PRODUCTION OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS (LAUNDRY SOAP) IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

PRODUCTION OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS (LAUNDRY SOAP) IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

ABSTRACT

In this project work, the researcher analyzed the properties of surface-active agents (laundry soap) to be an excellent cleanser because of its ability to remove stains from surfaces.

The researcher work was based mainly on Internet print out, textbooks and experimentation.

Experiment was carried out using some raw materials to produce this surface-active agent (laundry soap) of which the result formed the basis of this study and determined the conclusion, which in turn informed the recommendations.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1         Background to the study

1.2         Statement of problems

1.3         Purpose of the study

1.4         Significance of the study

1.5         Scope of the study

1.6         Research hypothesis

1.7         Limitations to the study

1.8         Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1         The history of soap production

2.2         How does soap clean

2.3         The chemistry of soap production

2.4         Detergency

2.5         Effect of detergent and soap on hard water

2.6         Mechanism of detergency

2.7         Industrial manufacture of soap

2.8         Manufacture of detergents

2.9         Industrial and domestic use of soaps and detergents

CHAPTER THREE

Experimental procedure

3.1         Materials needed for laundry soap

3.2         Measurements and concentrations of needed materials for laundry soap production

3.3         Equipments needed

3.4         Experimental method of laundry soap production

3.5         Testing of the soap.

CHAPTER FOUR

Discussion of results

4.1         General precaution

4.2         Nature of raw materials

4.3         The hardening process

4.4         Possibilities of large scales production

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1         Summary

5.2         Conclusion

5.3         Recommendations

5.4         Suggestions for further research

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Soap is a universal surface-active agent and is use in many household and industries. There are many types of soap based on the method of production and the materials used. Soap can be prepared in a small scale or large scale.  The small-scale process can be done either at home or laboratory following the scientific and technical process. The making of soap can be quite interesting if done with knowledge and adequate skills, which a student in a higher institution of learning should be able to accomplish.

Early attempts at soap production relied on ash production by burning various vegetable materials, as a makeshift source of alkali. For example, in Spain, the plant salsola was burned to produce an alkaline ash called barilla, this used in conjunction with locally available olive oil, offered a good quality soap which by salting-out or “graining” boiled liquor with brine allowed the soap to float to the surface leaving lye, vegetable coloring and impurities to settle out. This produced what was probably the first white hard soap.

1.2         STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The following statements of problems are hereby formulated to assist in this research work of surface-active agents production.

1.            What raw materials are required to produce high quality laundry soap?

2.            What are the steps to follow in producing the laundry soap

3.            How can the soap produced be tested

4.            How durable is the soap produced.

1.3         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this research work is to produce high quality laundry soap that can be used at home by family members. The soap produce should have no unpleasant effect on skin; instead it should have a pleasant odour and scent with suiting cosmetic effect on the skin when used for washing. Soap produce under laboratory condition with the masses of the materials adequately ascertained.

1.4         SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The research work is significant for the following reasons:

1.            It will help to inculcate laboratory skills and techniques on the researcher, which can later help in the real work.

2.            Since chemistry is an experimental discipline, it means the science students should carryout research based on laboratory method.

1.5         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to laboratory scale process, which is far better than local method. However, it does not make use of industrial scale since it is not an industrial research.

1.6         RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis were formulated to assist the production of laundry soap:

1.            The raw materials required to produce high quality laundry soap are palm kernel oil, (P. K. oil), caustic soda, Colourant/Deystuff, perfumes and sodium silicate.

2.            The steps to follow in the production of high quality laundry soap or any other surface active agents is to ensure accurate measurement of the raw materials and that non of the steps should be ignored.

3.            The soap produced can be tested by shaking it in water to check if it lathers. Equally, it can be tested by using it to wash the hands to ensure that it does not cause irritation to the skin when been used for washing.

4.            The soap produced can last over duration of three months.

1.7         DEFINITION OF TERMS

DETERGENTS: These are soap-like emulsifier that contains a sulfonate-SO3-, sufate SO3-, or phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group-used for removing soil from clothes, dishes and other materials.

EMULSIFYING AGENT/EMULSIFIER: This is a substance that coats the particles of a dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles.

HARD WATER: A water containing Fe3+ Iron (III) ion, magnesium ions (Mg2+) which forms precipitate with soap.

SOAP: This is an excellent cleanser that can suspend oil and dirt in such a way that it can be carried away with water. It can equally be defined as a universal surface active agent that removes dirt’s from surfaces like skin, clothes etc. which is used in many household and industries.

SURFACE SURFACTANT/SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENT: This is a substance which when present at a low concentration in a system has the property of adsorbing onto the surfaces or interface of the system, thereby altering the surface or inter-facial free energies of the surfaces (or interfaces) e.g. soap, detergents, motor oils etc.

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PRODUCTION OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS (LAUNDRY SOAP) IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: OPPORTUNITIES AND PERILS

NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: OPPORTUNITIES AND PERILS

INTRODUCTION

Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas and information and the building of virtual networks and communities. By design, social media is internet based and offers users easy electronic communication of personal information and other content, such as videos and photos. Users engage with social media via computer, tablet or smartphone via web-based software or web application, often utilizing it for messaging.

Social media originated as a tool that people used to interact with friends and family but was later adopted by businesses that wanted to take advantage of a popular new communication method to reach out to customers. The power of social media is the ability to connect and share information with anyone on Earth (or multitudes of people) as long as they also use social media.

In the past few years, social media have shown a rapid growth of user counts and have been object of scientific analysis (Wigand et al. 2010; McAfee2006). For example, more than 800 million people worldwide are members of the Facebook network (Facebook 2011) while Twitter counts more than 200 million accounts in total (HuffPost Tech 2011). This mainstream adoption of social media applications has changed the physics of information diffusion. Until a few years ago, the major barrier for someone who wanted a piece of information to spread through a community was the cost of the technical infrastructure required to reach a large number of people. Today, with widespread access to the Internet, this bottleneck has largely been removed. In this context, personal publishing modalities such as social network sites (SNS), microblogging, and weblogs have become prevalent (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). The process by which people locate, organize, and coordinate groups of individuals with similar interests, the number and nature of information and news sources available, and the ability to solicit and share opinions and ideas across various topics have all undergone dramatic change with the rise of social media.

 NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA

The social media, a platform for social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks has radically altered the way we live and interact. Anchored on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content, it is indeed revolutionary. However, the issue with social media is that most people do not know how and where to draw the line.

It is not only about personal conducts; the social media is also changing the dynamics of politics and governance. With its overwhelming ability to connect the world through personalised devices, the social media has changed the way we see and understand the character of individuals and leaders. All over the world, individuals, leaders and their associates now maintain social media accounts, bypassing the orthodoxy of the traditional media and its commendable gatekeeping role.

Who could ever imagine that a time would come that the president of the US would take to Twitter to directly comment on live TV shows and ratings, insult journalists using crude language, or insult women by saying blood is oozing out from their wherever? Even dictators who do not pretend they have regard for their people, such direct attacks are incomprehensible.

When the fax machine came on stream in the mid-70s, it was hailed as the latest in a long line of “technologies of freedom” which, by making point-to-point and group-to-group communication through word and image feasible and affordable, has dealt the censor a severe blow on the way to ending his or her creepy occupation.

Nigerian politics in the age of social media by the renowned indian journalist shaili chopra is an attempt to throw light on the increasing use of social media platforms to discuss politics. According to the author, political parties are utilising social media like facebook and twitter to promote their ideologies. Through the big connect: politics in the age of social media, she points out that election campaigns and propaganda have now been shifted to cyberspace. By listing out various facts and figures, she says that while such campaigns cannot be directly translated into a vote, the influence of social media cannot be denied. The book is a result of the author’s extensive research on the latest social media trends and patterns. Shaili has also ensured that the book targets the youth of the country, who forms the major proportion of social media users. The book can be regarded as an unbiased account and analysis, of the influence of social networking in indian politics. The comparative study of obama’s election campaign of 2008 and 2012 has also been included in the book, making it an authentic account to explain the affiliation between social media and politics. The book was published in 2014 by random house india, and is available as paperback. Key features: the book was widely discussed by both media and public alike, hugely owing to its impartial analytical pattern. A large number of facts and figures are also included in the book to prove the author’s point.

The power of information technology was again splendidly displayed this past week as millions in some 800 locations across the world marched in solidarity with American students spearheading  protests against the gun violence that has turned their schools and streets and other social spaces into killing fields.

The center-left Democratic Party took just 18.7 percent of the vote and its leader, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, is set to quit.  In the age of television, the three-term former prime minister and one-time media mogul Silvio Berlusconi, who resembles Donald Trump in so many ways, was the politician to beat.  He still owns several influential television channels but with the Internet ascendant, his centre-right Forza Italia limped through the race with just 14 percent of the vote.

The League and Five Star Movement have the numbers to govern, but they will not find it easy to put together a government.  Months of horse trading lie ahead.  Even for Italy the near future will be nothing familiar.

There was little scrutiny of political advertising in newspapers and on television. The content was reckless, inaccurate and irresponsible. In terms of the advertising, it was easy to know which side the media were on, whether for the ruling party or the opposition. Ordinarily that should not be the case. They should be objective. In that regard, the media came short of performing professionally.

In terms of comprehensive coverage, I think the media did well. They covered the campaigns, the issues, the personalities. They did a good job.

But I think this election was decided, dominated and directed by social media. The power of social media came out for this country. Social media played a central role as a watchdog in keeping the integrity of the process. Within minutes of votes being counted at a polling unit, the results were all over social media. Ordinary people with Excel sheets were doing tallies. At the end of the day when it was announced officially, the results matched. So social media were central because of the immediacy, because it was in the hands of so many citizens who were involved, who were interested. In a way, social media seized the day from the legacy media. You had almost everyone depending on social media for the breaking news. Social media came alive for us this time.

However, given today’s shifting alliances and the insurgent new formations, growing public disenchantment with the existing political order and the likely deployment of information technology on a wide scale but with scant inhibition in the forthcoming general elections, is it entirely inconceivable that the outcome may bear some resemblance to recent election outcomes in the United States and Italy.

 OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA

Politics is all about connecting to the people, building rapport and painting a mental image of a utopia future, where present problems no longer exist. It is a mind game, where the goal of an effective campaign is to influence people’s perception and consequently their electoral decisions.

The election campaign therefore uses social marketing skills, where the social media today plays a vital role.

During the 2015 elections, the social media served as a timely watchdog of election results to a significant degree. They closely monitored not only what was happening and when it was happening for greater efficiency and intervention when need be; they reported results as soon as INEC confirms them. Even the Independent Electoral Commission, INEC, used social media. In that manner, and because people were naturally attuned to results, tweets and re tweets of election results went viral

Meanwhile, following the recently concluded general elections in Nigeria, it appears clearly that media have contributed in creating awareness politically among the citizens of the country within and in Diaspora. Most importantly the social media and to be more specific, the Facebook has played great role. In order to be most specific, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Radio service is chosen for the study in order to explore and examine the extent to which Facebook impacts on the political behaviour of people. The reason for choosing radio may not be unconnected to the nature of the medium in terms of immediacy, how its metamorphosis manifests on messages using other media platforms and the nature of vast population in the chosen country as they do listen more than they read.

Baran & Davis, (2000) attempt to make understanding of the media theories easier considering the cost of understating the media and their messages especially within the revolution of technology. Baran & Davis, further argue that the media have impacts, positing that scholars can consider how the media industries came up from the historical perspective, and use current developments, so that they can interpret what obtains at the moment.’

          Carey (1989: 87 cited in Meikle 2009:170) argues that reality in the present world is only determined by simple push of buttons through variety of ways that include, speech, listening, writing, reading and viewing. Furthermore, Carey, in Meikle opines that if one only receives messages without participation, he/she is a mere “passive recipient.”

The era of media effects has come and gone, however, the ‘remediation’ or rather metamorphosis of the media still exert great impacts on social, cultural and political spheres in society. Baran, & Davis, (2000) in their work, explore media theories based on their phases with an attempt to distinguish between scholars’ views in the past and the present time. However, history is important as it keeps its followers abreast of past occurrence which enables better understand of what is obtainable for prediction of what is likely to happen in the future. It is based on this view that it is deemed expedient to relate any media study to the past in attempting to build a plunging stone or a peephole that serves as panorama of viewing the future of the media.

Despite the fact that there is huge debate on ‘digital divide’ among countries of the world; the most vulnerable being the so-called ‘Third world’ countries, there are still advances in the widespread of the internet development in such nations. In addition, Nigeria is a country that is considered as the largest, which is why it is nick-named as ‘Giant of Africa.’ Nigeria therefore, is doing well in terms of media including the social media since their debut. Therefore, like the conventional media, the social media are also used to achieve so many objectives, socially, culturally, and politically. Recently, Nigeria held its general elections which normally usher in new leadership in the three tiers of the government in the country. A part from the other sources of information, like the newspapers, magazines, radio and television, the internet was used as one of the viable media that are interactive in nature.

PERILS ON NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA 

The Power of Confirmation Bias

One of the hidden forces that operates on social media is confirmation bias. This is especially powerful when it comes to controversial topics, including politics. If you’re like most people, the majority of your friends and followers on social media probably share your outlook. This means that the vast majority of tweets, Facebook posts, pins or other content you read on these sites tend to express the same point of view, one that you already hold.

Rumors, Fake News and Conspiracies

Political campaigns are now influenced by every story, whether true or not, that gets spread around social media. It’s getting more and more difficult to separate actual news from fake news online. Social media makes this distinction especially confusing. The constant stream of memes, links and rumors about political leaders and candidates is a mixture of truth, lies, satire and speculation.

Social Media and the Future of Politics

Because social media is relatively new, we’re just starting to see its impact on society. There are sure to be many political changes that come about due to social media. There are now proposals for internet voting, which could lead to more people participating in elections.

 

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 NIGERIAN POLITICS IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: OPPORTUNITIES AND PERILS

 

DRYING OF CALCIUM SULPHATE SLURRY

DRYING OF CALCIUM SULPHATE SLURRY

ABSTRACT

Drying is a unit operation that is employed to calcium sulphate slurries in order to remove or reduce the content of the liquid to an acceptable low value. The liquid content of a dried calcium sulphate varies from product to product.

The experiment was carried out in the ceramic laboratory where the same quantity of plaster of paris (P.O.P) where measured out and mix thoroughly with specific amount of water. It was stirred continuously so as to form a shry. We prepared seven different samples but of the same quantity of plastic of paris (P.O.P) and water and then, was place inside a dryer )Oven) in which the samples derived with different time because of the different in temperatures.

The material was weighed before drying and after drying which helped us to know the constant rate period. W e make sure all the samples reaches the constant rate period.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER THREE

ANALYSIS / PROCEDURE
CHAPTER FOUR

DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION
APPENDIX

REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Calcium sulphate hemi hydrate as it is called has a chemical formula (CaS04 ½ H2O). Calcuim sulphate is made from mineral gypsum with chemical formula (CaSO4 2H2O)

The material gypsum is of fairly widely occurrence almost pure and wide various impurities which colour it and modify the properties of the plasters of paris (POP) made from it

DIFFERENCES IN CHEMICAL FORMULA

The slight difference in chemical formula of the mineral gypsum and plaster of paris (P.O.P) is half molecule of water crystallization thus. Crypsum caso42H20 M.W 172. 18 Calcium sulphate 79.1% H2O 20. 19% Plaster of paris (POP) Caso4 ½ H2O M.W 154. 16 CaSoO4 93.8% H2O 6.2% Anhydrous caso4 M.W 136.15 Calcium sulphate (Caso4) 100% Successful production of calcium sulphate from gypsum is complicated by the number of possible dehydration product.

TYPES OF HEMIHYDRATES

Theme are two hemihydrates & and B. the & form markes much stronger and generally more satisfactory plaster and is therefore the desired dehydration product.

TYPES OF ANHYDROUS CALCUIM SULPHATE

There are also four types of anhydrous calcium sulphate obtained by stronger heating of gypsum.

The & hemihydrate forms by recrystallization of gypsum from water above 1150C (239of) it’s formation is therefore favoured by heating gypsum in a sufficiently damp atmosphere for there to be a thin absorbed water layer on the particle B – hemihydrat is formed when gypsum is heated rapidly in dry atmosphere above 1000C (2120f), On heating ground gypsum the temperature rises until 120‑C (2620f) when violent boiling occurs. The temperature does not rise again until this has ceased and the plaster enters the first settle, on further heating a second sharter period of boiting begins at 1630C (32.0f) after which plaster enters the “second settle”.

On continued further heating the hemihydrate begins to decompose, giving off water and being converted into the anhydrous salt at 800 – 10000C (1470-18300f) the dead Bioned gypsum or keene’s cement is attained.

First settle plaster is more plastic and easier to work than second settle material. The later, however gives a denser and stronger set.

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DRYING OF CALCIUM SULPHATE SLURRY

ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM YAM PEELS

ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM YAM PEELS

ABSTRACT

This research was set out to investigate the microbiological and physiochemical parameters of yam peels, these were carried out using standard methods and the result obtained showed that the total bacteria counts of the fresh yam peels was 3.52x105efuml on day 0 of analysis. Further analysis in subsequent days during fermentation revealed a gradual increase in the colony forming units of bacteria to 5.93105efuml on day 3. For the microbial counts of fungi present in the yam peels there was an increase from day 0 to day 1 but decrease in day 2 and further decreased in day 3. The PH of the fresh yam peels was 5.3 on the first day of the analysis which showed a gradual reduction throughout the period of analysis and ethanol yield was oml/100g sample on the first day of analysis, this increased to 6.32ml/100g sample on day 3 of analysis. The standard sugar was prepared using a lmg/ml solution of the commercially available reducing sugar in the sample in distilled water. The concentration of the sugar present in the sample was calculated from the intercept of a graph of absorption of 500NM versus weight of sugar. 50ml of the yam peel was mixed with 20ml of orthophosphoric acid. The mixture was stirred, stopped and left overnight at room temperature to set free all bounded hydrocyanic acid. This was done from day 0, day 1, day 2, and day 3 yam peel sample respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter one – introduction

Background of the study

Statement of problem

Purpose of study

Significance of the study

Scope of study

Limitation

Definition of terms

Chapter two

Review Of Related Literature

Chapter three

Research Design

Source of Sample/Method of Data Collection

Storage/Experimental Design

Method of Data Analysis

Physiochemical Parameter

Chapter four

Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of result

Chapter five

Discussion of findings

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The world is becoming more complex and more waste are generated everyday due to the increasing population without making adequate preparation for means of proper disposal thereby constituting nuisance to the environment liens the need to convert some of these waste (yam peel) to useful product (ethanol). Yam are grown in limited areas of the tropics, particularly in the humid parts of West Africa and the Caribbean. The plant requires good well drained soil and ample and well distributed rainfall. They are labour intensive; require not only starting to support their vines, all of this increase the stock production. They can produce as much as (90) tones, but yam are highly prized food and current production fall short of demand, it is unlikely that they will ever compete with yamfor fuel alcohol purpose, yam is a fermentable starch per hectare. They require better soil and water, but have a wide range of latitude and attitude and being a prostrate plant can withstand widely condition. Yam peel conking a high proportion of starch, and it is possible to obtain relatively high yield of 40-50 tons per hectare without expensive fertilizer or supplementary irrigation on soil. Soil unsuitable for growing more demanding crop.

Although production level under traditional farming system are around 10 tons per hectare research, into improved varieties and cultural practices has shown that annual yields of 80-100 tons are theoretically possible. The plant is resistant to pest and can be store in the ground for several months after maturity until it is needed, once harvested the storage life of the peel which is not a storage organ or dormancy is limited, and in many countries it is processed for storage by clipping or flaking and drying large amount of dried yams are exported to Europe from Thailand and other countries as a source of carbohydrate for animal feed. These characteristics makes it an excellent small holder crop and one of the most promising sources of starch for alcohol fuel. Also, the foliage can be used for animal feed (and human food in some culture).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problems associated with this study includes;

Are there clean ethanol (bio-ethanol) that do not have polluting effect on the environment in Nigeria.
Ethanol produce from petroleum (fossil fuel) do have negative effect on the environment.
Are there sufficient yams of farmers to cultivate and supply yam for the production of ethanol.
Most people are afraid that utilizing yam peels for the production of ethanol will lead to food shortage since people also utilize yam as flour.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to produce ethanol from yam peel (yam waste).

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this project, it will enlighten the people about the usefulness of yam peel (yam waste). This information will assist the people about more waste that are generated every day due to the increase population without making adequate preparation for means of proper disposal thereby constituting nuisance to the environment liens the need to convert some of these waste (yam peel) to useful product (ethanol).

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To deal with the production of ethanol from yam peel certain question where asked these include;

How can ethanol be produced from yam peel (yam waste)
Will the ethanol produced from yam peel be of reasonable quantity?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY (DELIMITATION)
The study will focus its attention on the use of yam peel (yam waste) to produce ethanol since yam peels are easily obtained from all waste dumps in Benin from the dump since they are of no use to the people that dump them there.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
The meaning of some terms used in the study is explained below;

Yam: The large root of a tropical plant that is cook as food, it is meant to eat.

Sufficient: To do something enough for a particular purpose.

Ethanol: The type of alcohol in alcoholic drinks are used as fuel or solvent.

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ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM YAM PEELS

NIGERIA FEDERALISM AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY 

NIGERIA FEDERALISM AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Federalism, according to K.C Wheare, is the method of dividing powers so that the central and regional governments are each, within a sphere, co-ordinate and independent. He said that the characteristics of this Federal Principle are the division of powers among levels of government, a written constitution showing this division of powers and co-ordinate not sub-ordinate supremacy of the two levels of government with respect to their functions (K.C Wheare, 1953: 10).The practice of federalism in Nigeria is one of the legacies the British colonial masters bequeathed to Nigeria. Local government is born out of federalism because federalism has to do with the division of power between the central and the component units local government is a component in a federal system, it is recognized as a third tier of government which is charged with the responsibility at the grass root. The local government performs certain functions assigned to it by the constitution and the local government is to be autonomous in its own to
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carry out all its responsibilities without interference from the central government. The local government should do precisely the word government in its own sphere. The evolution of local government in Nigeria has undergone a lot of changes and all these are geared towards making the local government a system that could serve the purpose for its creation. But specifically in 1976, under General Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime introduced the 1976 local government reform. The reform recognized the local government as the third tier of government in the Nation and it is expected to do precisely what the word local government implies that is, governing at the local level. The reforms also intend to stimulate democratic self government, encourage initiative and leadership potential and entrain the principle of this reform for the local government to be autonomous having the freedom to recruit and manage its own staff, raise and manage its own finances, make policies, laws and provide services within the limits of its resources and functions without interference, the local government system in Nigeria still have some constraints that have impeded it’s autonomy. (Okoli, 2005: 107). This research work puts in focus, Ofu local government area in
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Kogi state. It will investigate the autonomous nature of the local government area and see the level of services that has been delivered in the area. Ofu local government area of Kogi state was created out of Idah local Government Area In May, 1989 in the then Benue state by the Federal Military Administration of Nigeria led by General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida. It has nine districts. They are; Ugwolawo, Itobe, Igalaogba, Ojokogbe, Aloji, Ejule, Ogbonicha, Igo, Omache and Ofoke. The hand-quarter of the goo-political entity is Ugwolawo, the historical town that provides haven for the only Federal Government College in the Kogi Eastern Senatorial district. Graphically, the local government share boundaries with Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi state to the North while also sharing boundary with Ankpa local government to the south. Ofu local government equally shares boundary with Olamaboro local government area to the South East and also sharing boundary with Ajaokuta local government area to the west. The local government area occupies a landmass of almost 8,747.5 square kilometer and a perimeter of 252.5 kilometers. The 1991 census figure of National population commission puts the population of the
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people at 112,697. The people are predominantly Farmers. The Land is fertile for large scale production of crops like maize, beans, groundnuts, rice, cassava, melon, guinea corn, Barbara nuts and so on while mangoes, cashew, palm trees, cocoa e.t.c yield in abundance for commercialization. The place is equally endowed with mineral resources like caoline, lime, marble, galena, fieldpars e.t.c lie beneath the earth there in large quantity for exploration. As it is the characteristic that is always endemic of the countries of the Sub-Saharan Africa, cultural activities are of paramount importance to the people of Ofu. Their tourist delights include Uloko Amo Waterfalls at Ofokopi, Ugbakoji hills in Itobe, Egane Waterfalls, Ofakete Natural Bridge and Ala Natural funnel.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Local government Autonomy is meant the Freedom of the local government to recruit and manage its own staff, raise and manage its own Finances, make policies, laws and provide services within the limits of its resources and functions without interference. Before the 1976 Local Government Reform, Local Governments were under the direct tutelage of the state
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government which vested with the exclusive powers to make and unmake them. As a result, Local Governments were subjected to excessive controls by their respective state governments. These controls by their respective state governments were carried out through such mediums as approval of bye-laws and major contracts, appointment of certain categories of professional and administrative staff, approval of annual estimates and loan proposals and funding through grants-in-aid. These control measures posed negative consequences as they culminated into delays which in turn frustrated many important policies and programmes in the local government area. In addition, state governments created, modified, dissolved and suspended local government councils at will. The states had the power to abolish their local government system. In fact, local government existed at the mercy of the state.
The autonomy of local government in Africa countries such as Nigeria is more in theory than in practice. As Olowu (1988:71) succinctly puts it:
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Most government has opted for the direct control by central government of their local governments through a battery of legal, financial and administrative controls… So called “local government” units of central governments or worse still, exist as parallel institutions to the government’s field administration controlled by both the central and field units.
The heavy dependence of local governments in Nigeria for instance on statutory allocation from the Federal government whittles down the autonomy of the former. It puts local government at the mercy of the federal government. Furthermore, successive Nigerian governments (both federal and state) have interfered in the actual functioning of the local government. For instance, between 1984 and late 1987, local government councils were abolished and the administration of the affairs of the local government were placed entirely on the sole administrator. Again, in 1994, the elected local government council were disbanded by the military government of General Abacha and replaced with caretaker committees (Ezeani, 2004). Also the financial autonomy of local governments has on many occasions been tempered with by the state governments. This is currently the case in Nigeria
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were some state governments confisiticate federal allocations to the local government and give whatever amount they like to the chairman to run the local government. (Ezeani, 2004:86). Despite these for reaching measures as recommended by the 1976 local government reform thereby making it the bedrock of modern local government system in Nigeria, One can safely assert that the local government still has some constraints that have actually impeded its success. These in the view of Olugbemi (1986) can be summarized as;
– Continued jurisdiction of state government over the most important functions allocated to local government in the guidelines and as stipulated in the fourth schedule of 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
– Continued imposition of various central government, it controls the selection of councilors, in budgeting and budget control, in policy determination including the determination of fiscal policies, in personnel management etc which tend to diminish the value of government in local governments.
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Therefore, the study will seek to provide empirical and verifiable answers to these problems based on the following questions.
– Does Federalism guarantee local government autonomy?
– Is Nigeria local government system (Ofu Local Government) autonomous?
– Does the granting of full autonomy to the local government enhance its service delivery?
1.3 Objectives of the study
Every research work encapsulates and embodies diverse objectives to be achieved at the end of the research. Thus, the broad objective of this research work is to assess “the Nigerian Federalism and local government autonomy specifically Ofu local government area of Kogi state. Specifically however, the study attempts to:
– To ascertain if federalism guarantees local government autonomy.
– To investigate if Nigeria local government system (Ofu local government) is fully autonomous.
9
– To explain if full autonomy is given to Nigeria local government system (Ofu local government) will enhance its service delivery.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is divided into two viz: Theoretical and practical.
At the theoretical level, it will add to the frontier of knowledge of Nigerian Federalism and local government autonomy. This research will serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic. At the practical level, the study will help our policy makers and those in power to see the negative effect of lack of local government autonomy, and in a way make the leaders see reasons or how effective the government at the grass root (local government) will become if given full autonomy.
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1.5 Literature Review
As a topical area of study, a number of scholarly works had been done, especially on interpretations of variables related to this topic. The importance of reviewing relevant literature cannot be over emphasized. Fox (1969) and leady (1974) argued that if contemplated research is to contribute to the relevant discipline then the researcher must understand the discipline. They pointed out that the most directed way of doing this is to read the basic writing of other thinkers. As a style of organizing the review, this work adopts the thematic approach to organize the literature. By this, issues are reviewed based on similarity, conformity or ideas. The review is therefore done under three themes identified as variables under study. This is also to ensure proper organization and easier understanding for readers. The themes are; Federalism, local government and local government autonomy in Nigeria.

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NIGERIA FEDERALISM AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY 

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES

ABSTRACT

The research investigated the water extract and phytochemical screening of (pumpkin leaves). The plant leaves were collected dried grinded and extracted using water by a cold extraction (maceration) method. The filtrated was concentrated and their subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods. The result indicated the produce of sapannis, flavoncids, phenolic, glycosides and terpeniods while eugeuds and steroids were absent. The presence of these bioactive components especially phenolics and alkaloids suggest that the plant has rich medicinal constituents and is thus recommended to be included in man’s and medicinal formulations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Taxonomy/classification

1.2.1 English names and local names

1.2.2 Description

1.2.3 Cultivation

1.3 Medicinal importance

1.3 Nutritional benefits

1.3.1 Chemical constituents

1.3.2 Bioactive constituents

1.3.3 Alkaliods

1.3.4 Glyiosides

1.3.5 Flavanoids

1.4 Eugenols

1.4.1 Saponins

1.4.2 Phenolics

1.4.3 Tannins

1.4.4 Terpenes

1.4.5 Steroids

1.5 Extraction/types

1.6 Types of Telfairia Occidentalis

1.7 Aim

1.8 Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Plants sample

2.2 Equipments/apparatus

2.3 Reagents used

2.4 Collection of plants

2.5 Extract

2.6 Phytochemical screening

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Discussion and results

3.1 Percentage yield

3.2 Phytochemical screening results

3.3 Discussion

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Conclusion and recommendation

4.1 Conclusion

4.2 Recommendation

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Telfairia occidentalis is widely cultivated for its palatable and nutritious leaves. The leaves when prepared with other tropical vegetables have high value. Its protein content (21%) is higher than those of other commonly used leafy vegetables. The leaves are rich in vitamins and minerals such as Ca, p, fe etc. the seed is also eaten as food. The oil obtained from the seed is used in cooking. There are claims that the possesses some medicinal values.

Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds, common names for the pant include fluted gourd fluted pumpkin, and Ugu. T. occidentalis is a member of the curcarbitacee family and is indigenous to Southern Nigeria. The fluted gourd grows in many nations of West Africa, but is mainly cultivated in Nigeria, used primarily in soups and herbal medicines. Although the fruit is inedible, the seeds produced by the gourd are high protein and fat, and can therefore, contribute to a well-balanced diet. The plant is a drough-tolerant, dioecious perennial that is usually grown trellised.

T. occidentalis is traditionally used by an estimated 30-35 million people indigenous people in Nigeria, including the Efik, Ibibio and Urhobo; however, it was predominantly used by the Igbo tribe, who continue to cultivate the gourd for food sources and traditional medicines. A recurring subject in the Igbo folklore, the fluted gourde is noted to have healing properties and used as a blood tonic, to be administered to the weak or ill. It is endemic to southern Nigerian, and was an assest to international food trades of the Igbo tribe Akoroda. This study seeks to determine the phyto-chemical constituents present in the H20 and ethanol extract

1.1 TAXONOMY/CLASSIFICATION

Integrated Taxonomy Information system gave the taxomic hierarchy of Telfairia occidentalis as follows;

KINGDOM (Plantea-plantes, planta, vegetal, plants)

SUB KINGDOM (Viridae plantae-green plants),

INFRA KINGDOM (Streptophyta-land plants),

DIVISION (Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes),

SUB DIVISION (Spermatophytina- spermatophytes, seed plants, pharierogames)

INFRA DIVISION (Angrospermae-flowering plants, angiosperms, plantas com flor, angiosperma, plantes a fleurs, angiosperms, plantes a fruits)

CLASS (magnoliopsida)

SUPER ORDER (Rosanae)

ORDER (Cucurbitales)

FAMILY (cucurbitaceae-gourds, squashes, Citrovilles, gourdles)

GENUS (Telfairia Hook)

SPECIES (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook f-oysternur)

TAXONOMIC serial No: 505897

1.2 ENGLISH NAMES AND LOCAL NAMES

Telfairia Occidentalis is popularly known in different languages and countries as follows; fluteds pumpkins, oysternut, oil nut, fluted gourd and telfairia nut (English); Costillada (Spanish); Krobonko (Ghana); Oroko, Pondokoko and Gonugbe (Siera Leone); Ugwu (Igbo-Nigeria), Aworoko Eweroko (Yoruba-nigeria) and Ikong (Efik/Ibibio-Nigeria).

1.2.1 DESCRIPTION

Felfairia Occidentalis is a large perennial plant which climbs by means of bifid and tendrils which are usually coiled. The stems have five ridges often covered with multi-cellular hairs, especially when young. The leaves of the plant are compound, usually 3-5 foliate, with blades and petioles also covered with multicular hairs. The fruits are marked by 10 conspicuous longitudinal ridges and are among t6he largest known (16-50cm length, 9cm diameter). The seeds which are embedded with a brigh-yellow fibrous endocarp are large, non endospermic and usually red in colour.

1.2.2 CULTIVATION

T. occidentalis is typically grown vertically on trestle-like structures; however, it can be allowed to spread flat on a field, a beneficial outcome of growing the gourd flats is the suppression of weeds, especially when intercropped with a tall, upright plant such as maize. The growing period begins in April or May when seed are planted; the first leaves and shooks can be harvested after a month and can be collected every 2-4 weeks thereafter. Seed are planted directly in the soil, typically in groups of three to increase output in a case of a failed germination. Fruit is typically harvested between October and December. The seeds are subsequently collected and dried; a portion of them are consumed, while the reminders are stored for the following planting season. Although dependent upon soil type, the fluted gourd is able to ratoon and subsequently produce may flushes of fruits over long period. It is able to ratoon with the highest ndegree of success in well drained soil. It is propagated using the seeds, its seed is housed in another greater covering or hard shell which protects if from harm. It survives drought and retains its life in the root even after many years. It is a creeping plant and grows well if staked with bamboo sticks.

1.2.3 MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE

Telfairia Occidentalis is an important staple vegetable grown in Nigeria. The plant produces luxuriant edible green leaves, which are rich iron and vitamins sterms of the plants have branching, long twisting tencdrils. Recent studies have shown that Telfairia Occidentalis leaf is rich in minerals (such as iron, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium), antioxidants, vitamins (such as thiamic, riboflauin, nicotinamide and ascorbic acid, phytochemicals such as phenols. The leaves contain essential oils vitamins; the young leaves sliced and mixed with coconut water and salt are stored in a bottle and used for the treatment of convulsion in ettno medicine. The leaf extract is usedful in the management of cholestewlemia, liver problems and impaired defense immune-systems. The amino acid profile of T. occidentalis has been shown to be very rich and includes alanine, aspartate, leucine, arginne. Serine, threonine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine and isolenaine.

The following are some medicinal valves of T. occidentalis

It is used to lower diabetes and heart diseases risks such as hypertension.
It has great antioxidant capacities to help in restoring damaged cells and skins.
It helps to protects our heart and liver from harmful toxin and painkillers like Paracetamols.
It contain lots of phytonutrients which is tough to reduce the risks of beast and stomach cancers.
It also reduced blood sugar levels.
It may be useful in therapy for hypercholesterolemia though reducing oxidative stress and cholesterol levels.

1.3 NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS

This type of dark green leafy vegetable is so versatile and can be recognized as a panacea to cure some of our hunger as well as illness if only we can look into its nutritional benefits; which are as follows;

It contains a healthy amount of vitamins.
It helps to prevent convulsion.
It helps to lower cholesterol.
It helps to boost fertility.
It is rich in iron and can be used to cure anarmia.
It helps to increase blood volume.
It has high protein content.
It is also an excellent source of many natural poly-phenolic falvoniod compounds such as a B, minerals like copper, calcium, potassium and phosphorus.

1.3.1 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

The proximate chemical composition of fluted pumpkin leaf extract was given as; crude protein (21.31), crude fibre (6.41), ether extract (50.50), ash (10.92), nitrogen free extracts (55.56), metabolization energy (3121.00iccal kg) gross energy (4420.00kcal/kg), Ca (o.67), P(0.40), K (0.15), N (3.41), Mg (0.43), Na(0.02), Zn(7.50) Mg/100g), phytate (510.51mg/100g), Tannin (0.184mg/100g), Oxalate (0.0034mg/100g). the proportions of the various minerals vary with the age of the plant. Anti-nutrient composition of the young stems and leaves of the plant was found to be higher than that found in the older leaves and stems.

The high content of Fe in the young tender fluted pumpkin leaves was given as the basis for which the leaf extract is administered traditionally as blood tonic in treatment of anemia and to convalescing patients. The crude fibre content of 20.17 I 0.12% in the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis indicated that the leaves of this plant are good sources of dietary fibres. Higher carbohydrates of 39.64% leads to a corresponding increase of energy valve recorded as 290. 16 kcal/100g which further confirmed that his plant leaves could serve as a good source of energy, the leaves are good sources of Mg and Zn which are essential in human and animal nutrition. Total amino acid is T. occidentalis was 455.3mg/g with total essential amino acid of 256.1mg/g or 56.3%, showing the plant proteins to be high in essential amino acid. Agueous extract of the leaf contains 5.07mg/100mg and 40 mg/100ml of vitamins E and C, respectively.

1.3.2 BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN MEDICINAC PLANTS

Telfairia occidentalis has been reported to possess antioxidant properly. The aqueous extract has a higher total phenol, reducing power and free radical scavenging ability (12.2%, 1.9 007 and 92%, respectively( than the ethanolie extract which had total phenol, reducing power free radical scavenging ability of 5.5%, 1.500700 and 25% respectively. The free solution phyplenols had higher antioxidant activity as typified by their higher reducing power and free redical scavenging ability than the bound polyphenols. Telfairia occidentalis leaf contained a significantly high amount of vitamin C, total flavoniods and phenolics. The leaf inhibited more free radical. The hexane fraction had the highest falvoniod content and free scavenging activity comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant BHT. The ability for the leaf of Telfairia accidentalis to reduce iron (111) to iron (11) was also reported. The antioxidant property of Telfairia occidentalis is attributed to the high content of polyphenols, especially flavoniod.

Many human diseases are caused by oxidative stress which is usually initiated by free radicals such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide. These free radicals react with macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids thereby damaging them. The consequences of it is damage are diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atheroscptensis, cancer, mgocardinal infarction, arthritis, anemia, asthma, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases. Endogenous antixodants such as super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbie acid and tocopherol protect the body against the damaging effect of free radicals. But natural products of plant origin have been found to exhibit strong antioxidant components such as flavonoids phenols, flavonols, protanthoeyanins, vitamins c, carotenoids and lycopene, sosme of which are present in T. occidentalis, the antioxidant properly of Telfairia occidentalis which has been well documented therefore makes the plant medicinally useful. Consumption of the plant has the potential of protecting the consumer from oxidative stress and its attendant health implications.

1.3.3 ALKALOIDS

Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic substance existing in combination with organic acid in great variety of plants and to which many drugs own their medicinal properties. A member of a large group of chemicals that are made by plant and have nitrogen in than many alkaloids possess potent pharmacologic effect. The alkaloids include cocaine, nicotine, strychnine, caffeine, morphine, pilocarpine, atropine, methamphetamine, mescaline, ephedrine and tryptamine.

Any of a number of medicinally active compounds produces by plants; alkaloids are often active in small amounts and toxic in large amounts, well known alkaloids produced by plants include caffeine, codeine, morphine, nicotine, quinine and strychnine.

1.3.4 GLYCOSIDES

Many glycosides occur in plants, often as flower and fruits pigments; for example anthocyanins various medicines, condiments and dycs from plants occurs as glycosides, of great valve are the heart-stimulating glycosides of digitalis and several antibiotics are glycosides (e.g. streptomycin) saponins, face tension of water, saponin solution have been used as cleansing agents.

1.3.5 FLAVONOIDS

Flavonoids are a large family of compounds synthesized byb plants that have a common chemical structure. Flavoniods may be further divided into subclasses. In plant systems, flavonoids help if combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators for pharmaceutical purposes cost effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. Falvoniode consist of a large group of polyphenolic compounds having a benzo pyrone structure and are ubiquitously present in plants they are synthesized by phenylpropaniod pathway, flavonoids are hypdroxyglated phenolic substances and are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infections. Their activities are structure dependent flavoniods also act as secondary antioxidant defense system in plant tissues exposed in different abiotic and biotic stresses, flavonoids are located in the nucleus of mesophil cell and within centres of Ros generation. They also regulate growth factors in plant such as duxin.

1.4 EUGENOLS

Eugenols is a chemical which is found in many plants, herbs and spices but clove is the best natural source of this powerful antioxidant. However, it is a double edge sword since it can have potentially dangerous repercussions, if consumed in higher amount, very small amount are required, in order to reap the benefits and avoid side effects. It possess anti-microbial, anti-bacteria and anti-fungal properties which make it very useful in killing parasites which could damage the heart, lungs or the kidneys.

1.4.1 SAPONINS

Saponins are found in many plants and in the animal kingdom saponins have a soapy character due to their surfactant properties saponins have hemolytic, expectoraative, anti-flammatory and immune-stimulating activity. Beyonth that, saponins demonstrate antimicrobial properties particularly against fungi and additionally against bacteria and protozoa.

1.4.2 PHENOLICS

Phenolics, phenols or polyphenolics (or polyphend extracts) are chemical compone occur ubiquitously as natural colour pigments responsible for the colour of fruits of plants. Phenoclies in plants are mostly synthesized from phenylantine via the action of phenylatatine ammonia iyase (PAL) they are very important to plants and have multiple functions. The most important role may be in plant defense against pathogens and herbivore predators, and thus are applied in the control of human pathogenic infections (Puupponen-phmia etal, 2008). They are classified into (i) phenolic acid and (ii) flavonoid poly phenolics (flavonones, flavones, xanthones and catechnics) and (iii) non-flavonoid polyphenotic caffic acidi is regarded as the most common of phenolic compounds distributed in plant flora followed by cholorogenie acid known to cause allergic dermatic among humans (Kar, 2007).

Phenolic essentially represent a host of natural anti-oxidants, used as nutraceuticals, and found in apples, green tea and red wine for their enormous ability to combat cancer and are also though to prevent heart ailments to an appreciable degree and sometimes are anti-inflammatory agents.

1.4.3 TANNINS

A tannin (also known as vegetable tannin, natural organic tannin or sometimes tannoid, i.e. a type of biomolecule, as opposed to modern synthetic tannin) is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenelic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids, for this reason, they convert animal skin into leather.

However, the term :tannin: be extension is widely applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydioxyls and others suitable groups (such as carboyls) to form strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules.

The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants where they play a role in protection from predation and perhaps also a pesticide, and in plant growth regulation. Tannins are soluble in water and alcohol and are found in the root, bark, stem and outer layers of plant tissue.

Tannins have molecular weighs ranging from 500 to over 3,000 (gallic acid esters) and up to 20,000 (proanthocyanidins). Tannins are incompatible with alkalis, gelatin, heavy metals, iron, limewater, metallic salts, strong oxidizing agents and zinc sulfate, since they form complexes and precipitate in aqueous solution.

1.4.4 TERPENES

Terpenes are among the most widespread and chemically diverse groups of natural products, they are flammable unsaturated hydrocarbons, existing in liquid form commonly found in essential oils resins or oleoresins (firm, 2010). Terpenoids hydrocarbons of plant origin of general formula (C5H8) n and classified as meno-di-tri and sequiterpenoids depending on the number of carbon atoms. Examples of commonly important monterpenes include terpinen-4-0l, thupone, camplor eugenol and menthol.

1.4.5 STEROIDS

Three new stigmastane type steroid glycosides vernioside, A4, vernonioside B2 and vernonioside B3 as well as the aglycone of A4 were isolated from vernonia amygdalina, a possible medienal plant used by wild chimpanzees vermonioside A4 and it’s a glycone were bitter but others were not. Red coloration indicated the presence of steroids.

1.5 EXTRACTION/TYPES

This can be done, the old school way by rubbing the clan leaves in between your palms with the help of a little water and squeezing out the juice from the leaves, you can also use a juicer or blend the leaves with a little water, in a blender and strain out the extract with a cheese elots, coffee strain or a sieve with a fight mesh. The herb were air-dried under shade in the environment for a month and pulverized by a mortar and pestle to a fine powder then it was boiled with a for 5-10minutes and then extract into a beaker through a filter paper.

1.6 TYPES OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS

Telfairia batesi
Telfairia occidentalis-fluted pumpkin, oyster nut.
Telfairiapediata (5yn- T- farieana, fevillea pedata, joliffia Africana-oyeter nut, queens nut, Zanzibar oil vine. The genus was named for Irish naturalist charks Telfairia (1778-1833).
Telfairia occidentalis commonly called fluted pumpkin or oyster nut is a common vegetable in Nigeria and other African counties.
Telfairia batesil is a specicies which is rare and not cultivated (Minson, 1971).
Telfaria pedata (Oyster nut or queen’s nut) is a woody and herbaccous species, dioecious vina which bear squash-liver fruits that contains large oily seeds, it is usually grown as an ornamental plant.

1.7 AIM

The aim of this study is determine the phytochemical screening of water extract of pumpkin (Telfairia occdentalis)

1.8 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

The specific objective of this study is to achieve the aims as follows;

Collection, drying and pulversation of pumpkin leaves plants.
Extract of pumpkin leaves using distilled water by maceration method.
Determination of phytochemical presents in extract of the leaves.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES

THE IMPACT OF FLOODING ON RURAL COMMUNITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

THE IMPACT OF FLOODING ON RURAL COMMUNITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENT PAGES
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – — – – – – v
Table of content – – – – – – – – vi
1. INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – 1
1. The Study Area – – – – – – – 5
2. Sources of flooding – – – – – – – 9
3. Causes of flooding – – – – – – – 10
4. Factors that Determine the Effects of Flooding – – – 11
5. Types of flooding – – – – – – 12
6. Benefits of flooding – – – – – – – 15
7. The Effects of Flooding – – – – – – 16
1. The impact of Flooding in Rural Communities in Akwa Ibom State 17
1. Social impacts of flooding – – – – – – 21
2. Economic impacts – – – – – – – 22
3. Non-economic losses – – – – – – 23
4. Impacts on physical and psychological health – – – 24
5. Impacts associated with evacuation and temporary accommodation 25
6. Household disruption – – – – – – 26
7. Community and neighbourhood changes – – – 27
2. Methods of Flood Control in Rural communities in Akwa Ibom State – 27
1. Flood warning – – – – – – – 30
3. Preventive and Mitigating Measures Against Flooding – – 31
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – 35
3.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – 36
References

Abstract
The increased intensity of farming and development in rural communities in Akwa Ibom State has given rise to land sites that have larger portions of non–permeable surfaces and alteration in the topography of the rural environment. A problem caused by little or no drainage and in some cases overloaded drainage infrastructure. This situation combined with the intense rainfall cause by climatic changes in the rural communities gives rise to flooding in different rural communities in Akwa Ibom State. Flooding being one of the major ways water is introduced into building construction environment and farm land raises the cost of building since it impedes the construction and may eventually cause costly damage to the building and also rendered challenges in agricultural practices since the farmland is covered by flood. This study has identified flood-prone areas in rural communities in Akwa Ibom State and has recommended measures to be taken in order to mitigate its effects on buildings, human, plants and animals.

1.1 Introduction
Flood is the overflow of water into an environment that is normally dry thereby causing inundation and harm to plants and animals, including man. Its harm can be extended to man’s buildings and infrastructures (Udosen, 2011). Most flood definitions include damage they cause and depend on their sources or types and magnitude. In the case of flood resulting from rivers, Ating (2003) defines it as a relatively high flow which overtakes the natural channels provided for run–off as well as a high stream which overtops its natural or artificial banks. Wolf (1965) also describes flood as high rate of discharge in water sources and the inundation of normally dry lands. West (1991) further states that flood is a body of water which rises to overflow its banks or low-lying areas. All over the world, flood is known to cause great damage to people’s lives, belongings and properties. Flood causes one third of deaths, one third of all injuries and one third of all damage from natural disasters (Etuonovbe, 2011). This damage is normally felt by various “receptors” being people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, and open recreational spaces. Even social and emotional costs from flooding are significant and are often widespread and indiscriminate in flooded areas. They include: displacement from homes, loss of personal valuables, fear and insecurity caused by such experience. The economy can be serially affected by flooding as businesses may lose patronage, stock, data and productivity. Tourism, farming and livestock can equally be affected. Utilities and transport infrastructure can be rendered inefficient by flood. Portable water supplies may be contaminated in a flood which has immediate health effects upon human beings and animals. Other vital infrastructures may also be damaged just like the loss of electricity experienced in Britain in 2007 summer floods (RIBA, 2009). Even in a developed country such as the United Kingdom, the Association of British Insurers has estimated the cost of the July, 2007 flooding, in insurance claims alone at over 3 billion pounds (RIBA, 2011). The pattern of flooding is similar in all parts of the world. In Nigeria for instance, flooding has forced millions of people out from their homes, destroyed businesses, pollute water sources, and increased the risk of diseases (Baiye, 1988, Akinyemi, 1990, Nwaubani, 1991 and Edward- Adebiyi, 1997).
In the past four decades, economic losses due to natural hazards such as, floods disasters have increased in many folds and have also resulted in major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages (Thompson, 1964). Flood could be seen as one of the most common natural disasters in the world. Flood is one of natural hazards result from the potential for extreme geographical events, to create an unexpected threat to human life and property (Welch et. al., 1977). When severe floods occur in areas occupied by humans, they can create natural disasters which involve the loss of human life and property plus serious disruption to the ongoing activities of large urban and rural communities (Smith and Ward, 1998).
However, besides the negative flood impact such as damage to houses and other buildings, loss of life, loss of jobs or income, disruption of the network of social contact, and interruption to normal access to education, health and food services, there can be a variety of positive flood impacts, for instance, increased fertility of agricultural land (Parker et al. 1987). For poorer groups, some of the impacts are very direct, if flood becomes more frequent and hazardous. The rural poor are the most vulnerable socially, economically and physically to the impacts of extreme events and, to the impact of adverse environmental tendencies resulting from climate change such as flood, drought, increasing sea-level etc. Vulnerability, is a critical dimension of poverty, though synonymous with poverty, but refers to defenselessness and insecurity (Idowu, 2011). With the increasing number of rural dwellers worldwide, the number of people at risk or vulnerable to flood hazards is likely to increase. Any increase in disasters, whether large or small, will threaten development gains and hinder the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (UN-ISDR, 2008). Disasters such as flooding, poses serious challenge to the economy of a nation. It must be noted that the economic environment of a nation consists of its financial systems, social welfare, power sector, transportation, investments, commerce, manufacturing, construction and banking among others.
Disasters when they occur usually result in pains and huge losses to the economy and in most cases; it is always difficult to quantify the actual cost of damages and recovery. A single case of disaster such as the one that occurred in Lagos, Nigeria on July 10, 2011 actually destroyed several years of developmental efforts. In flood disaster, there are loss of lives, destruction of public utilities and disruption in the smooth functioning of the system that renders fear and uncertainties among the populace. In addition, there was loss of livelihoods, damage to the environment, financial loss, and diversion of resources, epidemics, migration, food shortages and displacement of the people. The impact can be very high in the rural areas, because the areas affected are defenseless, lack necessary facilities for control of flooding and may contain vital natural resources such as good farm land, mineral resources, water bodies rich in fishing and other natural ecosystems. A more disturbing issue is the lack of attention to the promotion of sustainable environmental management especially in disaster prone areas resulting in devastations which could have been averted.
Flood is said to be the most significant effect of climate change on the poor (Idowu, 2011). It is caused from increased precipitation: therefore destroying infrastructure like roads, culverts, drainage systems, houses and water supply which can have knock-on effects on many parts of the study area. Damage to healthcare infrastructure will affect the health of the population and damage to roads can disrupt livelihoods and income.
Localized flooding occurs many times a year in many informal settlements such as those in the rural community in Akwa Ibom State, because there are few or no drains (or those that exist are blocked), most of the ground is highly compacted and pathways between dwellings become streams after heavy rain.
The rural poor in Akwa Ibom State particularly refers to a sub-population characterized by various forms of social deprivation, such feature, include low education, low and unstable income, struggle for survival and a spatial housing location with all the characteristics of slums, shanty towns or squatter settlements as epitomized by the rural communities in Akwa Ibom State. Based on the foregoing, this study is to examine the impact of flooding on rural communities in Akwa Ibom State with the view to evolving a framework for proper mitigation and adaptation.

1.1.1 The Study Area
The Research is on the impact of Flooding on Rural Communities in Akwa Ibom State. Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria. It is located in the coastal part of the country, lying between latitudes 4°32′N and 5°33′N, and longitudes 7°25′E and 8°25′E. The state is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State. Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria’s 36 states, with a population of over 5 million people and more than 10 million people in diaspora. It was created in 1987 from the former Cross River State and is currently the highest oil- and gas-producing state in the country. The state’s capital is Uyo, with over 500,000 inhabitants. Along with English, the main spoken languages are Ibibio, Annang, Eket and Oron language (Udosen, 2011).
Akwa Ibom State consists of thirty-one (31) local government areas. They are: Abak , Eastern Obolo, Eket, Esit-Eket, Essien Udim, Etim-Ekpo, Etinan, Ibeno, Ibesikpo-Asutan, Ibiono-Ibom, Ika, Ikono, Ikot Abasi, Ikot Ekpene, Ini, Itu, Mbo, Mkpat-Enin, Nsit-Atai, Nsit-Ibom, Nsit-Ubium, Obot-Akara, Okobo, Onna, Oron, Oruk Anam, Ukanafun, Udung-Uko, Uruan, Urue-Offong/Oruko, and Uyo.
Despite the rapid development of Akwa Ibom State, the greater percentage of the state falls into rural communities. The ecological problems cannot be directly linked to population pressure, steep marginal lands around the rural communities in Akwa Ibom State which should otherwise be conserved, are developed due to increased need for sites for housing and other architectural developments apart from cultivation. The consequences of this practice are well known.

Figure 1: Flood affected area at Ukana Ikot Akpan Road in Ikpe Annang, Essien L.G.A

Figure 2: Flood affected area at Ikot Imoh by St. Michael Primary school in Midim clan. Abak L.G.A

Figure 3: Flood affected area @ Ikwen in Obot Akara L.G.A

1.1.2 Sources of Flooding
Generally, there are six recognized sources of flooding namely: tidal flooding, fluvial flooding, ground water, pluvial flooding, flooding from sewers and flooding from man–made infrastructure.
1. Tidal Flooding: Sea and river defenses may be overtopped by a combination of low pressure weather systems and high tides. Its duration is limited by the cycle of the tides where drainage is available.
2. Fluvial Flooding: When rainfall or snow occurs in rivers, the capacity is exceeded and as a result, there is a rising water level which can in turn overflow into the floodplains close to the river.
3. Ground Water: As groundwater levels rise, low lying area sitting over aquifers may flood. This type of flood is mainly seasonal and slow.
4. Pluvial Flood: This refers to surface water from rainwater – run-off mainly from urban or rural land that has low absorbency. As developments increase in rural communities, land surfaces increase in their areas of non-permeable surfaces and combines with intense rainfall, this gives rise to localized flooding.
5. Flooding from Sewers: This occurs where there are faulty sewers or where sewage capacity exceeded normally due to large surface water runoff over a short time.
6. Flooding from Man – made Infrastructure: This occurs when man-made structures like canals and reservoirs fail resulting in flooding areas downstream (RIBA 1999).

1.1.3 Causes of Flooding
One of the main thrust of this study has been to assess the immediate and remote causes of frequent flooding in rural communities in Akwa Ibom State. It was to determine which of these causes may be more responsible for the recent incidences of flooding in rural communities in Akwa Ibom State. To be able to do this successfully, a number of physical flood characteristics were evaluated. These critical physical characteristics include:
a) Depth of water
b) Duration of inundation
c) Area of inundation
d) Velocity of flow
e) Frequency – recurrence relations
f) Flood time (Flood time lapse or flood-to-peak interval)
g) Seasonality
h) Peak flood
i) Rate of discharge increase and decline.
j) Sediment load and
k) Total flood run-off volume.
Apart from the above identified causes, flooding occurs throughout rural communities in Akwa Ibom State in the following forms:
Natural forms of flooding:
1. Heavy or torrential rains / rainstorm
2. Oceans storms and tidal waves usually along the coast.
3. Coastal flooding
4. River flooding
5. Flash floods
Human forms of flooding:
1. Burst water main pipes
2. Dam burst levee failures
3. Dam spills.

1.1.4 Factors that Determine the Effects of Flooding
1. The level of predictability: This affects the timing, accuracy and communication of warnings given before a flood.
2. The rate of onset of the flood: How quickly the water arrives and the speed at which it rises will govern the opportunity for people to prepare and respond effectively for a flood.
3. The speed and depth of the water: This dictates the level of exposure of people and property to a flood. It is difficult to stand or wade through even relatively shallow water that is moving. Flood water often carries debris, including trees and water over 1m in depth can carry objects of the size of cars. Fast flowing water can apply devastating force to property and other receptors.
4. The duration of the flood: This is another important factor in determining the extent of its impact, particularly on individuals and affected communities.
1.1.5 Types of Flooding:
1. Tidal Flooding: Both sea and river defenses may be overtopped or breached by a combination of low pressure weather systems and peak high tides. Storms with high wind speeds cause tall and powerful waves and low pressure fronts cause sea levels to rise above normal levels. High tide levels vary through the lunar and solar cycle and when superimposed upon other tidal variations exceptionally high tides result. The onset of flooding from the sea and tidal rivers is often sudden and the extreme forces driving it present a significant danger to life. The east coast storm surge of 1953 claimed 307 people’s lives in the UK and 1,835 in Holland. A similar storm surge tide in September 2007came within a few centimeters of breaching a number of the UK’s coastal defenses. It is often possible to forecast, with reasonable accuracy, this type of flooding due to the predictability of the tide and track ability of low pressure systems. The duration of this type of flooding is also limited by the cycle of the tides where drainage is available (Dance and Hynes, 1980).
2. Fluvial Flooding: Flooding occurs in the floodplains of rivers when the capacity of water courses is exceeded as a result of rainfall or snow and ice melts within catchment areas further upstream. Blockages of watercourses and flood channels or tide locking may also lead to ponging and rising water levels. River defenses may then be overtopped due to increased water levels, or breached by large objects of debris carried at high water velocities. Flooding from rivers has in recent years been experienced in the Severn Valley, in Sheffield, in Hull from the river Humber in 2007 and Carlisle on the river Eden in 2006. The onset can be quite slow in some catchments with steadily rising water levels.
3. Flash Flooding: Flash flooding can occur in steep catchments and is far more immediate. Flooding from rivers, particularly, in recognized floodplains, can usually be predicted with good accuracy. However flashfloods from sudden downpours such as those in Carlisle continue to challenge the capability of detection and forecasting systems. Water over about 250 mm in depth may carry debris particularly in rural locations and can also be very cold. Even travelling at low speeds this can make it extremely hazardous to people caught in it.
4. Ground Water flooding: Low lying areas sitting over aquifers may periodically flood as ground water levels rise. This type of flooding is often seasonal and therefore can before casted with good accuracy. It is often slow in its onset.
5. Pluvial Flooding: Surface water flooding is caused by rainwater run-off from urban and rural land with low absorbency. Increased intensity of development in urban areas has given rise to land with a larger proportion of non-permeable surfaces, a problem often exacerbated by overloaded and out-dated drainage infrastructure. These circumstances, combined with intense rainfall, can give rise to localized flooding. This sort of flooding often occurs outside of recognized floodplains and because it is caused by quite localized weather conditions it is very difficult to forecast. Its onset can also be very rapid and the level of flooding very severe. In the summer of 2007 much of the flooding experienced in Gloucestershire and Yorkshire was not directly caused by rivers but by surface water (Henry, 2006).Large volumes of rainfall early in the year saturated the ground and intense rainfall later caused both urban and rural areas to flood.
6. Flooding from Sewers: Flooding from sewers can occur where there are combined storm and foul sewer sand their capacity is exceeded due to large amounts of surface water run-off in a short time. Poor cleaning and maintenance can lead to blockages that can also cause local flooding. This type of flooding is hard to predict, has significant sanitary consequences for those affected and can occur very rapidly.
7. Flooding from man-made infrastructure: Canals, reservoirs and other manmade structures can fail causing flooding to areas downstream. Industrial activities, water mains and pumping stations can also give rise to flooding due to failure.
1.1.6 Benefits of Flooding
There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human settlements and economic activities. However, floods (in particular the more frequent/smaller floods) can also bring many benefits, such as recharging ground water, making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Flood waters provide much needed water resources in particular in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation events can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year. Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. Flooding adds a lot of nutrients to lakes and rivers which leads to improved fisheries for a few years, also because of the suitability of a floodplain for spawning (little predation and a lot of nutrients). Fish like the weather fish make use of floods to reach new habitats. Together with fish also birds profit from the boost in production caused by flooding.
Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River, among others (Ikomi et. al 2005). The viability for hydrological based renewable sources of energy is higher in flood prone regions.

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THE IMPACT OF FLOODING ON RURAL COMMUNITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

 

FOREST RESOURCES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

FOREST RESOURCES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT                                                                                                               PAGES

Cover page    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Title page      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Declaration   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Dedication    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Acknowledgments –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Table of content       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –            viii

1.1 Introduction       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1.1 Area of study  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

2.1 Forest Reserve    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

2.1.1 Forestry activities in Akwa Ibom state      –           –           –           –           –           5

2.1.2 Various activities aimed at ensuring a safe and sustained     environment and production /sustained forest resources   –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.1.3 Some problem facing forestry in Akwa Ibom state         –           –           –           13

2.1.4 Suggested solutions   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

3.1 Conclusion –       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           22

3.1.2 Recommendations     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           22

Reference

Appendices

 

1.1. INTRODUCTION

Forest is a large area of land covered with trees or other woody vegetation while forestry is the scientific management of forest resources for the continuous supply of forest goods and services. To some people, it is a profession. It is an economic activity which provides them with means of livelihood. Forestry also provides environmental protection and aesthetic services. As a result of these benefits, governments are interested in the management of forest resources in their domains to provide the citizens with forest goods and services.

Forest resources are natural resources found on or in association with forest lands. Since creation, forests have remained the major sources of livelihood for man in several ways including food, medicine, protein, household tools, timber for building , raw-materials for wood-based and pharmaceutical industries. Generally, over 80% of rural people in Akwa Ibom State use forest resources for their daily income and other family needs (NCF 2000)

  • AREA OF STUDY:

Akwa Ibom State attained its population status as a state in September 23, 1987 when it was carved out of the erstwhile Cross River State. It is situated between latitudes 4o33 and 5o33W and longitudes 7o53 and 8o5E. It lies wholly within the Cross River basin in the south eastern corner of Nigeria. The state has a total land area of 8,412KM2 and a coast line of 129KM long. The lower part of Cross River basin, the Qua Iboe River basin and the western half of the Imo River Estuary are all enclosed within the state. Generally, the relief is flat and Low lying with sandy coastal beaches. The highest elevation (about 150m) is found at Obotme in Ini local government area. The state, made up of thirty one (31) local government area (Abak, eastern Obolo, Eket, Esit Eket, Essien udim, Etim Ekpo, Etinan, Ibeno, Ibesikpo Asutin Ibiono Ibom Ika, Ikono, Ikot Abasi, Ikot Ekpene, Ini, Itu, Mbo, Mkpat Enin, Nsit Atai, Nsit Ibom, Nsit Ubium, Obot Akara, Okobo, Onna, Oron, Oruk Anam, Usung Uko, Ukanafun, Uruan, Urue-Offong/ Oruko and Uyo)  has highly productive but equally sensitive and fragile ecosystem. Moving hinterlands from the coastline, four easily discernable ecological zones are recognized .These are the mangrove swamp ,the fresh water swamp, the low land rain forest and the derived savanna which forms mosaic with oil palm tree and farmlands. The state, both offshore and onshore is largely oil bearing. This placed it second in the nation in terms of oil production.

The population is approximately 2.4million people (1991 census). Occupation of the people include fishing, Palm wine tapping, farming weaving and craftwork. In the urban sub and urban area ,the people generally depend on subsistence agriculture with very little or on financial returns. Hence, there is a very high level of poverty in the state. This is pervasive and suffocating. From purely forest management point of view, the 841km2 and area in the state has been classified into forest reserves and protected forest in the forest reserves, the government holds and manages the land together with the resources there in trust for the people, whereas in the protected forest, the government has very loose control over both the land and the resources except perhaps petroleum resources.

In this write up, factors that clearly point to some problem facing forestry in Akwa Ibom state are highlighted. Suggestions are made as remedies for some of the problem facing Akwa Ibom forestry subsector to ensure sustenance of forest resource in the state.

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FOREST RESOURCES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT ON THE GROWTH OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST CITY MOVEMENT BANK PLC, UYO)

THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT ON THE GROWTH OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST CITY MOVEMENT BANK PLC, UYO)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. preliminary Page
  2. Dedication
  • Certification
  1. Dedication
  2. Acknowledgement
  3. Tables of content
  • List of contents
  • Abstract

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of problems
  • Objectives of the study
  • Research Question
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Significant of the Study
  • Scope / Limitation of the Study
  • Historical Background of first City Movement Bank Plc, Uyo
  • Definition of Terms
  • Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 The concepts of employees Development

2.2 Accessing and identifying of Development need

2.3 Methods of employees Development

2.4 Evaluation of employees Development

2.5 Characteristics of effectives Development Practices

2.6 Condition for successful employees Development

2.7 Problems Associated with employees Development

2.8 Employees Development and Growth of Business Organization

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Research Designed

3.2 The study area

3.3 Population of the Study

3.4 Sample size and Sampling Techniques

3.5 Research instrument

3.6 Methods of Data Analysis

3.7 Decisional Rule

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data presentation in table

4.2 Data Analysis of predation

4.3 Testing of Hypothesis

4.4 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FVE

5.1 Summary of Findings

5.2 Conclusions

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendixes

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

In recent times the ability to adopt change is very important to many organization in the hope of survive achieve this every manager should be responsible for increasing the effectiveness of its employee which comes mainly through employees development programmes. This shows that systematic development in employees is a sound business investment.

According to Biller (1999) employees development is all about making sure that employees are happy in their job, working to their full potential, and that their talents and skill – that could be of benefits to the company –are developed this can mean encouraging employees to take on different responsibilities, moving department or being promoted with a more senior impact.

Employees development refers to all the policies, practices and procedures used to develop the knowledge, skills and competencies of employees to improve the effectiveness and  efficiency both of the individuals and the organization.

Effective and comprehensive employees development practices must attend to employees and organization improvement, derive from a development plans including attention to both process and product, be anchored and ever changing work, be multifaceted and ever changing and recognize maturation and growth in employees.

Employees development practices have a dual focus that they must attend to individual employees and to organization development. For employees development to successful, both goals must be achieved –that is, they must be mutually supportive. This commitment requires creativity and flexibility in plans for employees development (Holmes, 1998) knowledge and skills development is vital to the health of an organization. Organization are routine valued not in their physical but on their intellectual capital.

Buckley and Caple (1989), defined development as “the general enhancement and growth of an individual skills and abilities through conscious and unconscious learning.

Ajuogn (1995), say that development is a “process to assist employees in attaining a levels of performance and unity of personal and social behavior that meets their needs and those of the organization. Development helps the employees to learn their jobs quickly and effectively, thereby minimizing cost during subsequent operations. The ability of an employee to handle complex and higher responsibilities is an advantages of development to employee performance.

Management must not forget that at a time of employment, no person is perfectly fit except they undergone good employees that inadequate development result in poor decision- making and planning which ultimately leads to poor  business performance and reduced productivity. It is a learning activity aimed at most future needs rather than current performance. It is concerned with employee carrier growth and satisfaction of future organization’s man power requirement. Development deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume position of important in the organizational hierarchy.

The goal of employees development is improvement in employees and organizational effectiveness. This is  a process that affects interpretations of job requirements, relationships with Colleagues, and perfectiveness on the methods of education. Employees development occurs in a social context and emphasizes  teamwork, built on a foundation of collaboration employees development is a process that demonstrates the commonness of purpose of all employees and the crucial nature of individual knowledge and skills to perform assign duties in relation to the achievement of these larger goals (Bixion 2001).

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Every research embark upon by a researcher emanate from where there is a problem. The same problem was identified by the researcher in the first City Movement Bank, Uyo. The identified problems are as follows:

  1. Lack of employees incompetence in handling their job result to how productivity.
  2. The organization set it as a waste of time and resource. It reduces employee’s performance and effectiveness in the job due to the absence of employees development.
  3. Lack of employees training in the business organization
  4. Lack of acquired skill and knowledge in the development will decrease performance.

 

1,3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This research is intending to achieve the following objectives

  1. To determine how employees development affect the performance and efficiency of employee in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.
  2. To determine the extent at which employees development affects productive in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.
  • To suggest ways in which employees development can be carry out in first City Movement Bank, Uyo which will go a long way to help not only first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

 

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Employees development have any impact on employees performance in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.
  2. Can effective development of employees improve workers initiative in decision making in first City Movement Bank Uyo.
  • Employees development practices in prove the relationship that exists between subordinates and their superior’s in first City Movement Bank , Uyo.
  1. Can effective employees development improve job performance and efficiency in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

In this study, the following hypothesis is formulated :-

Ho: employees development has no impact on employees performance in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

H1: employees development has impact on employees performance in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

Ho: Effective development of employees cannot improve workers initiatives in decision making in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

H1: effective development of employees can improve workers initiatives in decision making in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

Ho: employees development cannot bring interpersonal relationship between subordinate and superiors in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

H1: employees development can bring interpersonal relationship between subordinate and superiors in first City Movement Bank, Uyo.

 

  • SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Employees development practices have gone a long way in helping organizations to realize its dream in this view, after conclusion, the outcome of the research will be significant to the organization and environment in the following ways:

  1. It will encourage employees development in first City Movement Bank, Uyo and other organizations.
  2. It will educate employers and employees on the methods of employees development to embark on
  • The study will enable employees to know the need advance in their work
  1. It will broaden my knowledge on the impact of employees development on a business environment.
  2. It could be used as reference materials for research by future researcher’s as well.

 

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is carried –out in first City Movement Bank, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

This study is also limited by the following factors:

  1. Time Constraint
  2. Financial Constraint on the side of the researchers.
  • The ability to get more and better information

 

  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST CITY MOVEMENT BANK, UYO

The First City Movement Bank, Plc was incorporated as a private limited company on 20th April, 1982 and granted a bank license on 11th August 1983. On 15th July, 2004, the bank changed its status from private liability company to a public limited liability company. The bank is engaged in the provision of personal and business banking services and products. The bank operate in five 6) segments. The banking segment covers current, saving and investment accounts, cards wealth being products, personal loans and money transfer services. The business banking division offers deposit products, loan solutions and other business related services. Its corporate and commercial banking segment offers track services, cash management, foreign exchanges and financial services. The investment divisions covers financial advisory, debt and equity capital market, project and structured finance transactions. The institutional banking segment offers, among others, deposits bond issuance, trade finance, Ray roll administration, infrastructural   finance and advance payment quarantines. In August 2013, Cardinal store partners  (CSP) limited has acquired City Securities Registrar following the divestment transactions by  First City Movement Bank.

 

 

  • DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Employees all the workers employee in an organization considered as a group (Ushie, 2009).

DEVELOPMENT:  I a process to assist employees in attaining a level performance and unity of personal and social behavior that needs their needs  and those of the organization. Development also refers to teaching of managers and professional employees  broad skills necessary for their current and future jobs  (onah, 2008).

GROWTH: An increase the size, amount or degree of something. It  also an increase in economic  activity.

BUSINESS:  Is an organization that attempts to earn a profits by providing goods and /or services  that society needs and wants (Frank, 2006).

ORGANIZATION: Is a combination of people or individuals effort working together in pursuit of certain common purpose know as organizational goals (Frank, 2006).

 

  • ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This study consist of five chapters arranged in a logical and concise manner.

In chapter one, concerned with the background of the study, it presents the statement, objectives, research questions, research hypothesis of the study.

In chapter two, we take a literature survey of some related works. In chapter three, we undergo the research methodology of the study .

In chapter four, we present the data presentation analysis and interpretations while chapter five, we conclude with a summary and conclusion of the future research with appropriate recommendation.

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THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT ON THE GROWTH OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST CITY MOVEMENT BANK PLC, UYO)

THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE MINISTRY OF LAND)

THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SERVICE(A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE MINISTRY OF LAND)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                 Pages

Titles page –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

Certification         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

Dedication –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

Acknowledgements      –         –         –         –         –         –         –

Abstract      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

Table of contents –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study –         –         –         –         –         –

1.2 Statement of problem       –         –         –         –         –         –

1.3 Objectives of the study     –         –         –         –         –         –

1.4 Significance of the study             –         –         –         –         –

1.5 Research Questions –         –         –         –         –         –         –

1.6 Research Hypotheses        –         –         –         –         –         –

1.7 Scope/Limitation of the study    –         –         –         –         –

1.8 Historical Background of Anchor Insurance Limited      –

1.8 Definition of terms  –         –         –         –         –         –         –

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction-  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

2.1 Conceptualization of performance appraisal         –         –

2.2 Performance appraisal methods          –         –         –         –

2.3 Need and uses of performance appraisal in organization –

2.3.1 Needs of performance appraisal      –         –         –         –

2.3.2 Uses of performance appraisal         –         –         –         –

2.4 The importance of performance appraisal    –         –         –

2.5 Performance appraisal versus management-by-

objectives (MBO).-         –         –         –         –         –         –

2.6 Basic purpose of performance appraisal       –         –         –

2.7 Employee performance measurement tools –         –         –

2.8 Productivity concept and measures in organization       –

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY        

3.0 Introduction   –         –         –         –         –         –         —        –

3.1 Research design       –         –         –         –         –         –         –

3.2 Area of study –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

3.3 Population of the study    –         –         –         –         –         –

3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques          –         –         –

3.5 Research instruments        –         –         –         –         –         –

3.6 Methods of data collection         –         –         –         –         –

3.7 Methods of data Analysis –         –         –         –         –         –

3.8 Validation and Reliability of the instrument          –         –

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINDS

4.0 Introduction   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

4.1 Data presentation and analysis –         –         –         –         –

4.2 Test of Hypotheses –         –         –         –         –         –         –

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDADTIONS

5.1 Summary       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

5.2 Conclusion     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –

5.3 Recommendation    –         –         –         –         –         –         –

References

Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1             Background of the study

Human resources must be the appraisal of the goal of the organization and established that a managers job is to achieve result through the effort of the people in order words a manager motivates his men to work in such a way that will permit the achievement of predetermined result. It is therefore for his reason that the purpose of this study was to investigate into how performance appraisal of employee can bring about increase in productivity and human resources development to investigate the various employees’ techniques, examine the general guideline for an effective appraisal problem of employee at Abia State Ministry of Land.

According to Nwachukwu (2007), the essence of performance appraisal is to give information for the promotion, transfer, pay the incensement, training and development and discharge of an employee. According to Ubeke (1975, P230) the exercise require co-operation and term effort on the part of the manager and the employee under him. Therefore, the first task of the managers is to decide with the main objective of his development with the frame work of the co-operative objective.

Despite the multiplicity and complex nature of many training and educational program most development occur on the job (Flippo, 1980. p 203) but such development according to him is scored and less effective if the appraised and feedback information concerning his/her quality of performance. In general according to Flippo (1989 p. 230)

It can be said that the choice is among there possible approaches:

(i) A casual, unsystematically and often haphazard appraisal.

(ii) The traditional and highly systematic measure of

(a) Employee Characteristics

(b) Employee contribution of characteristic

(c) Mutual government setting through management by-objective     performance.

Therefore, with good evaluation and appraisal system those who contribute most will be adequately rewarded and the right people are likely to be promoted into higher responsibilities.

(Ubeke 1975 p. 239). Appraisal can therefore be defined as the observation and evaluation of an employees work behavior or the result of that behavior by one usually the employee’s supervisor.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of the employee performance appraisal and productivity is inadequate training and development of the employee in an organization thereby bring out poor performance in the work place which also affects the productivity of such organization.

The problem of performance appraisal is quite clear since performance has to do with human personal working in the build system to attain levels of designed the productivity of the organization.

Most at times when employees are adequately trained it affects the productivity of the organization and in other word lack of technical or specialized staff in an organization bring about how productivity in organization thereby degrading the resources of the organization and such company cannot meet the challenges or abreast of what other competitors achieve. Admittedly, training and development are major sources of solution to performance problem.

These will certainly solve those problems for instance, organization chart and work distribution chart can also improve performance.

Appraisal has to do objectives in order that improved pursuance and human resources could be developed.

Certain basic issues have to be clarified as to whether the staffs were given enough tools to work with.

1.3 Objective of the Study

As earlier stated appraisal serves as the basic of management actions such as salary administration, decision determination. loyalty, promotion and participation in training. In the other hand, appraisal is an important mechanism for management to use in clarifying performance goals standard for management to use in motivating future individual performance.

          1.4 The purpose of this study is to:

(a) To investigate how employee performance appraisal can enhance improved performance and human development in Abia State Ministry of Land.

(b) Investigate various employees appraisal techniques used in the company for study.

(c) Discover the procedure adopted in implementing performance at Abia State Ministry of Land.

(d) Find out the benefit of appraising employee at Abia State Ministry of Land

(e) Enlighten the manager on how to appraise and evaluate workers in the organization to increase productivity

(f) Make suggestions on how to improved employee performance appraisal and productivity measuring at Abia State Ministry of Land

(g) Change the nature of managers from being appraise less oriented.

  1. 4 Significance of the Study

It is envisage that at the completion of this research, the finding may be of immerse benefit to the following:

(i) The Management of Abia State Ministry of Land

This study could enable the current management team to discover certain inefficiency and efficiency buried in previous year’s performance appraisal in the application and measuring of the productivity in the organization.

(ii) The Government of Abia State

The study might enable the government to identify those factors that can lead to success or failure of Abia State Ministry of Land and any other organization which may attribute to performance appraisal and productivity measurement.

(iii) Other Researchers in Similar Discipline

It may be of help to other researchers within and outside this institution (Uyo City polytechnic, Uyo) even above this level of National Diploma (ND). A researcher might use the study as a source of reference when conducting a further research on similar problem or related field.

(iv) Economic Community of A Company

Managing the economy of the company will enable the management of the company to precede especially those point earlier mentioned in developing effective and efficient employee performance appraisal and productivity of Abia State Ministry of Land. Sue and be sued also, these view point are not only reasoned for having appraisal system, but they do indicated a wide variety of purpose.

1.5 Research Questions

(a) Does performance appraisal serves as a tool for measuring the productivity of an organization

(b) What are the methods adopted in Abia State Ministry of Land to appraise the performance of an employee?

(c) Do staff of Abia State Ministry of Land have a positive reaction toward performance appraisal?

(d) Is there any relationship between performance appraisal and organizational productivity?

(e) Is there any relationship between performance appraisal and management-by-objectives (MBO)?

(f) What are the factors militating against effective and efficiency application of performance appraisal in Abia State Ministry of Land?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

In the course of the study; the following hypotheses were formulated:

(a) H: Employee Performance appraisal does not serves as a management tool for measuring productivity in organization

H: Employee Performance appraisal serves as a tool for measuring productivity in organization.

(b) H: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal and management by objective (MBO).

H: There is significant relationship between performance appraisal amd management by objective (MBO).

1.7   Scope of the Study

Scholastic work of this study is highly developed in terms of time, finance and effort. But certain constraints are bound to affect the smooth flow of conducting this research mostly finance and time. It would have been the intention of the researcher to cover most companies on the south-south (Nigeria) but because of insufficient funds, resources and time have made it difficult to do so.

Performance appraisal as a management tool itself is a broad topic and makes an interesting study. It needs a period of time for finding  out facts before recording. A situation where a period of less than four months is given, it is unthinkable to perceive that the outcome would be as expansive as it would have been, the period were a title longer. Due to the above limitation, the study is centered on performance appraisal as a management tool for measuring production of an employee at Anchor insurance plc, Uyo and it’s limited to information obtained from responses of staff of the company and returned questionnaires, the scope of study covers the appraisal of the last two years.

1.8 History Background of Anchor Insurance Limited

Anchor insurance company limited was licensed in October 1989 as a general business (non-life) insurance outfit and started operations in November of the same, now it has its head office at 7/13 Aka road Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.

In February 1992 the company added life/pension class of insurance to it business portfolio thereby attaining the status if a composite insurance company.

In 1998, Anchor insurance company limited was registered by the National insurance commission (NAICOM) as a composite insurance company (RICO72) the company was wholly owned by Akwa Ibom State government until 2003 when the ownership structure was privatized till date.

Ukatel Nigeria limited (core investtors)……………………          55%

Akwa Ibom State government                                                   20%

Others private investors                                                            25%

Presently, the company operates with an authorized share capital of four million naira (400, 000000) fully paid up.

General Business or Non-Life

(i) Fire and special perils consequential loss

General Accident Insurance

(a) Burglary/theft

(b) Goods in transit

(c) Cash in transit

(d) personal/group personal accident

(e) Houses owners/House combined policy

(A) Bonds

(a) Performance bonds

(b) Advance payment-bonds

(c) Custom Bonds

(d) Credits bonds

(e) Motor insurance

(f) Public liability

(g) Workmen’s compensation

(B) Special Risk

a:       Engineering/contractor all risk

b:       Marine insurance (hull, boats, cargo)

c:        Aviation (cargo)

d:       Energy (oil and gas)

(C) Life/Pension Assurance

a:       Deposit Administration

b:       whole life insurance

c:        Endowments assurance

d:       Educational assurance

e:       Level term assurance

f:        Flexible cash payment

g:       Mortgage protection

h:       Group life schemes

In addition to the above conventional insurance products, the company has developed the following tailor made products to meet the needs of it clients under the special product unit.

Anchor Investment Plan

This is a high yielding and tax-efficient investment plan providing high investment returns with death assurance. It is carefully arranged to effort policy holder enough edge to cushion effects of inflation at minimum cost.

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THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SERVICE(A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE MINISTRY OF LAND)

 

THE IMPACT OF COMMERCIALIZATION AND PRIVATIZATION OF GOVERNMENT OWNED AGENCIES ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES. (A CASE STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY UYO)

THE IMPACT OF COMMERCIALIZATION AND PRIVATIZATION OF GOVERNMENT OWNED AGENCIES ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES. (A CASE STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY UYO)   

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

1.3 objective of the study

1.4 research questions

1.5 significance of the study

1.6 scope of the study

1.7 limitation of the study

1.8 definitions of terms and acronyms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Concept of privatization

2.3 Reason for privatization of government owned agencies in Nigeria

2.4 types of privatization

2.5 objectives of privatization and commercialization programme in Nigeria

2.6 Concept of commercialization

2.7 Types of commercialization

2.8 Benefits of privatization

2.9 Problem of privatization in Nigeria

2.10 Function of technical committee on privatization and commercialization

2.11 The summary of commercialization and privatization of port-Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Area of the study

3.3 Population of the study

3.4 Sample determination and sampling techniques

3.5 Source of data

3.6 Method of data collection

3.7 Data presentation and analysis method

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES OF DATA

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Data analysis and results

4.3 Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

References

Appendixes

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Privatization, a method of allocating assets and function from the public sector to the private sector, appears to be a factor that could play a serious role in the quest for growth. In recent history, privatization has been adopted by many different political systems and spread to every region of the world.

The process of privatization can be an effective way to bring about fundamental structural change by formalizing and establishing property rights, which directly create strong individual incentives. A free market economy largely depends on well defined property rights in which people make individual decision in their own interest. Modern market economics generate growth because widespread, formal property rights permits massive, law-cost exchange, thus, fostering specialization incentives that induce productivity, privatization improve efficiency, provide fiscal relief, and encourage wide ownership and the availability or credit for private sector.

The issue of privatization has been a subject of intense global debate in recent years. In Africa, it has remained highly controversial and politically risky,. Privatization in Nigeria over some time has not been a popular reform. It ha received so mush criticism from labour, academic and individuals. There have been numerous strikes against proposed sell-offs by fearing loss of jobs, while proponents of privatization see that aspects of economic reform as an instrument of an efficient resource management for rapid economic development and poverty reduction. The critics argue that privatization reflects damage on the poor through loss of employment, reduction in income, and reduced access to basic social services or increase in prices.

Commercialization on the other hands has much influence on the economic growth and development of any country. It is in practice because it deals on the reorganization of public enterprises in much a way as to operate as profits making commercial ventures, with subvention from government, through the government still retains its full or parts ownership. It could also be whole or partial. Commercialized enterprises use private sector procedure in the day-to-day administration of business.

However, when a public enterprise is commercialized, it reduces the burden of the enterprise on government. The governments do not spend much resource on the enterprise because the enterprise can stand on its own as profits oriented ventures, which will in order way make returns to the government.

There are many economic benefits that are connected to the process of pursues privatization and commercialization. One of the main reasons why countries pursues privatization an commercialization is in order to reduce the size of the existing government, based on the idea that many governments have become too large and over-extended, consisting or unnecessary layers of bureaucracy. Therefore, many countries require restructuring in order to improve efficiency, which can be achieved through privatization and commercialization.

The private sector responds to incentives in the market, while the public sector often has non-economic goals. In other words, the public sector is not highly motivated to maximize production and allocated resources effectively, causing the government to run high-cost, low -income enterprises.

Privatization and commercialization directly shift the focus from political goals to economic goals, which lead to development of the market economy (Poole, 2001). By privatizing and commercialization, the role of the government in the government in the economy is reduced. Thus, there is less chances for the government to negatively impact the economy.

1.1.1 PORT-HARCOURT ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION, UYO.

The history of electricity development in Nigeria can be traced to the end of the 19th century when the first generating power plant was installed in the city of Lagos in 1898. From then until 1950, the pattern of electricity development was in the form of individual electricity power undertaking scattered all over the towns, some of the undertaking wee federal government bodies under the public works, department, some by the native authority and other by the municipal authority.

With time, power were circulated to all part of the country and the popular authority that controls it for a long time was known as (NEPA) National Electric Power Authority. It acted as the virtual sole provider of electricity in the country for a long times. However, towards the mid 1990s, licenses were given to private power generating companies. The federal electric power reform Act 2005 further deregulated the sector splitting NEPA and leading to the change of name from NEPA to the power holding cooperation of Nigeria.

The company dominance of the power system in Nigeria started in 1972 with the merger of the electricity cooperation of Nigeria and the Niger DAM Authority.  However, the social reality of irregular power supply made it to called ‘’Never Expect Power Always’’ by many Nigerians. De to this and other technical and managerial challenges faced by NEPA, the Nation decided to handle it over to a private body for efficient and effective running. Thus, ‘’ power holding company of Nigeria’’ came up as the power regulatory body in the country.

The body in-discharge of their duties was found inefficient by numerous Nigerians and this leads to exchange of name for power regulation. Thus, Port-Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company, Uyo, came to being. It is a sub-division of the Nations Electricity Power Authority in port-Harcourt that regulate power to most areas including Uyo chapter. Port-Harcourt Electricity Company, Uyo is located at No 213 Abak Road Uyo. The company is doing well to a certain degree. It is made up of departments for easy discharge of responsibilities.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Privatization and commercialization of public enterprises is a vital food for the developing countries like Nigeria. The problem facing privatization and commercialization to the growth of Nigeria economy are glaring such as corruption, lack of transparency. Lack of accountability, inconsistency and incredibility among others.

However, it is these problems that hindered the government to see the growth of which privatization and commercialization to the growth of the economy and proffer a way towards for a positive state of privatization and commercialization in Nigeria, thus research work emanated.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study has the following objectives:

  1. To examine the impacts of privatization and commercialization policy of government agencies on the economy of Nigeria.
  2. To access how privatization and commercialization policies will increase productive efficiency in Nigeria.
  3. To find out the institutional framework and regulatory agencies charge with the responsibility of implementing privatization and commercialization on policies in Nigeria.
  4. To ascertain whether privatization and commercialization policy should be encouraged.
  5. To examine the reasons for the introduction of privatization and commercialization policy in Nigeria.
  6. To provide suggestions for solving the obstacles associated with privatization exercise.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions will be seen below:

  1. What is the impact of privatization and commercialization policy of government agencies on economy of Nigeria?
  2. Does privatization and commercialization policies increase productive efficiency in Nigeria?
  3. What are institutional framework and regulatory aganecies charge with the responsibility of implementing privatization and commercialization agencies in Nigeria?
  4. Should privatization and commercialization policy be encouraged?
  5. What are reasons for the introduction of privatization and commercialization policy in Nigeria?
  6. Are there obstacle associated with privatization?
  7. What are the possible ways of solving the obstacles associated with privatization exercise?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will be useful in that;

It will give the research advance knowledge and information on the concept of privatization and commercialization policy of government agencies. It will also aid in proffering solutions on the problems arising from privatization and commercialization policy of government agencies. The study will be a vital instrument for the management of port-Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company. PHED, uyo in knowing the important expectation of the public on them and hoe to discharge their responsibilities effectively. The study will also serve as a point of reference or point of criticism to other researchers who like to delue into a study of this nature. To the government, the study will enable them to know whether the policy of privatization and commercialization is effective or not. Thus, paving a way for the next alternative actions.

1.6 SCOPE/DETERMINIATION OF THE STUDY

The study will cover the impact of privatization and commercialization policy of government agencies on economy of Nigeria. It will also go further to include the importance of privatization and commercialization to the economy of Nigeria. Advantages and disadvantages of privatization and commercialization policy in Nigeria among others.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The lack of adequate time, inadequate funding and startage of unavailability of authoritative text books on the field under survey constitute hindrance.

Thus, the time given to accomplish a research of this magnitude was very small compared to the scope and the importance of this study. The research finds it difficult to get enough money to enable her make around for gathering of adequate and authentic information for the study.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Privatization: this is the process of transferring ownership of business, enterprise, agency, public service, or public property from the public sector (a government) to the private sector, either to a business that operates for a profits to a non-profits organization.

Commercialization: this is process of introducing a new product or production method into commerce, making it available on the market.

Economy: this is an area of the production,  distribution, or trade and consumption of goods and services by different agent in a given geographical location.

Policy: this is a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or individual.

Government: this is an institution or a machinery that makes law and see that laws are carried out.

Impact: this is the measure of the tangible effects (consequences) of one things or entity’s action or influence upon two or more persons.

Management: this involves getting things done through the instrumentality of others.

 

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THE IMPACT OF COMMERCIALIZATION AND PRIVATIZATION OF GOVERNMENT OWNED AGENCIES ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES. (A CASE STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY UYO)   

EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ON ORGANIZATIONL PERFORMANCE

EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ON ORGANIZATIONL PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Maintaining healthy employee relations in an organization is a pre-requisite for organizational success. Strong employee relations are required for high productivity and human satisfaction. Employee relations generally deal with avoiding and resolving issues concerning individuals which might arise out of or influence the work scenario. Strong employee relation depends upon healthy and safe work environment, cent percent involvement and commitment of all employees, incentives for employee motivation, and effective communication system in the organization. Healthy employee relations lead to more efficient, motivated and productive employees which further lead to increase in production level. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of Fortune magazine’s “America’s Best Companies to Work For” also appear on the Fortune 500. While it is possible that employees enjoy working at these organizations because they are successful, the Watson Wyatt WorldwideHuman Capital Index study suggests that effective human resources practices lead to positive financial outcomes more often than positive financial outcomes lead to good practices.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE
Employee relations had its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. As society wrestled with these massive economic and social changes, labour problems arose. Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikes, and the threat of social instability. Intellectually, industrial relations was formed at the end of the 19th century as a middle ground between classical economics and Marxism, with Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb’s Industrial Democracy being the key intellectual work. Industrial relations thus rejected the classical econ. Institutionally, employee relation was founded by John R. Commons when he created the first academic industrial relations program at the University of Wisconsin in 1920. Early financial support for the field came from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. who supported progressive labour-management relations in the aftermath of the bloody strike at a Rockefeller-owned coal mine in Colorado. In Britain, another progressive industrialist, Montague Burton, endowed chairs in industrial relations at Leeds, Cardiff and Cambridge in 1930, and the discipline was formalized in the 1950s with the formation of the Oxford School by Allan Flanders and Hugh Clegg. Industrial relations were formed with a strong problem-solving orientation that rejected both the classical economists’ laissez faire solutions to labour problems and the Marxist solution of class revolution. It is this approach that underlies the New Deal legislation in the United States, such as the National Labour Relations Act and the Fair Labour Standards Act.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, while most workers are on job, they do not produce more simply because of the un-healthy relationship they have with their fellow colleagues and employers. A recent study conducted by Blyton (2008) revealed that employees do not put up their best performances at workplaces when they are un-happy with management, government, or even their fellow colleagues. Bad employee-employer relationship results in strike actions and lockouts. All these actions taken by employees to display their grievances only do the organization harm than good as productivity will be reduced drastically.
By many accounts, employee relations today are in crisis. In academia, its traditional positions are threatened on one side by the dominance of mainstream economics and organizational behaviour, and on the other by postmodernism. In policy-making circles, the industrial relations emphasis on institutional intervention is trumped by a neo-liberal emphasis on the laissez faire promotion of free markets.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objectives for this study are:

  1. To identify various employee relations practices, and its effect on the productivity of an organization.
  2. To identify the challenges faced by employees at work places.
  3. To identify ways of enhancing healthy relationship between employees and employers in an organization.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were used to achieve the above objectives:

  1. What are the various employee relations practices in your organization, and how do they affect productivity?
  2. What challenges do you face in your organization?
  3. In what ways can healthy relationship be enhanced between employees and employers in an organization?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to bring out the various employee relations practices which South Akim Rural Bank has undertaken to increase its productivity and contribute its quota in the economic development of the communities which it operates, and the country at large. This study will therefore help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of relationship practices between employers and employees in an organization. The study will also bring out specifically, the employee relations practices which the bank has been able to make available to its employees. It also seeks to bring out the level of encouragement and motivation the bank has given to its employees to work effectively, among others. The importance of this study is therefore to highlight the various employee relations practices and how it affects the productivity of an organization. This study will go a long way to illustrate how organizations should treat employees’ in-order to increase productivity.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the research will be limited to South Akim Rural Bank at the New Juaben Municipal Assembly in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The research will rely on the bank for vital information as well as information from secondary source. The research will take duration of four months to complete.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher encountered a limitation in regards to availability of information. Thus due to the institutions working ethics, the researcher could not get access to vital information since it was treated as confidential and the targeted respondent’s number was not attained since some employees were on leave. Inadequate funds and availability of time also became a limitation.

1.8 CHAPTER SCHEME
The project will be organized around following chapters;
Chapter one gives an introduction to the research work. It gives the basic information about the company and the research being undertaken. This chapter therefore consists of the background of the study and organizational profile, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, and limitations encountered by the researcher.
Chapter Twoconsists of the literature review and the theoretical framework
Chapter three gives details of the research methodology. The research methodology represents the various ways and methods which the researcher used in order to gain his information.
Chapter Fourgives the analysis and interpretation of the information gathered by the researcher.
Chapter five gives the findings and conclusion of the researcher. Here, conclusions will be drawn based on the findings and their implications will also be given.

 

Literature Review

The relationship between the employer and the employee is important, therefore business owners need to pay attention to this relationship if they want their businesses to grow and succeed (Bhattacharya et al. 2012). There are a number of employee retention strategies that business owners can utilise in order to maintain the good relationship they have with the employees. Several source including Kleinalten-kamp and Ehret (2006), Strohmeier (2013), and Yan and Stafford (2011) outline relationship strategies targeted at workers might include amongst others motivating, providing incentives, delegating important responsibilities, being open and transparent, team building, and so on.Burns (2012: 186-196) declared that good employer-employee relations are essential for different reasons. These reasons might include:Employees who are inspired to work produce better and more results.The level of competency of the staff increases because of their drive to become better.Customer service is improved because employees who have good relations with their employer are usually viewed as good customer consultants. Institute of Leadership and Management (2007) outlines a number of issues that can cause the downfall of the employer-employee relationship. Some of the issues include:The High Rate of Inflation The increment of the inflation rate in an economy results in an increased standard of living Berument et al. 2011: 149). When this happens,workers start to demand higher salaries to complement the increased cost of living. This situation possesses the potential for the breakdownof the employer-employee relationship.Lack of Trust and Respect According to Hunt et al. (2009: 71-77) trust and respect are earned by an employer through open communication, consistent feedback and delegation of responsibilities to the staff. An employer who fails to abide by these elements of trust and respect will eventually also put a negative strain on the relationship. Globalisation provides the platform for changes in work processes, management style and technology (Spence 2011: 28). Business owners should always monitor the global economy to ensure they are up to date with current global trends of relationship management. A business that fails to do so is faced with the potential of losing their work force. Labour laws were designed by the South Africa government to protect workers against unfair treatment by their employers (Cazes et al.2012). Every employee eventually become saware of these. It is important for the employer toensure that they comply with these laws or face penalties and a demise of the relationship they have with the staff.Daft and Marcic (2010) advise business owners to never allow a negative relationship to exist between themselves and their staff. If this happens, the productivity levels of the organisation decrease. The employees are the ones who have direct contact with the customers and go an extra mile to be helpful. When they are happy, a good relationship between themselves and the customer is created and maintained.When they are unhappy these employees often direct their unhappiness at the customers.Interpersonal Skills as the Basis for Building and Maintaining Relationships To build strong relationships in the workplace, business owners need to develop their interpersonal skills. According to Nkosietal.(2013: 10-20), interpersonal skills will make it easier for the business owners to manage relationships and succeed in business. Some of the interpersonal skills include:

  1. The ability to understand other people’s behaviors and interpret them correctly (Gilley 2006: 5). The business owners must aim to recognise and correctly in-terpret the feelings, thinking, and behaviour of another person. Gilley states that this is done in an effort to discover their fears, failures, successes and actions The ability to manage impressions and present oneself competently to others (Chiaburu and Stoverink 2013). Success in business today depends on building successful relationships. Knowing how to present yourself professionally gives you a powerful edge over the competition. Business owners must have a combination of confidence, competence, attitude, manners, and communication.These are enhanced by a polished executive image; knowing what to do, how and when to do it.

III. The ability to communicate and get your message across (Jones and Sinnett 2011).Good communication skills will enable business owners to convey important in-formation. They should never be tongue tied, know what to say, and say it.

  1. The ability to persuade others and influence their behaviours, attitudes, opinions and beliefs (Kehoe and Wright 2013).Business owners are encouraged to use the authority and systems they have in their organization to persuade and influence staff to work efficiently and effectively to ensure that the organization goals are met and good relationships are maintained.

V. The ability to use power (Pfeffer 2009).Business owners must use the power they have to influence staff but must not act in an intimidating manner.Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has been outlined as a difficult entity to define even in simplistic operational terms. Schults and Schults (2002) referred to job satisfaction as the positive feelings and attitudes employees hold about their jobs. This depended on many work-related factors, ranging from the sense of fulfilment workers get on their daily tasks and many more. Yang et al. (2011) states that personnel factors can also affect job satisfaction. These factors include age, health,and length of job experience, emotional stability, social status, family and other social relationships. Their motivations and aspirations and how well these are satisfied by their work also affect their attitudes towards their jobs.Daft and Marcic (2010) describe job satisfaction as an accurate indicator of good relationships between the employer and the employees.This is because a satisfied worker usually has good relationships with the employer.Previous research from Jeon and Choi (2012) pointed out that employees who were happy with their jobs are the most likely to satisfy customers and manage good relationships with them. This may suggest that treating employees well puts them in a better frame of mind to treat customers well. Lusch and Vargo (2006)were of the opinion that customer service and employee satisfaction were closely related to each other. Customers, for example expect outstanding customer service. Employees want recognition and compensation that relate to the achievement of customer service goals. Customers want to deal with knowledgeable customer-contact personnel who can make decisions. Employees want to be led, inspired and recognised. This study encourages business owners to continuously make efforts to satisfy their employees as they are the ones who contribute the most to production, sales and customer satisfaction. The owners should make efforts to understand what satisfies their staff and continuously check whether the business processes and management are in line with what the employees want. The owners must find their own method to measure job satisfaction either by having one on one session with staff, distribution of questionnaires, and so on.As far back as 1989, Bennet stated that job satisfaction was not easy to measure because there was no standard measurement criterion for business owners. Some firms issue questionnaires to employees asking them to list in rank order the tasks that they find particularly boring and/ or unpleasant. Equally, employees might be invited to comment on the working conditions they regard as most attractive (security,good working conditions, responsibility, control over work, etc.). Results from such surveys may help in providing to the employees whatthey need in the organization in order to be satisfied.The factors that affect job satisfaction vary from one worker to another and from day to day,but include the following:The nature of the work (the tasks involved,and the interest and challenge the job generates).The level of compensation The perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company The quality of the working condition Management style Social relationships in the workplace Along with contributing to a general senseof personal well-being, job satisfaction is per-ceived to be linked to a positive work attitude and increased productivity.

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EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ON ORGANIZATIONL PERFORMANCE

THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON COMPANY’S MARKETING EFFICIENCY (A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BEER)

THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON COMPANY’S MARKETING EFFICIENCY (A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BEER)

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Certification                   –         –         –         –         –         –         i

Dedication            –         –         –         –         –         –         ii

Acknowledgement-      –         –         –         –         –         iii

Abstract                –         –         –         –         –         –         iv

List of table                     –         –         –         –         –         –         v

CHAPTER ONE

  • General Introduction –         –         –         –         1
  • Background of the Case Study       –         –         –         4
  • Statement of Problem –         –         –         –         6
  • Objectives of the Study – –         –         –         7
  • Research Hypothesis –         –         –         –         8
  • Scope of the Study/ Limitation –         –         –         9
  • Limitation –         –         –         –         –         –         10
  • Significant of the study – –         –         –         11
  • Definition of Terms –         –         –         –         12

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Review of Related Literature –         –         –         14

2.1     Introduction         –         –         –         –         –         –         14

2.2     The advertising Concept        –         –         –         –         16

2.3     Advertising determination   –         –         –         18

2.4     Arrival of Champion Beer in Nigeria        –         –         22

2.5     Method of Advertising –         –         –         –         23

2.6     Nutritional Information of Champion      –         –         26

2.7     Availability in Other Markets          –         –         –         27

2.8     Summary and Literature Review    –         –         28

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology

3.1     Introduction                   –         –         –         –         –         31

3.2     Research Design  –         –         –         –         –         32

3.3     Area of Study      –         –         –         –         –         33

3.4     Population of the study          –         –         –         –         33

3.5     Determination of Sample and Sampling Technology-          34

3.6     Test of validity and Reliability        –         –         –         36

3.7     Instrument for Data Collection        –         –         –         37

3.7.1  Source of Data Collection       –         –         –         37

3.7.2  Method of Data collection      –         –         –         39

3.8     Techniques for Data Analysis          –         –         –         40

3.9     Administration of the Instrument   –         –         43

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA.

4.1     Introduction                   –         –         –         –         –         45

4.2     Data Presentation          –         –         –         –         ­-         45

4.3     Analysis of Research Question        –         –         –         46

4.4     Test of Hypothesis                   –         –         –         –         51

4.5     Hypothesis Resting       –         –         –         –         54

4.6     Discussion of Findings –         –         –         –         58

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary of the Study –         –         –         –         59

5.2     Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         61

5.3     Recommendations        –         –         –         –         –         63

References

Appendix

Questions

LIST OF TABLE

Question 1: How can a Manufacturer Motivated

In order to Improve Product Advertising.          –          46

Question 2: Reasons Why Consumers Resist

Advertising and Branding Increase –         –         48

Question 3: What Role Does Government Plays In

Advertising Issues In The Economy?        –         –          5

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Good advertising can result in unproved company’s productivity. (Gallup2009) Advertising in broad terms refers to or includes all the process as involved in bring a product of a particular company to potential current and targeted customers.  `

It is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas goods and services by an identified sponsor. Advertising is the process involve in bringing a product of a particular company to potential and current and targeted customers according to kotbrang Amstrong (2008).

Advertising is aimed at selling goods and services creating demand, familiarizing the public with the sales men, creating goodwill, introducing net style and customs. Interestingly, the term advertising is commonly used in the society to mean creating awareness to an existence of a particular product through the mass media or print media or communication via news paper, pictures on walls, bill boards, electronic media such as radio, television internet etc. The Awake 2000 state “that advertising can even create market where no market exist”. Advertising is part of marketing mix but it can be used by the individual such as an entertainer or by non-commercial organization not engaged in marketing such as hospital advertising for staff. Advertising is one of the four major tools companies use to direct persuasive communication to target buyers and the public. The word advertising means making known to a buying people’s notice. Advertising play a vital role in brand performance and this is supported by the acronym AIDA.

A       –         Attention

I         –         Interest

D       –         Desire

A       –         Action

This acronym desires the process of advertising from the point of creating awareness, through interest desire, confidence and busying action.

  • STATE OF PROBLEM

Most customers or consumers lack of adequate information about products. No effective communication of the usefulness of the products that can satisfy consumer needs and wants have been made. This makes the level of consumers awareness to be poor. Many lack knowledge and understanding about the actual massage that may be communicated to them through advertising. Hence, the study is to examine the impact of advertising on companies, marketing efficiency with a view to recommending measures for improvement.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study will strive to meet the following objectives:-

  1. To determine the best media of advertising for products, goods and services to be adopted by firms.
  2. To ascertain whether advertising and marketing strategies really influence consumers of goods and services.
  3. To find out how the uniqueness of products can be shaped by advertising.
  4. To examine how a manufacturer could be motivated to improve product advertising.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in the course of the study:-

  1. Is there any significant relationship between advertising and he level of sales by organizations?
  2. Does quality of advertising affect the overall income generated by manufacturers and producers of goods and services?
  3. Is advertising a relevant tool for marketing of products and services by firms?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between advertising and the level of product sales by organizations.

Hi: There is significant relationship between advertising and the level of product sales by organizations.

HO: The quality of advertising does not in any way affect the overall income generated by manufactures and producers of goods and services.

Hi: The quality of advertising affects the overall income generated by manufactures and producers of goods and services.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Product advertising is an issue that concerns all manufacturing industries. Every consumer is worried about the problem of low level of information on products. For this reason the study requires a wider coverage.

However, it is practically impossible to understudy the product advertising methods of all industries. The investigation therefore will be restricted to one industry which is champion Breweries Plc, Uyo, the case of study.

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In the process of carrying out this work of study, the researcher encountered the problem of data collection. Uncooperative attitude of some respondents threatened to hinder the research. In adequate finance to prosecute the study extensively was another constraint of the study. There was a problem in the returning of questionnaire by respondents who unduly delayed the questionnaires.

However, these did not hinder the success of the study. The outcome was deemed satisfactory.

  • SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
  • Many organizations will find the study useful in knowing the effective approach to adopt for improved advertising.
  • The influence of good advertising will be appreciated by consumers.
  • The study will add to existing body of knowledge on advertising.
  • The study will facilitate good understanding of advertising processes.

 .DEFINITION OF TERMS

Advertising: this refers to the processes involves in bring a product of a particular company to potential and current and targeted customers. (Gallup 2009).

It is any form of non – personal communication through the mass media that is paid for by an indentified sponsor.

Marketing: It is set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment. (Kotler 2000).

Economics: Is the study of human behavior, the relationship between the ends and same means which has alternative uses.

Advertising Agency: A service organization that is involved in advertising and may perform related research and promotional activities.

Market: According to (Wempsner 1990) market refer to a situation where buying and selling decisions are made and does not necessary mean a physical coordination or place for the exchange of goods and service.

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THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON COMPANY’S MARKETING EFFICIENCY (A CASE STUDY OF CHAMPION BEER)

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN AKWA IBOM STATE (A STUDY OF USMAN TABLE WATER COMPANY

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN AKWA IBOM STATE (A STUDY OF USMAN TABLE WATER COMPANY)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                                     Pages

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Limitation of the Study

1.9 Definition of Terms and Acronyms

 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Meaning of Small Scale Business

2.3 Characteristic of Small Scale Business

2.4 Stating problem and Failure Signs of Small Scale Business

2.5 Budget-Objectives and Benefit

2.6 Basic Accounting Problems of Small Scale Business

2.7 Records Keeping and the Law

2.8 Accounting Books Needed By Small Scale Business

2.9 Interpretation of Account

2.10 Analysis of Financial Statement

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCHER DESIGN

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Area of Study

3.3 Population of the Study

3.4 Sample Determination and Sampling Techniques

3.5 Method of Data Collection

3.6 Source of Data

3.7 Data Presentation and Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Data Analysis and Result

4.3 Test of Hypothesis

4.4 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Reference

Appendices

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 Background of the study

There is no body that strikes for self-actualization where there is no need for it; it has been applied to business. A small scale business is a privately owned and operated business, characterized by a small number of employees. Small scale businesses are the back bone of our economy creating jobs and adding new and innovative product to the market.

The future reliefs on the small scale business operator or promoters in the economic development of the nation. This can be enhanced by complying with the accounting standard set to guide business operations, other wise know as General Accepted Accounting principle (GAAP). GAAP refers to the standard frame work of guideline for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. These include the standards, convention and rules that accountant follows in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statement. Many countries use or are conveying on the international financial reporting standard (IFRS). It was established and is maintained by the international accounting standard board. IFRS are designed as a common global language for business affairs so that companies are understandable and comparable across international boundaries in some countries, local accounting principle are applied for regular companies but listed or large companies much conform to IFRS, so statutory reporting is comparable internationally across jurisdictions.

However, in the development of small scale business, adherence to accounting standard would go a long way. Therefore this research is carried out mainly tog mark small scale business be ware of ways of resolving their business accounting problem which liquidate their business or financial transaction.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As institution, firm and government have certain specified rules and regulations governing them, so do business have rules that guide or give standard to which transactions are recorded, summarized and prepared for financial statement in a given jurisdiction. These set of guideline in accounting is known as accounting standard, otherwise referred to as general accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

The cause of these problems such as the issue of misapplication of accounting policies, electrical mistake in accounting date, omission of transactions, records or document, is what has prompted the researcher to carryout a study on it which will spread venture result in preferring suggestion that will lead to solution to them with reference to Usman Table Water Company, Mbak Itam.

Most business does not abide by these rules especially the small scale business, which has led to their down fall (or folding up), large scale business also have begun to fold up as a result of not adhering to these standards. If they are not folded up completely, they resort tog small scale business. Now the question arise “if they were unable to follow the accounting standard when large how much more then will they be able to follow these standard while small in nature”.

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study include the following

  1. To evaluate the impact of accounting standard on small scale businesses.
  2. To identify the problems created by non-existence of accounting records and inadequate accounting information.
  • To give recommendations that is appropriate for controlling and monitoring of small scale business in order to make reasonable profit in the business by the owners.
  1. To ascertain the reason why qualified personnel are not engaged in the service of small scale business.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How can Accounting standard enhance the development small scale business?
  2. To what extent can accounting standard be applied in small scale business?
  3. What are the causes of small scale business failure?
  4. What are the challenges faced by small scale business in the application of accounting standards?
  5. Do small scale business have any impact on the growth and development of the economy?

1.5  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: Accounting Standards does not have significant impact on the development of small scale business.

Hi: Accounting Standards have a significant impact on the development of small scale business.

Ho: There is a significant effect of economic activities on the development of small scale business.

1.6  SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

  1. The significance of the study is to solve accounting problems encountered by small business proprietors and manager. Besides, it also helps in knowing why these small scale business proprietors have been keeping few records and or in some cases, not keeping any record at all.
  2. Again this research will help in revealing the problems encountered by those small scale business and providing a lasting solution to it in order to help the investigators and managers expand their businesses and finally solving their solvency problems if record of accounting is followed. Also, it will created an avenue whereby the impact of professionalism would be fall in accounting system and in which accounting network is built in the world of business.
  3. Finally this research work will in no small way assist those inter.
  4. This study was undertaken to find out how the small scale business in Uyo as developed overtime and to what extent it has performed its critical role of driving the country and state industrials transformation and development as it has done in other develop countries.
  5. Significant of the study determine that lack of finance is a function of multiple problems and that the major source of credit available for the financing small scale business in Akwa Ibom State are personal saving family friend support and commercial bank. The study recommended among others small scale partnership and equality participation by financers loan guarantees interest rate concession, fiscal incentive and adequate training for SMEs as the factors that will drive the rapid transformation and development of the SME sector in the state.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is a based on the impact of accounting standard on the development of small scale business a study of Usman Table Water Company, Mbak Itam Akwa Ibom State. The following areas are covered with the scope of the study, basic account problems of small scale business, account books needed by small scale business, interpretation of account and analysis of financial statement.

1.8  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

It should be noted that this project only concern itself on business particularly, Uyo. The research as a result of limited time factors, anti-research attitude and lack of finance are the limitation involved in putting the project together. Lack of fund and time do not constitute a limitation on the study.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS

The following terms as well as used in the research work defined or explained;

  • Accounting Standard: Is a principle that govern current accounting practice and that is used as a reference to determine the appropriate treatment of complex transactions by Nseobong Jonathan (2011) also investopedict explains accounting standard as a guildeline for financial accounting, such as how a firm prepares and presents it business income and expenses, assets and liabilities.
  • Business Control: Accounting to Stephen (2012) defines business as the production or purchase and sale of goods undertaken with an objective of earning project and acquiring wealth through the satisfaction of human wants.
  • Internal Control: Is a process for assuring achievement of an organization’s objectives in operational effectiveness and efficiency reliable financial reporting and compliance with laws, regulations and policies. According to Chukwu Emeka O. Ojo (2007).
  • Book Keeping: This is the recording on a day to day basis of the financial transaction and information pertaining to a business by Ojo (2010).
  • Convention: A body of principles that regulates the practice of accounting profession, so that the preparation of financial statement is guide by consisted and acceptable principles by Joseph Udoh (2013).
  • Profit: Money gained by selling a product or services for more than it cost produce or supply. Ifiok Abasi A. (2012).

 Financial Ratio:  Is an instrument used in assessing the performance of a company according to Agbo (2010).

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THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN AKWA IBOM STATE (A STUDY OF USMAN TABLE WATER COMPANY

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION (A STUDY OF AKWA SAVING AND LOANS LIMITED UYO)

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING ON  EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION (A STUDY OF AKWA SAVING AND LOANS LIMITED UYO)

 

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                 Pages

Cover Page      –      –      –      —     –      –      –      –       –      i

Title Page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      ii

Certification    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      iii

Dedication       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      iv

Acknowledgement   –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      v

Abstract   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      —     –       –      vii

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      viii

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study –      –      –      –      –       –      1

1.2   Statement of the Problem       –      –      –      –       –      2

1.3   Objectives of the Study   –      –      –      —     –       –      3

1.4   Research questions –      –      –      –      –      –       –      4

1.5   Significances of the Study      –      –      –      –       –      5

1.6   Scope of the Study –      –      –      –      –      –       –      4

1.7   Limitation of the Study   –      –      –      –      –       –      5

1.8   Definition of terms and Acronyms   –      –      –       –      6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      9

2.2   Brief History and Development       –      –      –       –      10

2.3   Development of Accounting in Nigeria    –      –       –      12

2.4   Accounting Concepts and Convention     –      –       –      17

2.5   Recording Transaction    –      –      –      –      –       –      24

2.6   Financial Statement –      –      –      –      –      –       –      26

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES

3.1   Introduction    –      –      —     –      –      –      –       –      32

3.2   Research Design     –      –      –      –      –      –       –      32

3.3   Area of the Study    –      –      –      –      –      –       –      32

3.4   Population of the Study   –      –      –      –      –       –      33

3.5   Sample Determination and Sampling Techniques      –      33

3.6   Sources of Data      –      –      –      –      –      –       –      34

3.7   Methods of Data Collection     –      –      –      –       –      35

3.8   Data Presentation and Analyses Method        –       –      –      37

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1   Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      —     –       –      37

4.2   Data Analysis and Results      –      –      –      –       –      38

4.3   Testing of Hypothesis     –      –      –      –      –       –      41

4.4 Discussion of Findings      –      –      –      –      –       –      45

CHAPTER FIVE:     SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduction –      –      –      —     –      –    –      47
  • Summary –      –      –      –      –      –      –    –      47
  • Conclusion –      –      –      –      –      –      –    –      48
  • Recommendation –      –      –      –      –    –      49

References

Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Accounting plays a vital role in an organization ensuring effective management function which contributes immensely to the success for an organization. The accounting department and/or board of directors with information before a decision could be taken.

Decision making is an important and necessary activity of every business organization, large art small. A few decision are rather routine and can be made quickly after consulting only a few complex and serious large range problems.

In order to get through these a great deal of accounting information is need before a decision failure of the organization and its destiny.

Today accounting plays the most important and accurate role in all organization both small and big business organization depends on accounting information available to them to make proper decision to help them achieve their goals.

It is therefore wise to plan ahead of time with the adequate and reliable financial data which account will provide are available. The researcher shall also examine several ways in which accounting has became role for management and owners of the organization and how the business men depend on the information provide by the accountant as the basis for policy information and decision making.

 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has been high incidence of failure in business organizations, banking institutions, educational institutions because of poor management decision.

Failure in organizations also as a result of poor planning which arises from inaccurate data generated in the organization. If an organization is associated with poor planning, poor decision making, law productivity is inevitable. When the management and board of directors are not properly informed they are band to make mistakes and this may lead to the collapse of the organization.

 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  

The researcher conducts this research study so as to direct the minds or all those who may wish to use this research work including the entire staff of the company understudy towards the achievement of the following objectives:

  1. To determine the extent of which accounting functions ha helps the top management executives in both private and public organizations to make up good decisions.
  2. To find out factors that affect the accounting department preventing them from carrying out their functions as expected.
  3. To determine the assessment of government (federal and state) cognition of they of accounting in the nation economy.
  4. To examine government policies which promote accountability in public and private enterprises in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to arrive at the possible findings some questions were asked as follows:

  1. How professionally qualified and competent are the accountants in Akwa Savings and loan limited Uyo?
  2. Are the facilities equipment and instruction also available in these banks adequate for the account?
  3. What are the factors that affect accounting department in these bank the makes it not loss function effectively as expected?
  4. Is the general instructional aides conduction for the staff in Akwa Savings and loan limited?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

At the completion of this research work a lot of people would derive benefit from it with the in-depth assessment of the role that accounting plays in a better management function, government would benefits from this research work because is helps them to do their budget planning.

Business organization would also benefit from this research, it would also be benefit from overall success or otherwise of any business enterprises which depends on the accounting information supplied to the management.

This project would help other students of accounting as a source of information in their academic works.

 1.6  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is Limited to Akwa Savings and Load Limited Oron Road Branch, Uyo, with references to accounting as a tool for effective management function in an organization.

 1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Due to the high cost of fuel, the research could not travel to other branches for the availability of needed materials time constraint from the respondent also limited the study.

 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS     

Some terminologies about the accounting functions aid to effective administration could be wrongly under stood.

This is because much of these terminologies and their meaning have specific usages or application to avoid such misconceptions, the researcher has decided to explains some terms as used in their researcher study.

ACCOUNTING: 

Accounting to (AAA) American Accounting Association defined accounting as the process of identifying, measuring and communication economic information to permit informed judgment and decision by users of the information.

BUDGET: 

According to oxford dictionary budgeting is the amount to money that spent wisely on a particular purpose.

MANAGEMENT:

       Management is the effective and efficient utilization of human and non-human resources or achieves organizational goals (Onuoha. 1991).

PUBLIC SECTOR: 

       Public sector includes all organization which are not privately owned but which operated and/or established by government on behalf of the general public in other word. Public sector consists of organization where control lies in the hand of the public (Ama, 2000).

COMMUNICATION: 

This is defined as “the process by which information is passed between individual and/or organization by means of previously agreed symbols” other words, communication is the exchange and/or sharing of meaning and data (Libby. 1997).

BOOK-KEEPING:

This refers to the act of recording business transaction in such a manner that the financial position of a business can be ascertain radically at any point in time (J.S. Etokudo).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL 

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION (A STUDY OF AKWA SAVING AND LOANS LIMITED UYO)

THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

   THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter one: Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Question

1.5 Significance    of the study

1.6 Delimitation

1.7 Limitation

1.8 The Definition of Terms

 Chapter two – Review of Related Literature

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Communication flows in an organization

2.3 Form of Communication

2.4 Components of Communication Process

2.5 Communication methods

2.6 Theoretical  Framework

 Chapter Three – Research  Methodology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Area of the study

3.4 Population of the Study

3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.7 Method of Data Collection

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

 Chapter Four – Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation    

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Presentation   of Data

4.3 Discussion of Finding

Chapter Five –  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION

1.1     The Background of the Study

Ineffective communication detrimental is to managers and workers in organizations because it enables them not to perform their basic functions of management; planning, organizing, leading and controlling Elashmawi and Harris, (2000). Effective communication also helps workers and managers to perform their organizational goals and responsibilities. It serves as a function for planning Gamble and Gamble (2002). Essential information must be communicated to the workers and managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizers also require effective communication about their organizational task. Similarly leaders must communicate effectively with their subordinates to achieve the team goals and controlling is not possible without written and oral communication Harris, (2002).

Ineffective communication according to May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K., (2004) can be defined simply as the process where the message are not properly sent and therefore not properly acted upon as intended by the sender. Managers do not devote a great part of their time to communicate; they do not spend great time on face- to – face, telephonic and written communication with their superior, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers do not promote the use of written communication form of letters, report or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

Thus, we can say that “ineffective communication destroys the  building block of successful organizations” May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K. (2005), in other words ineffective communication acts as organizational performance barriers.

When communication is not effective, the end result is an increase in production time and a decrease in the bottom line. In order to avoid this outcome, effective communication must be in place (Joey, 2005). Consequently communication can be defined as the “exchange of information between the sender and a receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between individuals involved “(Bowditch et al, 2006). Analysis of this exchange reveals that communication is a two way process consisting of consecutively linked elements. Managers who understand this process can analyze their own communication patterns as well as design communication programs that fit organizational needs (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006).

Communication is rather complex to define in a single sentence. In a glimpse, however, it has many types which include; interpersonal, intrapersonal, group, public, mass and online or machine oriented communication (Gamble and Gamble, 2006). Communication remotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps in identifying and assessing alternative causes of action. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitude i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moldings employee’s attitude.

As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps in controlling organizational members behavior in various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employee must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their organizational tasks effectively and communicate any work problem and grievances to their superiors. Thus communication helps in controlling function of management.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Ineffective communication system hinders managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. The ineffectiveness in communication is the key Problem to organizational performance in any organization. This is because it barriers emotional expressions and decision making. In large organizations like Champion Breweries, miscommunication is inevitable.

Therefore, this study seeks to find out reasons for ineffective communication and causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo and recommend possible solutions.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are as follow;

  1. To determine the extent to which ineffective communications hinders good organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  2. To find out reasons for miscommunication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  3. To identify the causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  4. To find out the most suitable and result oriented pattern of communication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. To what extent does ineffective communication hinders good organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  2. What are the reasons for miscommunication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  3. What are the causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  4. Which communication pattern is the most suitable and result oriented in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?

1.5     Significance of the Study

Communication skills are more important to all other field of human endeavors. Whether you are an engineer or business personal having a firm grasp of communication will undoubtedly be a key sole to your business.

Oftentimes, people with great technical skills reach a point in their careers where they are no longer promoted because of their inability to communicate effectively.

The study is then relevance to business and corporate organizations, government parastatals. It is very indispensable; therefore, it is researchable to updating old and existing knowledge. It is believed that mass communication and business administration students will find it useful.

The study is also significance because it provides suggestions to the existing problem of ineffective communication which mar the smooth process of organizational performance. It will serve as research material for further research on related topics.

1.6     Delimitation of the Study

The study will focus primarily on ineffective communication on organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.

1.7     Limitation of the Study

In the course of undertaking the study, the researcher was faced with lack of funds which delayed the realization of the study and lack of secondary sources like library researchable materials.

1.8     Definition of Terms
1.  Ineffective communication: communication is said to be ineffective when message sent is being received and acted upon is not as intended by the sender.

  1. Communication pattern: a means of transferring messages from one person to another e.g upward or downward communication flow.
  2. Miscommunication: failure to communicate adequately
  3. Communication breakdown: this can be referred to as failure in exchange of information. It may be as a result of language barrier.
  4. Communication barrier: These are obstacles in a work place that prevent effective exchange of ideas or thoughts.

6.  Performance: the accomplishment of a given task measured against presented known standards of accuracy and completeness.

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THE IMPACT OF INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Introduction

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Objective of the study

1.4       Research questions

1.5       Research hypothesis

1.6       Significant of the study

1.7       Scope of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework of thereotical framework of the study

2.3 Ferdrick taylor (1856-1915) and scientific management

2.2.1 Theories or school of thought on management

2.3.2 Henrifaylos 1984 4926 contribution to management strategies

2.4 Factors that affect strategic management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)

2.4.2 Environmental opportunities and threats.

2.4.3   Some internal factors include

2.4.4    Shared value and culture of Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)

2.5 Causes of low productivity in Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

2.6       The need for vision in Akwa  Ibom transport Company (AKTC)

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1       Brief introduction

3.2       Area of the study

3.3       Population, sample and sampling procedure

3.4       Types and location of data used (optional)

3.5       Instrument for data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Brief introduction

4.2       Data presentation and analysis

4.3       Test of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Nigerian business organization has experienced a number of changes in recent years. Fundamental economic, restructuring growth in size and complexity of business organization have classifically attend the ways in which business executives can effectually manage a business. To cope with these changes, modern management techniques are used in the contemporary organizations.

Reffort, E. A (1989) in differentiating strategic management considered the word “ strategy management that embodies two essential component, time span and strategic formulation. Strategic management as a long term management has a time horizon of at least three years.

Strategy implementation requires the practice of the chosen strategy. It entail series of sequential as well as parallel streams of activity and their result fits together into a pattern to produce the desired level of effective interaction. Strategy is implemented through. Although a implementation of strategy is situational (Thompson, and Strickland, AJ 2001) identified certain steps for it effective strategic implementation such as, Building an organization with the competence capabilities and resource strength, developing budget to achieve the financial and strategic objectives establishing strategy. Supportive policies and procedures trying rewards  and incentives to achievement of performance and good strategy execution and installing information communication e-commerce and operating system. (Karammer, A 1987).

It is worthy to note that strategic management has a valuable effect on organization performance. This can be achieved by means of strategic planning which help a company to capitalize on opportunities and cope with treats provide a basic for measuring performance leads a company to act rather than react, ensures setting and acceptance of common goals and also trains managers to thinks ahead. However, strategic management entail risks the process may expose underlying conflicts within the organization. It may disrupt the flow of information and the ways decisions are made and also post fear and suspicious by conservative managers that strategic management might expose their weakness. These factors may beset the effective strategy implementation in most Nigeria Business Organizations.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

            In formulating and implementing strategies in organization. There are problems faced as a result of these strategies. The major problem to be emphasized on here is poor policy and strategy formulation.

Lack of communication; the strategic plan is not communicated to front-line employees who are therefore working in the dark.

Also managers are so tied up with day to day operating problem that they lose sight of the long-term strategic goals.

Confusing terminology and language people do not understand what government want because it is not expressed clearly in the strategic plan.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

(1) To examine the effect strategic management on organization performance with particular reference to Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

(2) To examine if the business communication strategy is given clearly and regularly to employees.

(3) To examine how strategic management helps in improving organizational performance by setting new priorities for funds and personal.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following Research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • What way do strategic management contribute to an organizational performance with a particular reference to Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)?
  • What problems are faced by manager in the implementation of management strategies?
  • What are the effects of strategic management on Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)?

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO: The objectives of organization cannot be accomplished through strategic management.

HI: The objective of organization can be accomplished through strategic management.

HO: Proper implementation of strategic management does not result in the growth of the organization performance.

HI: Proper implementation of strategic management result in the growth of the organization performance.

1.6       SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

           Generally, the success and continuity of any organization is determined by its productivity and performance.

In this regards students and interested reader would find this work very useful for reference purposes.

Sincerely, this research will help the executive and who ever at management position of any organization to properly make and implement some decisions that will arrest in the improvement of the Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC) performance. Hence, any other individual(s) who wish to go into any further research on this topic will find this work very useful.

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study concentrates on the strategic management on organization performance with particular references to Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

(1) STRATEGY: This is the process of management something or carrying out plan in skillful way.

(2) MANAGEMENT: Management is the process of working with and through others in order to achieve a goal.

(3) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: This is the formulation and implementation of plans and carrying out of activities relating to the matters which arte the vital or continuing importance to the organization.

(4) POLICY:  This is defined as a plan of action or statement of ideas proposed or adopted by a business.

(5) GOAL:  something that you hope to achieve a given period of time.

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 THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

 

DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS AN AIM TO EFFECTIVE ADMINISTATION IN AN ORGANIZATION (CASE STUDY OF UBA BANK PLC UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE)

DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS AN AIM TO EFFECTIVE ADMINISTATION IN AN ORGANIZATION (CASE STUDY OF UBA BANK PLC UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The establishment of company requires technical and management expatriates. For it to be sustained and continue to be in business as a going concern require a sound accounting and administrative policies procedures to be adopted. This is to guide against inefficiencies, misappropriation, fraud, waste and possible loss.

Domestic Management System  is a popular administrative and accounting procedure use by various organizations to safe guard it’s assets. Thus the proper functioning of the Domestic Management System  of any organization depends largely on the extent to which the internal audit department of that organization discharged it’s responsibilities and the size of such business.

Domestic Management System  is defined by the institute of chartered

Accountant as “the whole system of control, financial otherwise, establish by the management in order to carry on the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, to ensure adherence to management policies., safeguard the asset and secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of the records”.

The concept of the whole system of control in areas of authorization and approvals appraisals and review of performance and budgetary control.

In normal business situation, these controls must be spelt out and seen to be in existence and implemented by staff concern and designed, while the reports and output the emanating from the implementation of the control are sent to the management from the various department heads and supervisors. The responsibility of the internal audit department (staff) is to investigate and appraise the whole system of internal control and the efficiency with which the various department of business are performing that assigned functions.

Accordingly, Alkison (2013) opined that, domestic audit involves all in causes taken by management through the internal audit department to ensure that Domestic Management System  is placed functions efficiency and effectively.

Supporting this view, Eketere (2014) states that internal audit act as a managerial control system in area of

  1. Social and financial policy implementation
  2. Checking of fraud and preventing errors through regular investigations of possible suspected areas of weakness for the control system.
  3. Acting as a consultant to management in matter.
  4. Monitoring external responses to the Domestic Management System to minimize waste, losses and abuses.
  5. Assisting to educate staff of the organization on the needs to adhere to manage Domestic Management System .
  6. Making sure that financial information production are authentic and reliable for policy and decision making.

It is suffice to say at this point that internal control provides directions to all activities and monitor the working of all the section and branches of the organization control techniques. It is against this background seeks to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of an administration with reference to UBA pLC, Uyo.

Considering the fiduciary roles banks plays on the economy and the faced that bank dears with money and the need to present a true and fair view of the financial statement by the auditor, it became necessary to analyzed and measured the extent of bank control as a cost reduction technique and controls over its assets.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Inefficient utilization and management to assist of an organization could be as a result of ineffective control system which can create lapses and loopholes for various fraudulent practices to thrive. This problem may be caused partly by management and or law middle staff due to weak designed Domestic Management System . This can lead to non achievement of organization objectives.

In the right of the above management of various banks are therefore faced with the task of ensuring operational efficiency which would lead to achievement of the corporate objectives. The question of how effective is the Domestic Management System  put in place by management of this bank would proffer solution to the attendance fraudulent that may likely prevail in the bank.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of the study is to:

  • Find out how Domestic Management System help check fraudulent practice.
  • Find out the type of control system adopted by the bank
  • Find out the effect if a weakly designed Domestic Management System in an organization.
  • Access the need for internal audit department in the bank.
  • Find out if the Domestic Management System of the bank is operational and effective.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Some of the expected benefit that would accrued from his study are highlighted and specify as follow;

  1. It would assist management of organization on the need for a sound system of internal control as a deterrent to fraud.
  2. It would provide information to management of organization and other employee on the need to good decision adherence to management policy.
  3. Help management of the organization to design a social accounting and administrative policies and procedures.
  4. Helps other researcher academician, institution and organization who may want to adopt the working in the future as a guide in Domestic Management System .
  5. Of important to the researcher as it is conducted as a requirement of the award of National Diploma in Business studies.

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In the course of achieving the above objective effort would be made to provide answered to the following research question is stated as follows;

  1. Does the Domestic Management System help in checking fraudulent practice in your bank?
  2. Does the need for internal audit department your organization?
  3. Does the Domestic Management System rate the existing control system in your organization?
  4. Does the Domestic Management System adopt control system in your bank?
  5. Does the Domestic Management System weakly design Domestic Management System  in any organization.

1.6   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypotheses were carried out to support the study.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between Domestic Management System  and management effectiveness.

H1:   There is significant relationship between Domestic Management System  and management effectiveness.

Ho: There is no significant impact on the Domestic Management System  and management

H1: There is significant impact on the Domestic Management System  and management.

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DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS AN AIM TO EFFECTIVE ADMINISTATION IN AN ORGANIZATION (CASE STUDY OF UBA BANK PLC UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE)

THE EFFECTS OF IFRS ADOPTION AND FINANCIAL REPORTING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA. (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA LTD, ORON ROAD, UYO)

THE EFFECTS OF IFRS ADOPTION AND FINANCIAL REPORTING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA.(A STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA LTD, ORON ROAD, UYO)

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY (FBN)

International financial reporting standard (IFRS) are body of prescriptive rules and guidelines with global reach and appeal which provides direction and guidance on how business enterprises in a globalised world could achieved the goal of proper record keeping, transparency, uniformity, comparability  and enhancing public confidence in financial reporting (Tendeloo and vanstracten,2005). Their adoption represents an essential element to obtain an integrated, competitive and attractive beyond the European capital markets.

With the increasing internationalization of trading activities amongst countries of the world, necessitated by globalization, the Nigerian government was persuaded to approve a roadmap to introduce this set of uniform accounting standards initially for public interest entities (PIES).

Historically, the introduction of an acceptable global high quality financial reporting standards was initiated in 1973 when the international accounting standard committee (IASC) was formed by nine (9) professional bodies from different countries such as; united states of America, united kingdom, France, Canada, germane, Australia, Japan, Netherlands and Mexico (Garuba and Donwa, 2011). According to Ezeani and Oladele (2012), this body was properly recognized in 2001 and later transformed into the international accounting standard board (IASB) which developed accounting standards and related interpretations jointly referred to as the international financial reporting standards (IFRS).

The Quality Of Financial Reporting Is Indispensable To The Need Of Users Who Required Them For Investment And Other Decision Making Purposes (Fashina and Adegbite, 2014). Financial reports can only be regarded as useful if it represents the “economic substance” of an organization in terms of relevance, reliability, comparability, understandability, timeliness and simplified interpretation of accounting n umbers (Kenneth, 2012).

Before the IFRS adoption era, most countries had their own standards with local bodies responsible for developing and issuance of the local standards even if some of them align largely with the IAS. In this vein and in the Nigerian context, the Nigerian accounting standards board (NASB) was responsible for developing and issuing standards known as statements of accounting standards (SAS) and in the new dispensation, the body was renamed financial reporting council (FRC) of Nigeria as the regulatory body overseeing the adoption and implementation of (IFRS) Kenneth 2012.

Apparently, in a bid to take her own share of the benefits of using a set of accounting standards that not only allows for, but also enhance the comparability of financial reports across many geographical frontiers, on Wednesday,28 July,2010, the Nigerian federal executive council accepted the recommend of the committee on the roadmap to the adoption of IFRS in Nigeria, that it would be in the interest of the Nigerian economy for reporting entities in Nigeria to adopt globally accepted, high quality accounting standards by fully adopting the international financial reporting standard (IFRS) in a phased transition. (FIRS,2013; Fashina and Adegbite, 2014).

In December 2010, following the approval of the federal executive council, the Nigerian accounting standards board (NASB), (Now designated as financial reporting council of Nigeria), (FRCN) issued an implementation roadmap for Nigerian’s adoption of IFRS which set a January 2012 data for compliance for publicly quoted companies and banks in Nigeria.

Relatedly, according to Fashina and Adegbilte (2014), the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Securities and Exchange Commission also adopted this date for compliance and has issued guidance compliance circular to ensure full implementation of IFRS in Nigeria. The council further directed the Nigerian Accounting Standards Board (NASB), under the supervision of the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry, to take necessary actions to give effect to the council’s approval.

As part of plans to meet international standards the Federal Government has disclosed that new accounting system, the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) should take off in Nigeria on 1st January, 2012, especially with Public Interest Entities. In Nigeria, the government has taken its stand to involve all stake holders including institution before it finally decided to adopt the IFRS on a gradual basis.

The adoption of IFRS has been argued in contemporary literature to offer numerous financial and no-financial benefits. ,it is therefore in this connection that Barth et al, (2008) agued that IFRS (and their predecessor IAS) constrain managerial discretion while Daske et al, (2008) submitted that IFRS impose a more comprehensive and highly detailed set of disclosure requirements than domestic accounting standards.

When disclosure is improved upon and managerial discretions, with respect to treatment of accounting transactions, are constrained, this arguably suggests that IFRS will improve accounting quality and engender bather financial reporting practices. Importantly, improved comparability is also one of the valve-adding characteristics of IFRS as contended by its advocates.

Many countries all over the world, including Nigeria, are now IFRS-compliant. As a corollary, it is now less costly for investors to compare and evaluate firms inside and outside industries and countries (Coving, Defond, and Hung, 2007). As Nigeria new belong to the league of IFRS-adopting countries with effect from 2012, perhaps persuaded by the gains is promises, it however remains to be convincingly empirically established the extent to which this set of accounting standards has impacted on financial reporting practices in Nigeria.

This study therefore, is an attempt to provide evidence on the impacts of IFRS on Financial Reporting Practices in Nigeria.

 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       First Bank of Nigeria Ltd was established in 1894, it is Nigeria’s largest financial services institution by total assets and gross earning. First bank of Nigeria has more than 10 million customer accounts and over 750 branches providing a comprehensive range of retail and corporate financial services.

The bank has international presence through its subsidiaries; First Bank UK, First Bank Ghana, First Bank Guinea etc.

With its global reach, First Bank provides prospective investors wishing to explore the vast business opportunities that are available in Nigeria.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It has been observes that the major risk in corporate financial reporting is that financial statements are not fairly presented due to in advent or intentional errors. Management fail to provide certain information to users of financial statements, deliberately misleading them about the company’s operations. It is worthy of note that financial reporting pundits are unanimous in their agreement that financial reporting practice of a country depends on several factors that include the legal, economic, cultural and historical background of s country. It is then argue that financial reporting is not an end in itself, rather it should provide information that is used in making reasoned choices among alternative use of scarce resources in the conduct of business and economic acuities.

The problem is that firms have incentives to withhold or manipulate information in certain situation of poor performance. Life in the case of “Enron” and “WorldCom” who’s financial statements were Windom dressed there by miss leading the public until their eventual financial crises. It is against this backdrop that the researcher delve to investigate the effects of IFRS adoption on financial reporting practice in Nigeria.

1.3  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

In other to carry out this study successfully, the following objectives are to be pursued.

  1. To find out if financial statements prepared under IFRS enhances transparency and understandability.
  2. To find out if financial statements prepared under IFRS provides relevant and superior information to users.
  3. To find out if IFRS adoption enhances comparability of financial reporting across firms and comprise.
  4. To find out if IFRS adoption promotes efficiency of capital market functioning and cross-border investments.
  5. To identify the challenges faced by adopting international financial reporting standard (IFRS) as well as its possible solutions.

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In other to achieve the aforementioned objective the following research questions are formulated to guide the study.

  1. Does financial statement prepared under IFRS enhance transparency and understandability?
  2. Does a financial statement prepared under IFRS provide relevant and superior information to users?
  3. Does IFRS adoption enhances comparability of financial reporting across firms and comprises?
  4. Does IFRS adoption promote efficiency of capital market functioning and cross-border investments?
  5. What are the challenges faced by adopting international financial reporting standard (IFRS) as well its possible solutions.

1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between transparency and understandability of financial statements and IFRS.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between transparency and understandability of financial statement and IFRS.

  1. Ho: There is no significant impact of IFRS on information provided by financial statements.

Hi: there is significant impact of IFRS on information provided by financial statements.

  1. Ho: IFRS adoption does not enhance comparability of financial reporting across firms and countries.

Hi: IFRS adoptions do enhance comparability of financial reporting across firms and countries.

1.6  SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The study is significant to government, investors, business management, regulation bodies, educators, researchers, accountants, auditors and scholars particularly in the field of accounting.

This research seeks to make theoretical and practical contributions to the field of accounting in the area of international financial reporting standard (IFRS). It will particularly enhance the quality of literature in the field of accounting in Nigeria.

Researchers in this field would benefit from the study because it can serve as a bench mark for future research on corporate disclosure practices which would be of advantage to students and educations.

1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study focused on international financial reporting standard (IFRS). It is the research of reaction of entities and users of financial report to ascertain the correction between IFRS and financial reporting.

The work therefore centers on the role of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting practice in streamline to the study of your work.

 

1.8  LIMITATION OF STUDY

This research work is limited by the time frame within which the researcher is expected to complete it.

The small sample size used for this study may not be capable of leading to generalization.

1.9  DEFINITION OF TERMS

Accounting Standard: Are policy documents or rules that guide the preparation and presentation financial information.

Convergence: Refers ton the process of narrowing difference between IFRS and the accounting standards of countries that retain their own standards.

Corporate Attribute: These are company characteristics that can influence corporate financial reporting.

GAAP: Generally accepted accounting principles.

International Accounting Standard (IAS)

This is a body of accounting standard issued by the international accounting standard committee (IASC) now known as IASB.

International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) 

This is the international standard setting body responsible for issuing IFRS

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS)

This is a body of accounting and financial reporting standard promulgate by the IASB. It includes standards and interpretations adoption by the IASB.

Mandatory Disclosure: Refers to the information companies are obliged to disclose by the accounting standard sitting bodies.

Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB)

This is the Nigerian accounting standards setting body responsible for issuing statement of accounting standards (SAS)

Statement of Accounting Standard (SAS)

This is the accounting standard issued by the Nigerian accounting standards board.

Financial Reporting:

Financial reporting is the preparation o published report for users of financial statement.

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THE EFFECTS OF IFRS ADOPTION AND FINANCIAL REPORTING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA.(A STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA LTD, ORON ROAD, UYO)

THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Cover page

Certification

Dedication

Declaration

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                    

  • Background of the study

1.2 Statement of problems

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Research hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Limitations of the study

1.8 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.3 General Effects of a Working Environment

2.4 Factors that influence employee’s productivity in a working environment

2.5 Good relations increase employee’s productivity in a workplace

2.6 The benefit of positive working environment

2.7 Safety working environment and employees Productivity

2.8 Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief introduction

3.2 Research design

3.3 Area of study

3.4 Population of the study

3.5 Sample and sampling technique

3.6 Method of data collection

3.7 Description of instrument for data collection

3.8 Method of data analysis

3.10 Decision rule

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

  • Brief introduction

4.2 Analysis of Questionnaire Administered

4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.4 Test of hypothesis

4.5 Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Brief introduction

5.2 Summary of the Study

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The organizations today consider employees as their top most priority. A lot of effort is put in order to attain, retain and motivate them. The traditional role is an employee is no more effective and the organizations are finding new ways of working.       The key to organizational success is the competitive workforce. The organizations strive hard to align organizational strategies and objectives with employee’s behaviors in order to stay competitive. The way in which employee accomplish organizationally set goals and relate their interpersonal behaviors to the organizational norms can be termed as employee productivity.

Factors of workplace environment play an important role towards the employee’s productivity. The factors of workplace environment give an immense impact to the employee’s productivity either towards the negative outcomes or the positive outcomes (Chandrasekar, 2001). Over the last decades, the factors of work environment of the office workers had changed due to the changes in several factors such as the social environment, information technology and the flexible ways of organizing work processes (Hasun and Maklibug, 2005).

A lot of past research has been devoted towards the concept of employee productivity. Employee productivity was found to be related to a number of factors including conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and emotional stability. Environment literally means surroundings and all those things that impact human being during the life time are collectively known as environment. A working environment is the environment where people work together for achieving organization objectives. It means, systems, processes, structures and tools and all those things which interact with employees and affect in positive or negative ways on employees productivity. It can also be defined as the location where a task is completed. When studying place of employment, the work environment involves the physical geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace such as a construction size or office buildings.

According to boles et al (2004), which the employee’s are physically and emotionally have the desire to work. Then their productivity outcomes shall be increased. Moreover, they also stated that by having a proper workplace environment. It helps in reducing the number of absenteeism and thus can increase the employees productivity which will leads to the increasing number of productivity at the workplace. Referring to this matter, research need to be done in order to identify the main contributor to the employees productivity and investigate on how the workplace environment in term of the job aid, supervisor support or relationship and physical work environment affect employees productivity at the workplace.

The concepts of “workplace productivity” means the factors of workplace that is being provided by the employers to their employees that could support the employees productivity at work (Clements-Croome, 2006). By having a high level productivity of employees, it will increase the company’s profit.

The workplace environment in a majority of ministry is unsafe and unhealthy. These includes poorly designed workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, inappropriate lighting, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack of personal protective equipment. People working in such environment are prone to occupational disease and it impacts thus reflect on employee’s productivity. Hence, productivity is decreased due to the workplace environment.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study was conducted to find out how employee’s productivity can be increased by developing a conducive working environment. The problems of inadequate working environment coupled with how productivity of workers in ministries is receiving increased serious attention in the state. Some of the reviewed studies done in MTN Nigeria have looked at workers productivity and working environment factors with limited information on the role of working environment and productivity of worker especially focusing on how working environment affect the availability, competence, productivity and responsiveness combine as they affect elements of productivity in the commission.

However, when there is a strong overturn of employee’s expectation on a workplace environment, the productivity of such workers are inadequate. Thus, they are not motivated to put in their best.

It is on this note; this research is being designed to address major issues confronting employees in their work environment. The study will also be interested in suggesting some solving measure on how to create and maintain a work environment that can bring out the best productivity from employees to boost organizational growth.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of work environment on employee’s productivity. To be precise, the research paper would seek to fulfill the below listed objectives:

  • To establish the relationship between a working environment and employee’s productivity.
  • To analyze workplace factors affecting the employees productivity
  • To examine whether a good working environment can enhance excellent employee’s productivity
  • To suggest the measures to improve the working conditions for better productivity.
  • To recommend solution to situations where work environment affect employee’s productivity.

1.4  Research Questions

For a meaningful research to be conducted, the following questions related to the study were asked:

  • Do workers who work in a conductive working environment perform better than those who work in an hazardous working environment?
  • To what extent does workplace factors influenced employee’s productivity?
  • Can a good work environment bring out the best productivity from employees?
  • To what extent does an improved work environment affect employee’s productivity?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

To answer the question above in section 1.4 more accurately which satisfy the objective of the research work, the following statement of hypotheses are set up as a guide to this research work.

The null hypothesis is denoted as “Ho” while the alternative hypothesis is denoted as “H1”.

  • Hypothesis One:

Ho: A good working environment does not bring out the best productivity from employees.

H1: A good working environment brings out the best productivity from employees.

  • Hypothesis Two

Ho: These are no significant difference between improved work environment and employee’s productivity.

H1: These are significant difference between improved work environment and employee’s productivity.

1.6  Significance of the Study

            The work place environment in a majority of ministry is unsafe and unhealthy. These includes poorly designs workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, poor lighting system, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack of personal protective equipment. People working min such environment are prone to occupational disease and it impact often reflects and affects employee’s productivity. Thus, productivity is decreased due to the workplace environment. Therefore, the study will be relevance in the area of addressing some of the challenges confronted by employees in their workplace environment.

In general, it is hope that, this study will be of help to government, directors, employers and employees in the area of creating conducive environment/ motivation to employees for better productivities.

Lastly, it is believed that, this study will be of help to study of tertiary institution at various levels of learning, particularly, the department of business management as this study will be a useful reference material for further research in the related field.

 

1.7       Limitation of the Study

This research work would have been carried out in better way if not some challenges uncounted by the researcher.

  1. Lack of adequate fund for logistics and access to sufficient materials.
  2. Time constraint: owing to the fact that there would not be enough time to carryout adequate study on the topic because of lectures, assign other assignments, test in class etc; it became difficult for the researcher to concentrate mainly on the project study.

1.8       Definition of Terms:

  • Employees: Employee is a group of people working for an organization or company or ministry.
  • Physical Work Environment: Physical work environment is the environment where people are fit with their job. This physical work environment may include the lightings, ventilation and also the temperature. It is also the surroundings in which an employee’s operates.
  • Productivity: Productivity is an act of measuring how well a person does a piece of work. It is also the amount of effort input by a person to achieve set goals.
  • Employee’s Productivity: Employee’s productivity is theory in which employees accomplish organizationally set goals and relate their interpersonal behaviours to the organizational norms
  • Organization: Organization can be seen as a body of persons organizes to achieve a common goal in a work environment.
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  • THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)