat display text field. The messages are displayed only within the private message display text field.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project shall consider among other things the following issues:
1. To provide a better understanding of how network programming in java works.
2. Develop a reliable network communication for a Client-Server chat application.
3. Analyses of network programming in java (Multithreaded Client-Server Chat applications) for better understanding of the solutions.
4. Conduct an experimental result in order to establish the parameter of the problem. In conclusion, suggest ways the problems can be eliminated and recommends how the problems can be prevented.
1.7 LIMITATIONS

The previous Client-Server Chat system implements only hash function with the password before the encryption which is then stored in the Database. Thus, the database can be compromised easily to compute the original password.
Some drawbacks of the Client-Server Chat are as follows:
 As the server receives as many requests from clients so there is a chance that server can become congested and overloaded.
 In case of server fails then the users also suffers.
 A lost password is irrecoverable.
 Any unauthorized client can hack the client account and can change the data.
1.8 ORGANISATION OF THE WORK
In this project, a secure java chat application is considered which relies on the client-server paradigm to exchange the information. It is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one is the introduction which consists of the background of study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, organization of the work and the definition of terms.
The second chapter focuses on the literature review of relevant scholar’s opinions relevant to this study such as socket programming in java, overview of secure socket layer, hash function e.t.c.

The third chapter gives details of the main methodology and system design to implement the client-server chat application in java. First of all the application is developed by using TCP then and in the end multithreading is used to develop the application. At the end of chapter weaknesses (deadlocks) of multithreading is discussed which can be removed by using synchronizing threads.
Chapter four is the implementation of the secured Java Client-Server Chat Application: it test and analysis the implementation of the application.
Chapter five ends the project report. Firstly, a short summary highlights the main points of the whole project. Next, a number of conclusions and recommendations
are given and lastly Appendix.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Socket: Socket is a standard connection protocol that supports data communication over the network between connected terminals. The standard connection supports the data transmission both by the TCP and UDP protocols between the terminals.
TCP: TCP is a transport layer protocol used by applications that require guaranteed delivery of data. Basically, it is a connection-oriented protocol. To communicate over TCP one must first have to establish a connection between pair of sockets, where one socket is client and the other belongs to server. After the

connection is established between them then they can communicate with each other.
Client: A client is a system that accesses or desires for a service made accessible by a server.
Server: A server is a system (hardware or software) program running to provide the service requests of other system programs.
Port: Port is a software mechanism that allows the centralized connected Servers to listen for requests made by clients. Port is actually purposed as a gateway to listen for the requested parameters by the server terminals or other machines. It is a software address on a system that is on the network. Entire request response proceeding among this Application is carries through machine ports.
Network: This refers to a system were computers are linked to share software, data, hardware and resources for the benefit of users.
Interface: This may be software or hardware that upon an agreed method spells out the manner a system component can exchange information with another system component.
Secure socket layer (SSL): This refers to Secure Sockets Layer protocol that is used for encryption of data for secure data transmission.

IP: This refers to Internet Protocol; it is the reasonable network address of device on a network. It is notational called dotted-decimal (for instance: 128.1.0.1).
Thread: A thread is a section of code which is executing independently of others threads in a same program. Java has a class Thread which is defined in java.lang package. Thread is the most powerful feature that JAVA supports from other programming languages.

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design and implement a computerized drug information management system drug procurement and distribution tracking system

design and implement a computerized drug information management system drug procurement and distribution tracking system

ABSTRACT Drug procurement and distribution tracking system is a set of computer programs that obtains the supplies of drugs, distribute the drugs and monitors the inventory control of the drugs. Using the pharmaceutical department of Port Harcourt University teaching hospital as a case study, the department using manual method to operate lacks good storage of information system for drugs. Recording system tends to be complex and the method of tracking expired drug is poor. The good approach to this problem is to involve the use of computer by designing the form, using Access in developing the database and Visual basic as the programming language, to enable keeping accurate record of drug and prevent sales of expired drug. This guarantees the people’s right to good health care and ensures that drugs received are genuine and safe.

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Computerization is defined as the control of processes by computers and its peripherals. Today it would be difficult to think of any process, business or action that could not have profited from the numerous benefits of the computer system. Controlling process or devices with computer started long ago since the invention of computer. In the 20th century inventors tried to make processes easier with the use of computers. Secondly computerization has been greatly applied or used in controlling process that requires frequent action such as drug procurement, drug management, drug tracking and drug distributions in hospital management information system in pharmacy departments of hospitals.
This project which is drug procurement and distribution tracking system provides a computer based information management system in a Pharmacy Department of the University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu by designing a cost effective, user friendly application, incorporating key attributes of data integrity and system security suitable for use in the pharmacy department of the hospital using Microsoft Access software in developing the database and visual basic as the
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programming language. The overall aim of this project is to optimize time and material in the processing of data needed for effective operation of large pharmacy department of a hospital. By this approach, data integrity, data redundancy, and consistency will be ensured. Drugs are the chemical substances that are administered to patients for curative purposes and prophylaxis. It can also be known as a medicine, because it is the essential part of peoples care. The ability of the computer to store and retrieve information at a very fast and efficient rate makes its application useful in management operations. Drug management involves drug procurement, drug distribution, drug tracking and its information management. Drug distribution is concerned with distribution of drugs within the different medical units or departments in a hospital, while drug procurement is concerned with the purchasing activities of the drugs by the pharmacy department of the hospital. In the same vein, drug tracking is concern with the continuous monitoring of the actual quantity of drugs held in the hospital pharmacy or any other drug warehouse /store. It also controls the stock level.
Pharmaceutical unit in a hospital is concerned with drug management activities. They carry out the responsibility of making appropriate selection and drugs used by formulating an annual, monthly, weekly or daily list of drugs requirement and
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management reports. However, in some hospitals today, some pharmacists still use the manual system of operation which can lead to inappropriate drug management errors due to problems of handling voluminous file within a short period of time. This could make data to be easily inaccessible and also delivery of drugs can lead to misplacement of patients’ files. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Drug procurement, tracking, distribution and information management in this regard are routine processes carried out in various hospitals across Nigeria. It is a common place to observe that these routine processes are still preformed manually or are minimally computerized even in our Teaching Hospitals. This manual approach to these routine operations has a lot of problems associated with it, ranging from poor handling of drug data of patients, lack of good storage information system for drugs and drug dispensary, delays, to the difficulty in retrieving information on drugs and patients’ records. In view of all these problems, it becomes necessary to develop a computer based drug information management system and distribution tracking system. This is what this research project is set to address by computerizing the routine processes in our hospitals and in particular that of Pharmacy Department of UNTH Enugu.
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1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The aim of this research project is to design and implement a computerized drug information management system, drug procurement and distribution tracking system. This includes: (i). To order for drugs without mistake of procuring more than required. (ii). To take good stock of drugs. (iii). To prevent dispensary of expired drugs (iv). To ensure accurate keeping of records of drugs 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The benefits derivable from this work include the following:
(i) It will provide reliable healthcare services.
(ii) It will guarantee hospital management and patients of genuine and safe drugs.
(iii) It will ensure an efficient and standard drug dispensary system.
(iv) It will provide a data base for stock taking of drugs procured and dispensed any moment.
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1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research work will cover only the Pharmaceutical Department of the University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. It will present an up to date and comprehensive design of the following:
(i) Planning and control system which includes inventory control and drug distribution
(ii) Drug procurement procedure in a hospital.
(iii) The expiry status of each drugs at any point in time
(iv) The Database of all kinds, types and names of some drugs that would be store and operate on.
1.6 ASSUMPTION It is assumed that all the information gathered with the respect to inventory control is correct as implemented by the university of Nigerian teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu.
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1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. Time constraint; There is limited time go and meet the hospital pharmacist for proper information. 2. Due to the sensitive nature of organizational information, there was reluctance to release vital information which may jeopardize the security of the organization. 1.8 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION This research project covers almost all you need to know about drug procurement and distribution tracking system. Chapter one is the introduction and it covers the statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, assumption, limitations of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two is the literature review; it gives the detailed meaning of every associated word in my topic. Chapter three is the design and methodology; this involves the operation of the existing system and the method used. Chapter four is the system analysis and implementation; which talked about the operation of the proposed system. Chapter five is the summary, recommendation and conclusion.
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1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS Database; A collection of logically related data to meet the information need of organization. DBMS; Database Management Software that enable the user to define, maintain Control the database. Application Program; A computer program that interacts with the database. MENU; This is a list of options presented on the screen with each option identified by short code followed by longer description of its purposes. Drug; It is referred to as a medicine or chemical substances that are administered to Patients for curative measures. Pharmacy; A placed in a hospital where medicine or chemical substances are kept, stored and prepared. Flowchart; A diagram that shows connection between the different stages of process of the system. Primary Key; The candidate key that is selected to identify the individual within the relation
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Foreign Key; An attribute or a set of attributes within one relation that matches the candidate key Relation; A relation is a named table with columns and rows Attribute; An attributes is a named column of a relation Domain; A set of allowable values for one or more table Null; it represents a value for an attribute that is currently unknown or not applicable Database design; The process of creating a design that will support emprise mission statement and mission required database e system. Software: These are program for computer which allows certain specific task to be accomplished e.g. word process etc. Hardware: Computer equipment used to perform input processing and system output activates. Management information system: collection of people, database, and devices produced to use in providing routine information to manager and decision makers of the organization.

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT EVALUATION PROGRAM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT EVALUATION PROGRAM

ABSTRACT
Student achievement is profoundly influenced by the evaluation practice used by teachers in the classroom. Research in education has consistently shown achievement monitoring and feedback to be extremely important factors in the teaching learning process. This project is designed with the help of computer base program that has five sub systems: the file sub system that helps the administrator to change their password and also register new students, compute result sub system which is where all the student results are recorded and save to data base, and report sub system, where students profile, results and the number of students in the school can be viewed. All this helps classroom teachers with direct support to classroom instruction with information on good classroom evaluation practices with daughters of divine love juniorate secondary school as a case study. This program was achieved with the help of visual basic 6.0 and Microsoft access database.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Evaluation of student achievement is a crucial and pervasive issue of concern in every classroom. Traditional evaluation activities were used to certify or promote students. Currently, evaluation is recognized, as a comprehensive process not just something that occurs only at the end of some learning episode, it is an integral part of the teaching learning process.
Evaluation activities provide information for the identification of student’s performances, a basis for the assessment of teaching strategies and data for important decision regarding corrective or enrichment activities.
If a classroom is to function effectively, a well planned system of evaluation is essential. Without such plan, it will be difficult to determine the ability of students and to decide which methods of instruction are most appropriate for a particular class or group of students.
School Structure
Daughters of divine love juniorate school is a female private school, it was founded in 1969 at Ihiala in Anambra state, by the late Bishop Godsfrey Mary Paul Okonye, then Bishop of port Harcourt. The number of students that were enrolled in 1969 is seven with about four members of the staff, including the principal.
The school was later moved to Isienu Nsuka in the 1976, the second campus of the junior ate was started in Enugu which is the head quarters of the congregation with its first principal as Sr .M. Chizoba Eke.The junior ate school made its first external examination in the year 1972. Daughters of divine love comprise both the junior secondary and the senior secondary sections and runs a six year formal education programme. Each of the 6 classes is made up of either 2 or 3 or 4 streams depending on the size of the class. Because of the nature of the school which informs it’s home: Daughters of divine love junior ate, equal attention, more or less, is giving to both the academic and character formation of the students.
Administration and Staff
The administrative structure of the school comprises the principal, two vice principal (Academic & Administration, School Bursar, Matron, Dean of Studies, Heads of Department, Form Teachers and other teachers. The tutorial staff strength of the school is forty – three permanent teachers and seven part-time teachers. These teachers are qualified. The non academic staff section comprises about thirty workers mainly non-professionals. The motto of the school is “FAITH AND LOVE”
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Education is concerned with the integral formation of students. Hence, it should be directed toward their physical emotion, social, moral, intellectual and spiritual development.

 

Any system of evaluation has to be based on who students are and how they know and act as learners. The following principles of evaluation should be evident from the philosophy. These are:
1 Evaluation takes it direction from a definition education which stated in it’s broadcast since is to enable student to realize their potentials as human beings
2 Evaluations involve teacher’s judgment.
3 Evaluation is an integral part of the teaching learning process.
4 Students and education program.
5 Students should play an active role in their evaluation.
6 Evaluation procedure should take into consideration individual difference among students.
7 Evaluation procedure is important for the guidance of individual students.
However, it should be noted that the main purpose of evaluation is to determine the extent to which student have archived the intended outcome of the education program. There evaluation must be student centered where it process and subsequent decisions reflect a genuine concern for the interest of each student.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The main aim of this project is to provide an information tracking system along with evaluation system for evaluating students based on written examination, thus providing the positions for every student and to eradicate the problems uncounted in education environment that are timed consuming in the file system.
The design system holds the following features over the previous manual system.
1. Enhanced easy retrieval and access to records.
2. Highly secured student results.
3. Accuracy of result processing
4. Accurate report for decision making by the school management.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This project will provide basis for developing a planned system of evaluation for the school academic staffs.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project is centered on student academic performance for daughters of divine love juniorate secondary school. This project was implemented to show the scores and total average of each student at the end of academic year, and also help to keep proper record of student data. This helps the

teachers to know the students that are not performing well, so that they can help them to improve in the subjects they are lagging behind.
1.6 LIMITATIONS
The result can be altered by any individual that has access to the software.
No individual can be able to access the result without the aid of the teacher of that particular class.
1.7 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The project has different chapters, from one to five which will explain the various aspects of the system.
The first chapter gives an introduction of the project along with the project aims and objectives, scope and limitations of the study.
Chapter two is an overview of the literature review.
Chapter three is the details of the system analysis and design and the major components used.
Chapter four deals with the implementation and the testing. This chapter contains the major world of the project.
Chapter five recommendations and conclusion of the project work on student Evolution.

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