THE EFFECT OF PLANNING ON THE SUCCESS OF THE BUSINESS ENTERPRISES (A CASE STUDY OF IBEDMORE RESOURCES LIMITED UYO)

THE EFFECT OF PLANNING ON THE SUCCESS OF THE BUSINESS ENTERPRISES (A CASE STUDY OF IBEDMORE RESOURCES LIMITED UYO)

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Declaration

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of Problems
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope/Limitations of the Study
  • Historical Background of Ibedmore Resources
  • Definitions of Terms
  • Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Definition of Planning

2.3 Elements of Planning

2.4 Basic Steps In Planning

2.5 Qualities of Good or Effective Plan

2.6 Barriers to Effective Planning

2.7 Measures to Overcome Planning Barriers

2.8 Importance of Planning

2.9 Management Objective

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Study Area

3.3 Population of the Study

3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique

3.5 Research Instrument

3.6 Method of Data Collection

3.7 Method of Data Analysis –

3.8 Decision Rule

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Presentation of Data in Tables

4.2 Testing Of Hypothesis

4.3 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction

5.1 Summary of Findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations –

References

Appendix I

Appendix II

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Planning is generally recognized as the most difficult task facing the manager, and it is one that is very easy to procrastinate. Planning rest upon the view that the future success of an entity can be enhanced by continuous management actions. It pre-suppose that an organization will be more successful, in terms of its broad objectives with management actions to implement the fees forward process of than if there is no planning at all. The process of management is facilitated when decision makers of organization chart its future course of actions in advance, and take individual and group effort in a coordinated and rational manner. According to (1983: 156), planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who should do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go to. It makes it possible or things to occur which would not otherwise happen. Although, the exact future can seldom be predicted and factors beyond control may interfere with the best laid plans. Planning is therefore necessary if the unexpected must be controlled within acceptable reach. Obviously, planning is an intellectually demanding  process;  it  requires the conscious determination of course or action and basing of decision of purpose, knowledge and considered estimates. The dynamic nature of our activities produces changes in various spheres of human activities, such as economic, technological, social and legal environments. Change has become our inevitable parts of any organization. These changes may create opportunities or threats for the organization. Whatever the direction of change is, it is imperative for organizations to embrace and adapt to it through the process of planning.

According to Agu, C N. (2003) the success or failure of an organization is largely determined by how effectively it can respond to the changing environment.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Planning is a function of all managers, although the character and breath of planning will vary with their authority and with the nature of policies and plans stated. In the corporate objectives. Planning is necessary in an organization because it eliminates or reduces managers’ inclination to guesses rule of thumbs and hunches in decision making and instead replaces them with logic, reason and rationality. Planning visualizes and anticipates future of affairs. However, many business enterprises have failed ultimately in planning, managers of some neglected this very important function. This has no doubt resulted in financial loss and in some cases led to the winding up of much business entities. Obviously, this problem has hampered the rapid development of the private sector of our economy.  The researcher is therefore interested in examine this critical problem with the aim of providing solutions by way recommendations.

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of planning on the success of business enterprises. Other objectives include the following:

  • To examine whether planning aids in actualizing organizational goals.
  • To investigate the effect of planning on the profitability of business enterprises.
  • To determine whether planning visualizes and anticipate future events and set action to actualize a deserved state of affairs.
  • To ascertain whether planning provides basis for control.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To facilitate the achievement of the objectives of this study, the following research question is logically formulated.

  • What is the effect of planning on the profitability of business enterprises?
  • Does planning aids in actualizing organizational goals?
  • Does planning anticipate future events and set actiona to actualize a desired state of affairs?
  • Does planning provide a basis for control?
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses are formulated in this study:

(Hi) planning does not aid in actualizing organization goals.

(Ho) planning does not anticipate future events and set actions.

(Hi) planning helps to anticipate future events and set actions

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study are as follows:

  • Loopholes inherent in the planning process would be made known to ensure that planning is properly implemented in all level of organization.
  • This study would broaden the research horizon in the effectiveness of planning on the success of business enterprises.
  • This study will show how planning is carried out to reduce random activity and overlapping efforts in the organization.
  • The study will show how planning streamlines activity, measuring performances.
  • This study will show how planning gives a sense of direction and focus to the organization.
  • To provide a basis for control. Control activities are geared towards established plans which may be standard, objectives or targets and therefore offer means of measuring performance.
  • It will integration and viewing the organization as one well as visualizes how the activities are interrelated in achieving the overall goal.
  • This study would describe how planning provides a means of actuating leader and the employees.
    • SCOPE/ LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

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ESTIMATION OF VISCOSITY VALUES OF DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF OIL, USING A U-TUBE GLASS VISCOMETER

ESTIMATION OF VISCOSITY VALUES OF DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF OIL, USING A U-TUBE GLASS VISCOMETER

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  • Introduction

The term ‘Viscosity’ describes a material’s property from a physicists point of view, it is a fluids thickness. Scientifically speaking, It is the measure of a fluids internal flow resistance to being deformed. (Szekely, 1999). Some liquid flow more easily than others do, for example honey is very thick and flows very slowly. Water is very thin and flow very quickly with this it shows that one is more viscous than the other. (Battle et al., 1990).

Viscosity can be defined as a term used to describe the resistance of low at a particular temperature. It is commonly perceived as flow behavior or resistance to pouring. Viscosity describes a  fluids internal resistance to flow and may be thought as a measure of fluid friction. A fluids viscosity is determined by viscometry, which is part of a wider science called rheometry. Rheometry againg is part of rheology, the science of materials flow behavior and deformation. Therefore, since viscosity is a measure of the internal friction or the resistance to flow a liquid, then it is said that fluids that have low viscosity pour slowly (Molasses). (Geiger et al.,1990).

  • Aims And Objectives of The Study

–   This research project is aimed at investigating the viscosity of         different brands of oil samples using a glass U tube viscometer with a          capillary tube build into one leg.

– To present an investigation results  on the effects of the high viscosity       and low volatility of raw vegetable oil sample.

  • To determine the moisture contents of the sample
  • To analyze the relationship between several types of oil which are defined by stoke law and conclusively to apply these in order to calculate the viscosity of the oils from my result
  • To determine the viscosity of common liquids by measuring the transit time of marbles through the liquids / oils.

 

  • Scope And Limitation of The Study

This research work will be limited to the study of the viscosity of four (4) sample of oil found within our locality

  • Vegetable oil
  • Groundnut oil
  • Red oil
  • Turkey oil

The result obtained from this test method is dependent upon the behavior of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional.

  • Definition of Terms

Viscosity: This is defined as measure of the resistance  of a liquid to deform under shear stress

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IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVE IN ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE INCENTIVE REVENUE SERVICES)

IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVE IN ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE INCENTIVE REVENUE SERVICES)

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page

Title page

Certification               –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Dedication        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Acknowledgements           –        –        –        –        –        –

Abstract             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Table of contents                –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction               –        –        –        –        –        –

1.1    Background of the Study                   –        –        –

1.2    Statement of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.3    Objectives of the Study     –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions           –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Significance of the Study            –        –        –        –

1.6    Scope of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Limitation of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms            –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction               –        –        –        –        –        –

2.2    Tax Incentive and Economy Development of Nigeria

2.3    Importance of Tax Incentive     –        –        –        –

2.4    Tax Assessment        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.5    Pseudo Tax Incentives      –        –        –        –        –

2.6    Production and Incentive in Nigeria –        –

2.7    Tax Incentive and Economic Advantages –

2.8    Taxable Income         –        –        –        –        –        –

2.9    Financial Transaction Tax                   –        –        –

2.10 Currency Transaction Tax                   –        –        –

2.11  List of Countries by Tax Rates –        –        –

 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE

3.1    Introduction               –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2    Area of the Study              –        –        –        –        –

3.3    Population of the Study             –        –        –        –

3.4    Sample Determination/Sampling Techniques   –

3.5    Source of Data           –        –        –        –        –        –

3.6    Method of Data Collection                 –        –        –

3.7    Data Presentation/Analyses Method         –        –

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES OF DATA

4.1    Introduction               –        –        –        –        –        –

4.2    Data Analysis and Results         –        –        –        –

4.3    Discussion of Finding                 –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

5.1    Introduction               –        –        –        –        –        –

5.2    Summary          –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.3    Conclusion                 –        –        –        –        –        –

5.4    Recommendations  –        –        –        –        –        –

REFERENCES

         APPENDIX

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

The importance of tax to the overall development of Nigeria economic cannot be over emphasized. Because almost all the facet of our economy has witness a face lift, and it is a result of tax. According to Mcclinethy, (2000), said “tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a tax payer can individual or legal entity by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law”. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent.

According to black’s law dictionary, a tax is a “pecuniary burden laid upon individuals or property owners to support the government the payment enacted by legislative authority”. It is not a voluntary payment or donation, but an enforced contribution exacted pursuant to legislative authority and is any contribution imposed by government whether under the name of tool, tribute, tillage, gabal, impose, duty custom, excise, subsidy, aid, supply. Etc.

The legal definition and the economic definition of taxes differ in that economists do not consider many transfers to government to be taxes. For example, some transfers to the public sector are comparable to prices. They include tuition at public universities and fees for utilities provided by local government. Government  also obtain resources by creating money(example, printing bills and minting coins)through voluntary gifts (example, contributions to public universities and Muslims) by imposing  penalties (example, traffic fines)by borrowing and confiscating wealth. From economics view a tax is a

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EFFECT OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION UYO)

EFFECT OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION UYO)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Wendel (1973) described human resources in his books as consisting all individuals engaged in any of the organizations activities regardless of their levels. Human resources from the above simply means men and working for an organization, inspective of the post. They are holding. However, this went further to emphasized that there was no demarcation for men and women working for the organization that belong or do not belong to the human resources of the organization.

Meanwhile, any activity in the organization from the beginning to the end stage depends on human resources therefore any organization aiming at achieving some of their goals must ensure not only maintaining constant and adequate supply of human resources but also ensure that they were adequately motivated. This is because the human resources that are not motivated will be answering human resources of the organization with outputting in their best.

James (1946) stated that the effective use of people is still the key to productivity and you assignment is to motivate people to get best of their skills and abilities. He affirmed that organizations will achieve high productivity more than ever before by motivating their workers and sending them for training.

Moreover, Ubeku (1983) went further to say that although the task of motivating workers is vested on the management team as a whole but said that managers have more roles to play. The author said that managers, can provide the organization a continuous day to day coaching appraisal and encouragement that the employees will need more than ever before. He was of the opinion that manager have upper hand in motivating workers. The author further stated that the supervisor who works with his subordinates on this estimate basis can do much to influence the organizations programme.

Training and development of human resources have been considered and expandable luxury in terms of financial constraints. The growth and development of any organization depends on its human resources, a specific cost of management to develop individual skills or a means of developing people for promotion to the most level of organization leadership. While these views carry some validity of human resources, should be regarded in the larger context of trends in society and the need of changing organization. In the past, not much importance was attached to the role of human resource development on the growth and efficiency of organization. No pride of place was given man-power planning and development as a save way to enhance skills, knowledge and capacities of personnel. In organizations, the importance of investigating in human resources has become much dear in recent years because of maintaining evidence of that as an engine of change. Although, human resource management is that sub system of an organization which is directly concerned with planning controlling the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the human resources component of the organization, the effectiveness of this sub-system is judged by the way policies and practices affect the performance and productivity of individual workers towards realization of the effectiveness of an organization.

Today, one of the major problems confronting management in an organization is devising the most effective way of putting its human resources on the right position to accomplishing its task. The existence of a conducive and

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THE IMPACT OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration                 –        –        –        –        —                –

Certification      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Dedication         –        —       –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Acknowledgment                –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Abstract             –        –        —       –        –        –        –        –        iv

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the Study –        –        –        1
  • Statement of the Problem –        –        –        –        4
  • Objective of the Study –        –        –        –        5
  • Research Questions –        –        –        –        –        –        5
  • Research Hypothesis –        –        –        –        –        –        6
  • Significance of the Study –        –        –        –        –        7
  • Scope/Limitation of the study –        –        –        8
  • Definition of Terms –        –        –        –        –        –        8

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

  • Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        11
    • Concept of Poverty –        –                 –        –        –        11
    • National Directorate of Employment and Job creation in Nigeria           –        –        –        –                  –        –        17

 

  • The objectives and mandate of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) –                  –        –        –        –        22

 

2.3.1 Indicators of Poverty           –        –                           –        23

  • Reason for the failure of government programmes as regard poverty and unemployment in Nigeria 25

 

  • Problems for poverty alleviation in Nigeria –        –        29
  • Prospect of poverty alleviation in Nigeria –        32
  • Poverty Reduction strategies –        –        –        –        38
  • Theoretical framework –        –        –        –        40

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0     Introduction                –        –        –        –        –        –        45

3.1     Research Design                  –        –        –        –        –        45

3.2     Area of the Study                –        –        –        –        –        46

3.3     Population of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        46

3.4     Sample/Sampling Size                 –        –        –        –        47

3.5     Sources of Data Analysis             –        –        –        –        48

3.6     Procedure for Data Collection    –        –        –        –        48

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument                –        –        –        49

3.8     Method of Data Analysis   –        –        –        –        –        49

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0     Introduction                –        –        –        –        –        –        50

4.1     Data Presentation                –        –        –        –        –        50

4.2     Data Analysis             –        –        –        –        –        –        54

4.3     Test of Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        60

4.4     Discussion of Findings                –        –        –        –        63

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.0     Introduction                –        –        –        –        –        –        65

5.1     Summary of Findings         –        –        –        –        –        65

5.2     Recommendations              –        –        –        –        –        68

5.3     Conclusion                  –        –        –        –        –        –        70

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the study

Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult challenges facing countries in the developing world in which the coverage majority of the population is considered poor. As history would have it, Nigeria as a developing nation has experienced several forms of economic, political and social unrest. In recent times unemployment which is caused by individuals and government forces had joined the list of the social evils we experience in Nigeria today. The issue of unemployment has become a world-wide phenomenon demanded for increase attention, though the impact is more devastating in developing nation (Wamukonya 2003). According to Ndubi and Nwankwo (2013) identifies unemployment as one of the major challenges confronting Nigerian economic development.

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CHALLENGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC PROPERTIES IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHALLENGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC PROPERTIES IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Property management involves the process, system and manpower required to manage the life cycle of all properties including acquisition, control, accountability, responsibility, maintenance, utilization and disposition (Njoku, 2006). Public proper management is the management of equipment and physical capital assets that are acquired and used to build, repair and maintain the public property. Managing of public property involves establishing goals objectives and policies and implementation of strategies to achieve those goals and objectives.

Property management is the direction, the nursing and sometime the overall control of policy of an interest in landed property with a view to obtain maximum returns may be financial, social prestiage, power or some other goals or group of goals (Thorncroft, 1976). It emphasize the need to economic, the use of resources and time so that the predetermined objectives are achieved.

According to Douglas (1976) property management seeks to control property interest having regard to the short and long-term objectives of the Estate owner and particularly to the purpose for which the interest is held: to negotiate rent reviews and lease renewals, to oversee physical maintenance and enforcement of lease covenants, to be mindful of the necessity of upgrading and merging the development of potential and fulfil the owner’s legal and social duties to the community.

Management of landed property is essential to enable such property to meet the expected target or taste and command higher rental or capital value. However managers of public properties in Nigeria are face with various kinds of challenges ranging from uncooperative attitude from worker’s taste and command higher rental or capital value. However managers of public properties in Nigeria are face with various kinds of challenges ranging from uncooperative attitude from worker’s, poor maintenance and environmental condition, security and other basic infrastructures. Some managers are able to cope with some of the challenges but research will provide an overview about the challenges in the management of public properties, Ibom Tropicana as a case study, Uyo Local Government Area.

  • Statement of the Problem

Property management can be defined as a control or monitoring activity over property interest while considering the owner’s ascertained objectives (Scarret, 2983).

According to Arnold and John (1989), the main purpose of property management is to increase the value of the property. The same statement is strengthened by the statement posed by Scratlet (1983) who stated that property management is a management process to maximize income and capital assets.

Numerous problems had conspicuously occurred in the management of public properties such as schools, market, recreational centre, housing among others. According to Gibler and Black (2004), one of the problems that cause failure in the management of public property is the presence of incompetent staff with specific knowledge areas or work units.

Shahril (2004) stated that another problem faced in managing public properties/assets is insufficient financial resources. This financial problem becomes a critical disadvantages in the effort to manage public properties efficiently as Abdul Hamid (2002) concluded that financial resources act as a key fact in determing the success or failure of organization in their respective operations.

Another problem which contributes to the inefficient and ineffective management of public properties is lack or absence of communication Mohd et al (2009) recognized that communication breakdown exist due to the very structure of public governance as there are numerous departments and ministries that are involved in the day to day operations as well as the decision making processes.

However the researcher is seeking to investigate more on the challenges in the management of Ibom Tropicana Entertainment Centre Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.

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THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF PURCHASING AND SUPPLY DEPARTMENTS IN THE SMOOTH PRODUCTION PROCESS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF PURCHASING AND SUPPLY DEPARTMENTS IN THE SMOOTH PRODUCTION PROCESS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Background of the study

With the increasing number of world class competitors domesticgally and abroad, organizations have to rapidly improve their internal processes to stay competitive. They have to become increasingly flexible and responsive to modify existing products, services, and processes or to develop new one to meet ever changing customer’s needs. In the 1990s, with the improvement of organizational capabilities, Managers realized that ability to meet customer needs. This led to the increased focus on the supply base and the responsibilities of purchasing.

Managers also realized that producing a quality product was not enough. Getting products and services to customers when, where, how, in the quantity required and in a cost effective manner constituted an entirely new type of challenge. (Monezka., Moberg, Stuart,  2002) (Balsmeier and Voisin; Monezka 2002).

More recently, the era of the “Logistics Renaissance” was also born, spawning a whole set of time reducing information technologies and logistics networks aimed at meeting these challenges.

As a result of these changes, organizations now find that they must be involved in the management of all upstream firms (suppliers) that provide direct and indirect inputs. They must also be concerned with the network of downstream firms responsible for delivery and aftermarket service of the product to the end customer. According to Bailey, and Bell  (1994) (Bailey and Benishay, 1993) (Pattatucci and Hamer, 1995) (Pillard, 1990) Logistics involves the flow of materials from suppliers, through the organization and out to the customers of the organization. The activities include, coordination of receipts of orders from customers, developing a network of warehouses, picking carriers to get products to customers and setting up an invoicing system to receive payments. The smooth operations of these logistics flows are essential for the effective management of supply chain. These functions need to be managed in such a way that they maximize contributions to the management of the supply chain and that all non-value adding activities are eliminated. The supply chain encompasses all activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from the raw materials stage, through to end users, as well as the associated information flows. Monezka Moberg, Stuart, 2002) (Balsmeier and Voisin; Monezka 2002).          Materials and information flow both up and down the supply chain. The supply Supply chains are essentially a series of linked suppliers and customers, every customer is in turn a supplier to the nest downstream organization, until a finished product reaches the ultimate end user.  Supply chain management has achieved a sustainable competitive advantage through a smooth production process of business.

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MICROBIAL AIR QUALITY OF TOILET ENVIRONMENT

MICROBIAL AIR QUALITY OF TOILET ENVIRONMENT

1.0 INTRODUCTION

A toilet is a sanitation fixture used for storing or disposal of human urine and feaces. (Oxford Dictionary, 1997). In developed countries, different forms porcelain flush toilets are common. Seats are usually used in west while squat toilets are common in East Asia. These are connected to sewer system in most urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas.

Toilet is also one of public facilities, which is frequently used by people and located indoor. In recent years, Scientist and public have put much concern about indoor air quality in toilet systems. Several studies have found out that indoor air pollution levels to be greater than outdoor levels (USEPA, 2001). Thus it is risky to health posed by indoor air pollution than those posed by outdoor air pollution. Therefore maintaining good air quality in toilet is essential in order to keep it hygienic and sanitary. This is aligned with the statement mentioned by Wike, “in order to create a healthier and safer environment, the first step is the wash room”. In an environment, spores of molds and bacteria may become air borne and are therefore ubiquitous. They can enter indoor areas either by means of ventilation systems. The relative humidity and/or the moisture content of the materials determines that to what extent different micro-organism are able to grow on indoor. (Dhanasekaran et al., 2009).

These may cause destruction, adverse health effects and unpleasant odors. Therefore the task of microbial examinations is to differentiate between normal indoor microorganisms which may cause adverse health effects (Madukasi et al., 2010).

Air sampling of microorganisms is a popular method of conducting microbial examinations, as it allows a direct toxicological evaluation. Specific activities like talking, sneezing, coughing and toilet flushing can generate air borne biological particulate matter and occasionally release spores of Altenaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis into air (Maeir et al., 2002).

Indoor air pollution can be as much more worse than that of outdoor air, it can cause wide range of health problems.

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DETERMINATION OF MINOR MINERAL ELEMENTS IN Telfairia Occidentalis SEEDS

DETERMINATION OF MINOR MINERAL ELEMENTS IN Telfairia Occidentalis SEEDS

Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Introduction

Vegetables are the edible parts of plant that are consumed wholly or in parts, raw or cooked as part of main dishes or salad (Asaolu et al, 2012). They are valued mainly for their carbohydrate, vitamins, protein, fats, and mineral contents which may be edible roots, stems, leaves, fruits or seed. Leafy vegetables are important items of the diet in many Nigerian homes and valuable sources of nutrients especially in rural areas where they contribute substantially to protein, mineral, vitamins, fiber and other nutrients which are usually in short supply in daily diets (Mosha and Gage, 1999). Although, there is low level of protein in vegetables, there is increasing awareness of the importance of vegetables, in maintaining health, particularly

where animal protein is scare (Baker and Griffin, 1997). According to Oke and Ojofeitimi (2004), vegetables contain low calories and negligible quantities of utilizable energy, hence are ideal for obese people who can satisfy their appetite without consuming much carbohydrate (Chionyedua and Anuoluwa, 2009). Nigeria is the largest country in West Africa, with an area of 928200km2 and a population of about 140million.

The coastal area is swampy and at sea level. This is adjoined by a rain forest zone along the southern part, where it is evergreen. In the Northern part it is the open grass land or savannah, where the grass is lush, but this area becomes more narrow towards the north, where there is shrub vegetation (Oke, 2004). There are two seasons, wet (rainy) and dry. The diet is largely vegetarian, roots and tubers being the staple in the south and cereals in the north.

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EFFECT OF MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE

EFFECT OF MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Rajput (2011) contends that the word motivation is derived from a Latin word “Mover” which literally means “to move” they defined motivation as” the individual desire to demonstrate the behavior and reflects willingness to expend effort” Motivation can be described as a goal – directed behavior. It concern with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. Motivation can be divided into extrinsic factor, which can be measures in monetary terms, such as salary and benefits, promotion and disciplinary action.

Extrinsic Motivation can have an immediate and powerful effect, but it will not necessary last long. Intrinsic motivation refers to internal factor such as job satisfaction, responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities and challenging work and opportunities for development. Intrinsic motivators which are concerned with the quality of working life are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect. These two working life are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect. These two different aspects of motivation are connected each other and cannot be seen in isolation.

Motivation and productivity occupies a strategic and crucial position in human resource development and has constituted a powerful instrument of change in both public and private organization.

These prepositions constitute an essential frame work within which empirical study of civil service can be conducted at the local, state and federal levels. Invariably, it is an attitude in large scale organizations and also indispensable machinery min the operation of government in other words, efficiency and productivity of any government depends on the effective motivation and competency of its civil service. Working in the organization to meet worker needs affect the satisfaction, which the workers derive from their job.

The satisfaction that the workers derive from their job can affect their motivation to work. People are motivated by various factors of different times, according to (Wilkinson et al., 2007) the first factor is combination of individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work as much as possible between organizational objectives and individual aspirations (Sulcas. P 2007). The essence of this is to ensure a situation where the individual is motivated while the organization is achieving established objectives.

The second factor deals with issue of self-images and concepts as well as life experiences and personality. These factors have to be positively motivated in the worker to yield proactive behavior. This can be achieved through a carefully planned reward system, which is a type of reinforcement directed at modifying people’s behavior.

Those who occupy management positions in organizations encourage civil servants basically through means of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement boosts favourable consequences that go a long way to encourage the repition of particular behavior (Adonisi, M, 2005). Therefore, important for the management to ensure that they motivate their employees to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organization.

The primary function of civil service in the implementation of government policies and programmes as approved by the competent organs of and /or structures of good authority to foster motivational growth and development. The structural basis of civil service commission, charged recruit in a civil capacity by the civil service commission, charged with the responsibility of exercising the executive authority of government and whose activities are guided by systematically interrelated pattern to achieve the complex objective off its organization.

Furthermore, it is a central concept in both public and private organization. An organization whether public or private is sustained by capital and labour, in consequence, where the productive process, the organization concerned will experience high productivity. The employee’s performance, on the other hand is dependent on certain variable, normally, professional and technical competent of the workers and motivation.

There is generalagreement among psychologist that man experience a variety of needs, these  are considerable disagreement as to what, and these needs are and their relative importance (Van Rooyam, J. 2006). One of the basic problems in any organization is how to motivate people to work.  Motivating people to work entails, meeting their needs. This is because the management of an organization can motivate its employees if it’s able to study the characteristic of employee and know what actually motivate them to productivity.

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BANK’S CREDIT ADMINISTRATION IN MORTGAGE INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA ( A case study of Mutual Alliance Mortgage Bank Limited)

BANK’S CREDIT ADMINISTRATION IN MORTGAGE INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA ( A case study of Mutual Alliance Mortgage Bank Limited)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

With the present proliferation of banks and finance houses in the country as well as the entry of the manners of people into the banking sector and the alarming number of distressed banks recorded in the early nineties, it is vital at this point to highlight the pre- requisite for good credit administration in Nigerian banking system. This will help to set out dynamic guidelines to bankers, financiers and students of banking profession and reduce to the nearest minimum the incidence of untold bad debt portfolio in the industry and curd possible banks failure in the system.

Owojori,(2011). Stated that mortgage institutions are the financial intermediaries between the savers of funds and the users of funds for the purpose of developing houses.

In Nigeria, there are primary mortgage institutions, which are set up to really cater for the need of providing loans and loan able instruments, either to individuals who are the customers, or corporate institutions who develop houses in large quantities in order to sell to the public.

Also, most of the deposit money banks have set up mortgage affiliates. The housing sector plays a critical role in a country’s welfare, as it directly affects not only the well being of the citizenry, but also the performance of other sectors of the economy. However, there are some lingering problems faced by mortgage. Institutions, the chief of it being the finance or availability of credits. This is because housing provision requires huge capital outlay, which is often beyond the capacity of the medium income or low income groups.

With due consideration to the importance of housing and the role played by mortgage institution, it is imperative that, there is an effective credit administration system that will enable eligible individuals have their own house thereby contributing to the development of the nation.

Ozili (2009), observed that the National housing trust fund is inadequate to meet the housing needs of its contribution. Further more, the condition laities for accessing loans are not affordable to the low income earners and the poor. Private financial institutions in Nigeria have recently started packaging mortgage loans to prospective home owners and property developers.

However, Mallo, D. (2010), observed that private financial institutions charge very high interest rate on credit facilities with very short repayment tenor.

Etudaiye, muhtar. F (2010), observed that, in most cases emphasis are placed on the security offered for loan and the insistence that recovery potential of credit should be from the projected cash flow.

This has led to the increase case of nonperforming credits.
Zandi, M.(2011), observed that, the model account for observed patterns in housing consumption, ownership and portfolio allocations. He also opines that the loan structure is a quantitatively significance factor ion a household’s housing financial decision. However, he also observed, that, the mortgage structure preferred by a household is dependent on age and income and that loan products with low initial payment offer an alternative to mortgage with no down payment.

Mutual Alliance Mortgage Bank incorporated, on 20th August 1992 under the name Mutual Alliance Savings and Loans Limited (RC213814) with fully paid up share capital of N20 million.

The name of the bank was charged to Mutual Alliance Mortgage Bank Limited and re-incorporated in 1995 in accordance with mortgage, institution decree 53 of 1967.

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THE EFFECT OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION GOALS

THE EFFECT OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION GOALS (A STUDY OF ORUK ANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL IN AKWA IBOM STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

1.2             Statement of problems

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Research hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Scope of the study

1.8 Limitations of the study

1.9 Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.3 Meaning of training

2.4 Development and training

2.5 Purpose of training and development

2.6 Techniques of identifying training needs

2.7             Importance of training and development in an organization

2.8 Training methods in an organization

2.9 Evaluation of training

2.10           Concept of organizational goals

2.11           Determinant of organizational goals

2.12           factors that influence organizational goals

2.13           Relationship between staff training and development and organizational goals achievement

2.14           Summary

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief introduction

3.2 Research design

3.3 Area of study

3.4 Population of the study

3.5 Sample and sampling technique

3.6 Method of data collection

3.7 Description of instrument for data collection

3.8 Reliability and validity

3.9 Method of data analysis

3.10           Decision rule

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

 

  • Brief introduction

4.2 Analysis of Questionnaire Administered

4.3             Analysis of Questionnaire According to Research Question

4.4 Test of Research Hypothesis

4.5 Interpretation of findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Brief introduction

5.2       Summary of findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

References

Appendix I

Appendix II

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background of The Study

 

Staff training is the formal learning and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. It makes investing in people to enable them to make the best used of their natural abilities. It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of employees for doing am particular job.

Staff training is the process of increasing the skill and abilities of operative. Gupta (2006) defined staff training as the process of refining and increasing the skill and abilities of an individual toward the best performance of a particular job in which training is imparted. Agulana (2008) said training and development programmes are systematic and formal effort to assist employees learn new skills, improve their current skills and to facilitate their ability to perform in the organization. Since it is a well known fact that Job’ organization and people changes as time goes on perhaps in response should be mounted to keep employee in shape to perform effectively and efficiently

Staff training is “job oriented”, that is, it enable an operative to perform a specific job in which training is imparted in a better manner. Bankole (2011) described it as a short term systematic process through which an employee acquires technical knowledge, skills and attitude required to perform a specific task or job adeq uately. In essence, every training programme must necessarily effect new knowledge to enhance skill and be able to change attitude. Therefore, it is obvious that the objective of staff training is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained with regard to the job or work situation. Hall (2012) defined staff training as a planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job related knowledge and skill by its employees to improve employee performance and further organizational goals.

Staff training is effected especially through on “The job method” Mathis (2013) sees staff training as learning process where people acquire skill, concept, attitude or knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals. The designing of an idea or near ideal organizational structures and the formulation of volumes of policies and procedures by themselves cannot implement any organizational strategy, there is need to recruit, select, train and develop the personnel which will be charge with the responsibility of implementing the strategy, for the successful implementation of strategy, a trained dedicated and committed staff are required at all levels, the staff can make or mar the effective implementation of a choice strategy.

staff training emphasize on “increase technical skill of operative Ejifore (2008) analyze the Importance of staff function as the probability of the success of an organization which implies that no organization will ever succeed except the importance of staff function is highly furnish and embrace by managers in an organization. Nevertheless, staff function is that part of management which is concerned with people at work and their relationship within an organization. It is also regard for the well-being of and individual and of working groups to enable them the best contributions to the organization’s success. personnel department and can provide practical assistance in dealing with staff matters such as recruitment, selection, short listing of potential recruits, updating of a personnel, man-power planning Employees discipline, performance evaluation training and development.

This analysis was further underscored by a well known management theorist linker, of all the task of management, managing human component in the central almost important task because all other component depend on has well it office plant, computers and automated equipment. These components cannot be productive except human effort and direction is applied. Staff training is that enterprise function which is especially concerned with the management of human components in organization. And because of this human components pervade the entire organization which follows that performance of staff function or at least an important part of it revolve on all individual dud managers who in one or the other have responsibility for the training of one more subordinate in the organization.

The purpose of any organization in profit maximization, increase in productivity as well as image protection through effective management of personnel and material resources. And since the knowledge and skills possessed by an individual employee in determine his or her job performance, it is therefore important for managers to understand that workers should be trained from time to time in order to increase their performance  and to enable the organization achieve its set goals effectively and efficiently.

 

1.2       Statement Of The Problem

            It is obvious that no organization can grow without workers and workers themselves cannot be productive if they are not adequately train to work.

  • Problem of addressing training need: if the training need of a particular department in a organization in not properly addressed, thus it poses a problem in such organization.
  • Problem of formulating training policies and that of evaluation of the resources both financially and materially: it is the organization policies to conduct or undertake provide appropriate forms to five people for their work within the organization.
  • Problem of pervading necessary specialist training officers: officers who will be responsible for the implementation of both training policy and effective management and co-ordination which will enhance efficiency. And if this is not done, it leaded to low performance of staff which will definitely result to low productivity.

 

1.3       Objective Of The Study

The basic objectives of this study are as follow:

  • To examine whether the organization has made any conscious effort toward workers training programme and to what extend it has succeeded and failed.
  • To ascertain through careful study whether workers training policy has been effected political, social and economical consideration.
  • To examine whether organizations training programmes are effectively implemented.
  • To ascertain the administration of personnel function and to pay attention to those factors that affect worker productivity in an organization.
  • To make useful suggestions on ways of increasing workers’ performance based on training to achieve the organizational goals.

 

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions may arise in connection with the personnel training on the organizational goals.

  • Does your organization embark on personnel training and development?
  • Would you say that training and development of workers help to increase workers and organization’s productivity?
  • Does the training program of the organization identity the task of job requirement of a particular job?
  • Is training of staff one of the most motivating factors for job satisfaction and productivity?
  • Does your organization adopt both internal and external training method to train their workers?

 

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a testable, tentative and probable explanation of the relationship between two o ore variable that creates a state of affairs or phenomenon. It cans assumption whose validity, is to be established. Hypothesis could be divided into two namely: the

  1. Null hypothesis (Ho)
  2. Alternative hypothesis (Hi)

Null hypothesis states that no difference or no relationship exist between the variables.

Alternative hypothesis is the proposition that may be accepted if the statistical null hypothesis is rejected by the same evidence. It specifies the condition which will hold if the null hypothesis does not hold.

In other to obtain the purpose of this study, the researcher formulates the following hypothesis using Null (Ho) and alternative hypothesis (Hi)

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THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BREWERIES, UYO)

THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BREWERIES, UYO)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter one: Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Question

1.5 Significance  of the study

1.6 Delimitation

1.7 Limitation

1.8 The Definition of Terms

 

Chapter two – Review of Related Literature

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Communication flows in an organization

2.3 Form of Communication

2.4 Components of Communication Process

2.5 Communication methods

2.6 Theoretical  Framework

 

Chapter Three – Research  Methodology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Area of the study

3.4 Population of the Study

3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.7 Method of Data Collection

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

 

Chapter Four – Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation     

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Presentation  of Data

4.3 Discussion of Finding

Chapter Five –  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION

1.1     The Background of the Study

Ineffective communication detrimental is to managers and workers in organizations because it enables them not to perform their basic functions of management; planning, organizing, leading and controlling Elashmawi and Harris, (2000). Effective communication also helps workers and managers to perform their organizational goals and responsibilities. It serves as a function for planning Gamble and Gamble (2002). Essential information must be communicated to the workers and managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizers also require effective communication about their organizational task. Similarly leaders must communicate effectively with their subordinates to achieve the team goals and controlling is not possible without written and oral communication Harris, (2002).

Ineffective communication according to May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K., (2004) can be defined simply as the process where the message are not properly sent and therefore not properly acted upon as intended by the sender. Managers do not devote a great part of their time to communicate; they do not spend great time on face- to – face, telephonic and written communication with their superior, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers do not promote the use of written communication form of letters, report or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

Thus, we can say that “ineffective communication destroys the  building block of successful organizations” May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K. (2005), in other words ineffective communication acts as organizational performance barriers.

When communication is not effective, the end result is an increase in production time and a decrease in the bottom line. In order to avoid this outcome, effective communication must be in place (Joey, 2005). Consequently communication can be defined as the “exchange of information between the sender and a receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between individuals involved “(Bowditch et al, 2006). Analysis of this exchange reveals that communication is a two way process consisting of consecutively linked elements.

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THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Cover page

Certification

Dedication

Declaration

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                   

  • Background of the study

1.2 Statement of problems

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Research hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Limitations of the study

1.8 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.3 General Effects of a Working Environment

2.4 Factors that influence employee’s productivity in a   working environment

2.5 Good relations increase employee’s productivity in a workplace

2.6 The benefit of positive working environment

2.7 Safety working environment and employees Productivity

2.8 Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief introduction

3.2 Research design

3.3 Area of study

3.4 Population of the study

3.5 Sample and sampling technique

3.6 Method of data collection

3.7 Description of instrument for data collection

3.8 Method of data analysis

3.10 Decision rule

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

  • Brief introduction

4.2 Analysis of Questionnaire Administered

4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.4 Test of hypothesis

4.5 Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Brief introduction

5.2 Summary of the Study

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The organizations today consider employees as their top most priority. A lot of effort is put in order to attain, retain and motivate them. The traditional role is an employee is no more effective and the organizations are finding new ways of working.      The key to organizational success is the competitive workforce. The organizations strive hard to align organizational strategies and objectives with employee’s behaviours in order to stay competitive. The way in which employee accomplish organizationally set goals and relate their interpersonal behaviours to the organizational norms can be termed as employee productivity.

Factors of workplace environment play an important role towards the employee’s productivity. The factors of workplace environment give an immense impact to the employee’s productivity either towards the negative outcomes or the positive outcomes (Chandrasekar, 2001). Over the last decades, the factors of work environment of the office workers had changed due to the changes in several factors such as the social environment, information technology and the flexible ways of organizing work processes (Hasun and Maklibug, 2005).

A lot of past research has been devoted towards the concept of employee productivity. Employee productivity was found to be related to a number of factors including conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and emotional stability. Environment literally means surroundings and all those things that impact human being during the life time are collectively known as environment. A working environment is the environment where people work together for achieving organization objectives. It means, systems, processes, structures and tools and all those things which interact with employees and affect in positive or negative ways on employees productivity. It can also be defined as the location where a task is completed. When studying place of employment, the work environment involves the physical geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace such as a construction size or office buildings.

According to boles et al (2004), which the employee’s are physically and emotionally have the desire to work. Then their productivity outcomes shall be increased. Moreover, they also stated that by having a proper workplace environment. It helps in reducing the number of absenteeism and thus can increase the employees productivity which will leads to the increasing number of productivity at the workplace. Referring to this matter, research need to be done in order to identify the main contributor to the employees productivity and investigate on how the workplace environment in term of the job aid, supervisor support or relationship and physical work environment affect employees productivity at the workplace.

The concepts of “workplace productivity” means the factors of workplace that is being provided by the employers to their employees that could support the employees productivity at work (Clements-Croome, 2006). By having a high level productivity of employees, it will increase the company’s profit.

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THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN AKWA IBOM STATE

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN AKWA IBOM STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                                    

Cover Page

Title Page

Certificate

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –

1.2 Statement of the Problem –           –           –           –           –           –

1.3 Objectives of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –

1.4 Research Questions           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

1.5 Research Hypothesis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –

1.6 Significance of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –

1.7 Scope of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

1.8 Limitation of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –

1.9 Definition of Terms and Acronyms          –           –           –           –

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

2.2 Meaning of Small Scale Business             –           –           –           –

2.3 Characteristic of Small Scale Business     –           –           –

2.4 Stating problem and Failure Signs of Small

Scale Business       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

2.5 Budget-Objectives and Benefit    –           –           –           –           –

2.6 Basic Accounting Problems of Small Scale Business       –

2.7 Records Keeping and the Law                 –           –           –           –

2.8 Accounting Books Needed By Small Scale Business      –

2.9 Interpretation of Account –           –           –           –           –           –

2.10 Analysis of Financial Statement             –           –           –           –

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCHER DESIGN

3.1 Introduction                      –           –           –           –           –           –           –

3.2 Area of Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

3.3 Population of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –

3.4 Sample Determination and Sampling Techniques –

3.5 Method of Data Collection           –           –           –           –           –           –

3.6 Source of Data      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

3.7 Data Presentation and Analysis    –           –           –           –           –

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

4.2 Data Analysis and Result –           –           –           –           –           –

4.3 Test of Hypothesis            –           –           –           –           –           –           –

4.4 Discussion of Findings     —          –                       –           –           –

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

5.2 Summary   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

5.3 Conclusion            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –

5.4 Recommendation –           –           –           –           –           –           –

Reference

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background of the study

There is no body that strikes for self-actualization where there is no need for it; it has been applied to business. A small scale business is a privately owned and operated business, characterized by a small number of employees. Small scale businesses are the back bone of our economy creating jobs and adding new and innovative product to the market.

The future reliefs on the small scale business operator or promoters in the economic development of the nation. This can be enhanced by complying with the accounting standard set to guide business operations, other wise know as General Accepted Accounting principle (GAAP). GAAP refers to the standard frame work of guideline for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. These include the standards, convention and rules that accountant follows in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statement. Many countries use or are conveying on the international financial reporting standard (IFRS). It was established and is maintained by the international accounting standard board. IFRS are designed as a common global language for business affairs so that companies are understandable and comparable across international boundaries in some countries, local accounting principle are applied for regular companies but listed or large companies much conform to IFRS, so statutory reporting is comparable internationally across jurisdictions.

However, in the development of small scale business, adherence to accounting standard would go a long way. Therefore this research is carried out mainly tog mark small scale business be ware of ways of resolving their business accounting problem which liquidate their business or financial transaction.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As institution, firm and government have certain specified rules and regulations governing them, so do business have rules that guide or give standard to which transactions are recorded, summarized and prepared for financial statement in a given jurisdiction. These set of guideline in accounting is known as accounting standard, otherwise referred to as general accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

The cause of these problems such as the issue of misapplication of accounting policies, electrical mistake in accounting date, omission of transactions, records or document, is what has prompted the researcher to carryout a study on it which will spread venture result in preferring suggestion that will lead to solution to them with reference to Usman Table Water Company, Mbak Itam.

Most business does not abide by these rules especially the small scale business, which has led to their down fall (or folding up), large scale business also have begun to fold up as a result of not adhering to these standards. If they are not folded up completely, they resort tog small scale business. Now the question arise “if they were unable to follow the accounting standard when large how much more then will they be able to follow these standard while small in nature”.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING ON PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING ON PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE WATER BOARD COMPANY, UYO)

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The impact of employee training on performance and productivity is the ability to perform and to give task effectively and translate same relative progress in the productivity level of Akwa Ibom State Water Board Company, depend solely on the level of experience and technological know-how which the employee has achieved in the course of doing such job. However there is a performance gap between a trained employee and the untrained employee.

The concept of employee training as put forward by Essien Obot in 1991 to describe the exposure of employees to program, skills, knowledge and techniques aimed at making the performance.

It also involves the exposure of employee’s perspective and effectiveness in the use of tools and equipment for enhanced productivity.

In any production, Akwa Ibom Water Board Company cannot give out its goods and services. In the first instance, efficient manpower to correct this abnormalities translate to the fact that certain technical, financial, managerial and marketing problems affecting most industrial organizations can best be solved through employee training and development.

In other words, every industrial organization needs, efficient and brilliant workers who can perform their jobs on the level established by standard set by its departments, including the organization itself, the industry and the organization in general else, where there is a gap between actual performance and established performance, productivity suffers. The caused effect or the impact of a dwindling productivity I the organization is determined to decrease in profit which may eventually lead to the closure of the organization if the gaps are not corrected.

Employee training has direct positive impact on the performance and water productivity in the organization. Employee training strives to solve certain managerial problems. These includes: early retirement, structural unemployment, under employment problem of retrenchural dismissals, redundancy and lay-losses and lay-offs. These problems culminate in enormous losses and conflicts in the organization as a result for management to forestall on coming crises in industrial relations or to remove bottle-neck problems in production sales and marketing can be improved through employee training or manpower development in the organization.

 

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Employee training is the process of transferring technical knowledge skills to workers in an organization which is capable of developing manpower and improving productivity. Through such special program, workers are prepared to meet challenging situations similar to their job although most organizations see it as a waste of fund and organizational resources.

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