MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGERIA (a CASE STUDY OF KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGERIA (a CASE STUDY OF KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

 

ABSTRACT

Teacher motivation naturally has to do teacher’s desire in participation in the education process. Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing that goes in influencing individual’s behaviors and performance at work. The study addressed the motivational needs of teacher’s the factors responsible for lack of motivational of the teacher’s and strategies for improving the motivational needs, these needs include from society, good school building and entitlement. Furthermore, poor payment of salary and entitlement, poor school building conditions, lack of respect from the society are some of the factors responsible for lack of teacher’s motivation. However restoration of teachers past glory will go a long way in motivating teachers, salaries must be paid as at when due and teaching facilities and to enhance teachers productivity.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Declaration      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Certification     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Dedication       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Acknowledgement    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Abstract   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

Table of Contents     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      –      1

Statement of the general problem   –      –      –      –      –      5

Objectives of the study    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

Significance of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

Scope of the study   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      9

Limitations       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      9

 

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        10

Motivational Needs of Teachers       –      –      –      –      –        10

Factors responsible for lack of motivation        –      –      –        38

Strategies for Importing Teachers motivation –      –      –        44

 

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        59

Research design      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        59

Area of the study     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        60

Population of the study    –      –      –              –      –      –        60

Sample and sampling procedure      –      –      –      –      –        60

Instrument for data collection –      –      –      –      –      –        60

Validity of the instrument        –      –      –      –      –      –        61

Reliability of the instrument     –      –      –      –      –      –        62

Data collection         –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        62

Method of Data Analysis –      –      –      –      –      –      –        62

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation & Analysis

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        63

Presentation and Analysis of Data   –      –      –      –      –        64

 

CHAPTER FIVE:     Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion

Introduction            –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        79

Restatement of the problem    –      –      –      –      –      –        79

Description of procedure Used –      –      –      –      –      80

Summary                –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        81

Conclusion              –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        82

Recommendation     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        82

Suggestion              –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        84

Reference               –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        85

Appendix                 –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        89

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Motivation is the term used to describe the processes, both instructive and rational which people seek to satisfy their basic derives, perceived needs and personal goal which trigger human behavior (Cole 1885) it is indeed the force that energize behavior. The task before the researcher is to know what actually motivates teachers to work hard and use those factors to proffer solutions in order to get the best from the teachers or allow the teachers to contribute effectively towards the accomplishment of the set goal and to satisfy their own needs in the process.

 

An employer should be aware that the employees have different needs, different desires for responsibility, different level of knowledge and skills and different passive and are manipulated, motivated and controlled by the government as the knows what the citizens need and provide some of these needs. Needs may also be as a result of behavior for instance a person’s needs for accomplishment may be made stringer by the satisfaction he derives from achieving a desired goal or it may be dulled by failure (William 1993).

 

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MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGERIA (a CASE STUDY OF KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

 

ABSTRACT
As urban areas in Nigeria continue to grow, the need to meet increasing water demand for the population has become a major problem of concern to Urban Managers. The State water agency that are supposed to provide adequate and potable water supply to urban population have records of poor performance. To achieve the national and state water supply policy objectives of the issue of cost recovery reforms was introduced, imperatively, however to carry out cost recovery in our water sectors to provide efficient and sustainable water supply for the urban needs in a bid to protecting the vulnerable groups is important. In view of the stringent need to understand the intricate of cost recovery, the research study on the evaluation of cost recovery for water supply was instituted, the study evaluates the existing scenario of cost recovery for water supply service and its implications in Makurdi town with the population of 503.114. The survey investigation was based on a three settlement groups namely; high, medium and low residential density which has ten (10) substantive neighbourhoods settlements as the sampling framework in where a sample of 326 households was sampled (representing 0.3%sample size of the 95,577 total households in Makurdi) the sample size was drawn across the three settlement hierarchy named above which are served by the Water Board. Therefore, a systematic random sampling was used to administer questionnaires. Another sample of 1 questionnaire template was administered to the water board to source out information on their opinion pertaining cost recovery. The results obtained shows that the cost recovery for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of water supply in Makurdi urban area was only 43% and 57% of the cost recovery enquired during water supply and provisioning in the study area were not recovered by the water board. From the 43% of the cost recovery for water supply in the study area out of which appreciable percentage, precisely 22.7% is recovered from the vulnerable groups (i.e. low and medium income earners), while 77.3% of the cost is recovered from high income earner. Also, 59.2% of the households have their houses connected while 40.8% were not connected to official networks but depend on public taps and other sources. In addition, the result of the willingness and ability to pay for% water supply, by the households is 49% while those not willing to pay are 51% this express the challenge and stiff opposition cost recovery practice is experiencing in Makurdi. More so the result of the implications of cost recovery policy shows that, the standard of living and expenditure level of the vulnerable group i.e. low income earners is grossly affected. The study proposed prepaid metering system and/or cross subsidy in the tariff regime arrangement based on the selected cost recovery model and recommend strong political will and commitment from government to promote cost recovery for water supply system, establishment of management regulatory committee o taskforce for cost recovery in water supply. In view of the fact that there will be increase in tariff due to the new reform which some households may be unable topay for water supply, sector targeting measures, geographic targeting measures and social targeting measures are recommended. Basically the measures is targeting the poor such as low-cost options of obtaining water supply through the public stand posts and commercial distribution outlets. Finally, the research has provided useful insights as to the way forward for cost recovery for water supply commercialization in Nigeria, and that there is no one-model-suits-all approach to cost recovery for water supply. Each country must therefore design a framework most suitable to its environment.

 

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.0. Introduction
The state of cost recovery in Nigeria has remained a matter of concern given the importance of cost recovery in the economic well being of the entrepreneurs and the growth and development process of the economy. Unfortunately, cost recovery for water services has no consensual recommendation across the world. While some international organizations from the developed world tend to recommend it as being essential for the financial sustainability of water utilities (OECD, 2006), that is not the case for some worldwide reaching organizations such as the United Nations, which is more concerned with the impact such a principle would have on the poor, leading it to recognize the role that subsidization may have on the improvement of population provision levels in water supply and sewage drainage and treatment (UNDP, 2006. This may be due to the fact that in developed countries, the water outlays represent a very small portion of the average household income, whereas in developing countries the implementation of full cost recovery would put greater stress on households‟ budgets.
The provision of clean water to consumers entails a cost both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operation, maintenance, management and extension of services. However, because of poor planning of cost-recovery, a lack of government funding and inadequate tariff rates, the ability of water services sector to recover costs is often limited even for routine operation and maintenance. This has led to problems in providing sustainable water services to poor communities.

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EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

 A LINGUISTIC STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAMPAIGN   SPEECHES OF TWO PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES IN THE 2011  ELECTIONS

 A LINGUISTIC STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAMPAIGN   SPEECHES OF TWO PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES IN THE 2011  ELECTIONS

 

CHAPTER ONE

   INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL BACKGROUND.

  • PREAMBLE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter contains the background to the study, a brief profile of the presidential candidates in this study, a brief over view of political campaigns in Nigeria, statement of the problem, research questions, aim, and objectives of the study, justification of the study, scope, and delimitation of the study. Therefore, this chapter provides an insight into the study.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The ability to communicate effectively is the hallmark of all known politicians wherefore the use of English as an international language has made more people aware of the immense power of words in politics and communication.

Thus, Kamalu and Agangan (2007:35) state that language plays an important role in manifesting political wills and accompanying political actions; this is the case with political campaign, especially in Nigeria where campaign affects the electorate who are on the receiving end. Language is therefore used in a unique way; to achieve set goals and objectives. Consequently, campaign speeches are largely dependent on language which is the focus of this study.

Language provides the individual with a tool for the exploration and analysis of his conceptual ideas and this is what has distinguished and given man his unique position in the world. This is why Isa (2004:1) maintains that one of the most important functions of human language is its role as a means of communication or interaction between members of the society. She further notes that language helps man to establish social relations and other forms of networks which only language can facilitate and which obviously makes man superior to other animals lacking in the instrumentality of language.

Sapir (1927:7) in Abaya (2009:195), Oladayo (2011:38), and Anifowoshe (2006:11) define language as purely non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions, and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols. According to Harris (1979:53) language is the means by which political ideas are transmitted to the community and that the strength of language in politicking are enormous.

However, language conveys different kinds of information relating not only to the speaker’s beliefs but also his identity and relationship with his listeners and hearers which re-enforce that language is vital to human experience. In other words, language serves as an important tool through which effective interaction, mobilization for national development and transformation are achieved.

Hence, Ayeni-Akeke (2008: 83), submits that “political life, like other aspects of social existence, is made possible by the ability to communicate.” He argues that “communication underlies the dynamics of political life.” In order to buttress this view, Pie (1978:2) in Joshua (2003: 109), points out that “politics exists not only to push parties and candidates but covers also the pushing of ideas and point of view.” So, politics involves a series of connected activities designed to bring result. These include: campaign, advertising, canvassing, lawn sign, and so on. Behind these bits and pieces of political power games, is language which ‘is an important aspect to political campaign and an interesting vessel of post election communication’ (patriorstatesman).

The language of political campaign speeches usually comprises of the use of foreign phrases known as political jargons, three part statements, use of rhetorical questions and pronouns to influence and impress the target audience. There is a large use of quotations and adequate use of repetitions. The mode is manipulative, persuasive and the language is ideologically embedded. (myspeechlab.com)

The inability of the electorate to grasp the extent to which politicians use language in order to manipulate, persuade and deceive them into winning their vote is the concern of this study. This is because understanding a language could be difficult without examining fully how such a language is being put to use. Hence, Amodu (2010:1) observes that for a long time, particularly from the early 40s to the late 70s, the study of language concentrated more on the language form, at the expense of how language functions as the case is in functional linguistics and pragmatics. He goes on to say that scholars are gradually shifting ground from paying attention on language structure to studying how language can be functionally used in the society especially if the language has been developed. This reveals that interest in language for communication should be viewed as a good step forward from the narrower and still popular focus on language as grammar. This is not to undermine the importance of the study of language structure but it is an acknowledgement of the fact that the study of how language is being used is now receiving a greater attention and in a new dimension.

 

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 A LINGUISTIC STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CAMPAIGN   SPEECHES OF TWO PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES IN THE 2011  ELECTIONS

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTERPLAN, NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTER PLAN, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT
Tourism developments plans are prepared to ensure orderly growth and development of the tourism industry .When the implementation outcomes of such plans are defined, the conventional approach is usually based on the ‘ex-post evaluation’. It is done long after the implementation of the plan is completed to enable identification of short comings and to learn lessons that can influence future decisions. Positive as the ex-post evaluation is there is value in evaluation during implementation, which usually is rarely carried out. This study is an attempt to appraise the Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) while its implementation is still on-going using the ‘process evaluation’ method. Such approach is to enable the project mangers learn vital lessons that can lead to adjustment of strategies towards achieving improved outcomes. The KCTMP was prepared in 2005 and is to be implemented through 2005 to2020 the implementation is designed to be in phases of 4, 5 and 5 years horizons. The plan implementation began in 2005, currently the plan is in its second phase of implementation with the take-off stage (2005-2007 and phase 1 (2006-2020) completed in 2010. Data for the study were collected through interviews, field survey and from secondary sources. For the field survey purpose sampling techniques was adopted in which 4,132 samples of tourists’ receipts were collected from two accommodations and 482 receipts from Kano state tourism board. A set up criteria were used to establish the outcomes, explanations and implications. The research reveals that, the level of implementation of KCTMP is low. The problems militating against the successful implementation of KCTMP stem from a number of factors including the process of its preparation. The other factors are insufficient funding, duplication of responsibilities, low stake holder involvement, inadequate marketing and promotion, and poor publicity. Others are that the KCTMP failed to establish the role of Kano tourism industry in the areas of job creation and income generation. There is also the absence of any relevant information on the existing growth pattern of the tourism industry which can serve as a basis for bench marking towards future evaluations. Tourism attraction and potentials were also poorly identified as they were subjectively selected which later became a bottleneck to private investors. Recommendations are subsequently made to address the short comings in ensuring that the subsequent phases are successfully implemented.

 

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.0: INTRODUCTION
Tourism is the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Tourism is of major economic and social significance. It is one of the largest items in the world‟s foreign trade. It is also the most important export industry and earner of foreign exchange in many countries. Douglars (1981) states that “Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries of the world, and its study is of increasing academic and practical interest”. The significance of tourism has been recognized in the developed and developing countries. This can be seen in the establishment of government departments of tourism, widespread encouragement and sponsorship of tourism developments and the proliferation of small business and international corporations contributing to add driving benefits from the tourism industry. Tourism been a powerful and beneficial agent of both economic and social change has stimulated employment and investment. It is known to modified land use and economic structure, and it also makes a positive contribution to the balance of payment in many countries throughout the world.
It is in line with these and many other expected benefits of tourism development, that the Kano State Ministry of Comers,Transport and Tourism commissioned Messes Grand Track Limited in August 2005, to carryout a Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (CTMP) of the State. This is for the realization that tourism development has the benefit of diversifying the economy of the state and generating revenue to strengthen its economic base.
1.1: Statement of Research Problem
The Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) was prepared in 2005 to guide the development of the tourism industry of Kano state to the year 2020.
Midway through its implementation however, there are growing concern that the plan is not adequately guiding the development of the tourism sector in the state nor has it engendered positive outcomes during 8 years of implementation. Useful as those observations are, they however remain mere speculations in the absence of detailed studies. The criticisms are that the sector has not performed well in terms of the development of attractive tourists‟ destinations and activities, as well as its failure to ensure that the expected multiplier.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTER PLAN, NIGERIA

EVALUATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN ABUBAKAR GUMI COLLEGE

EVALUATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN ABUBAKAR GUMI COLLEGE

ABSTRACT

This research assessed guidance and counseling service in Abubakar Gumi College, Sabo Kaduna. Efforts were made to assess the conditions the quality of the available counselors and awareness created in the students. The results showed that the Guidance Counselor, through qualified, is not efficient and adequate. The guidance programme is poor organized with no facilities such as guidance counseling offices, large enough for group counseling libraries, computers, and shelves etc. students also do not show any interest in the programme since their interests were not aroused. All of these shortcomings have contributed to student’s poor academic performance in both internal and external examination.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Declaration      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Approval page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Dedication       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Acknowledgement    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Abstract   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

Table of Contents     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      –      1

Purpose of the study       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      2

Significance of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      –      3

Research Questions –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      5

Scope and Delimitation of the study        –      –      –      –      5

 

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

Concept of guidance and counseling        –      –      –      –      8

Disparity between Guidance and counseling    –      –      –        13

Brief History and development of guidance and

In Nigeria Counseling      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        16

Review of Guidance Practice of the National

Policy on Education –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        18

Need for guidance and counseling in Nigeria school         –        21

The school guidance service    –      –      –      –      –      –        27

Problems militating against effective guidance         –      –        33

Strategies for improvement of Guidance counseling        –        38

Previous research findings on guidance counseling –      –        40

Summary of the chapter –      –      –      –      –      –      –        42

 

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        43

Research design      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        43

Area of the study     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        43

Population of the study    –      –      –      –      –      –      –        44

Sample and sampling procedure      –      –      –      –      –        44

Instrument for data collection –      –      –      –      –      –        45

Instrument for Data Analysis – –      –      –      –      –      –        46

Validity and Reliability of instrument        –      –      –      –        46

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation & Analysis

Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        47

Summary of Data    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        47

Presentation and Analysis of Data   –      –      –      –      –        48

Discussion of Results       –      –      –      –      –      –      –        53

 

CHAPTER FIVE:     Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion

Introduction            –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        57

Restatement of the problem    –      –      –      –      –      –        57

Summary of procedure    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Major finding           –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        58

Discussion and findings    –      –      –      –      –      –      –        59

Summary and Conclusion to the chapter –      –      –      –        63

Recommendation     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        64

Recommendation for further study- –      –      –      –      –        65

Reference               –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        66

Questionnaire          –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –        69

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

It has been very glaring that Guidance and Counseling has been lacking in our educational system, until recently, this discipline has been grossly omitted in the system. Due to the absence of career guidance, many students have not got the proper skill to function effectively in the world of work. A good number of students have not been able to examine their potentialities and attempt to find career that will bring them job satisfaction; this may be attributed to either not Listening to a guidance counsel or not receiving counsel at all. It is therefore imperative to expose out students to various methods or ways of choosing the right career, this cannot be over emphasized. It has been discovered that most schools do not have a functional guidance and counseling rather what exist is a miniature office occupied by teaching staff who offers skeletal guidance occasionally to students a wall as still teach his/her complete weekly periods, hence not having time for the guidance and counseling services.

 

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EVALUATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN ABUBAKAR GUMI COLLEGE

EXAMINE THE ATTITUDE  OF PARENT TOWARD THE  PRIMARY EDUCATION OF THEIR CHILDREN

EXAMINE THE ATTITUDE  OF PARENT TOWARD THE  PRIMARY EDUCATION OF THEIR CHILDREN

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Primary education is the foundation a child requires in his or her educational pursuit. The quality of primary education a child get would determine his performance in secondary school as well as tertiary level. It will equally affect his or her life after school. As such the importance of primary education cannot be overemphasis.

 

It is in this regard that Malotyre and Clarkj (1996) opined that the  attitude of parent determine the quality of  education their children or wards receive in primary school. The positive attitude of parent have a positive impact on their children performance and aspiration, help in raising knowledge and increasing understanding and facilitate academic progress through the involvement of parents in their children academic activities. On the other hand negative attitude of parent towards their children education have a negative effect on their academic progress leading to poor academic performance and consequently the withdrawal of such children from school. This makes such children take to street and become menace to the society later in life.

However, Obodochi (2003)  opined that most parent in the rural areas of Nigeria are careless about the primary education of their children as such put up negative attitude towards their children’s education at level. This is so because most rural dwellers in Nigeria are more interested in achieving short term immediate development of their children as such prefer sending their children to learn vocational trade or assist them in farm work but parent in urban areas have a positive attitude to education of their children and wards owing to their perception about education and the value they attach to education and its effect on the future of their children.

 

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EXAMINE THE ATTITUDE  OF PARENT TOWARD THE  PRIMARY EDUCATION OF THEIR CHILDREN

ASSESSMENT OF FACTOR PRIMARY SCHOOL  RESPONSIBLE FOR THE POOR ACADEMICS PERFORMANCES IN PUBLIC SCHOOL

ASSESSMENT OF FACTOR PRIMARY SCHOOL  RESPONSIBLE FOR THE POOR ACADEMICS PERFORMANCES IN PUBLIC SCHOOL

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Poor academic  performance according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examine/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially Mathematics and English language among primary school pupils (Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the pupils and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics.

 

Education at primary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that primary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities.

 

The role of primary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in primary school to pupils because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, and the likes (Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).

 

Morakinyo (2003) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about pupil’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupils’ academic performance.

 

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ASSESSMENT OF FACTOR PRIMARY SCHOOL  RESPONSIBLE FOR THE POOR ACADEMICS PERFORMANCES IN PUBLIC SCHOOL

ASSESSMENT OF ALMAJIRI SYSTEM OF EDUCATION; IT’S IMPLICATION FOR CHILD, FAMILY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE.

ASSESSMENT OF ALMAJIRI SYSTEM OF EDUCATION; IT’S IMPLICATION FOR CHILD, FAMILY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE.

 

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to find out the implications of Almajiri system of education in Zaria local government of Kaduna state four research questions were answered. The instrument for the study was self designed question. A sample of 125 people in Zaria local government was drawn using simple random sampling. Data was analyzed using frequencies, percentage and mean. The study revealed among others that the Almajiri system of education has implications on most of the Almajiri in Zaria local government, the curriculum is inadequate and that leas to so many challenges facing the system. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that government should consider addressing the feeding and welfare needs Almajirai and their mallams, infrastructural facilities should also be provided.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                i.

Declaration                                                                              ii.

Approval Page                                                                         iii.

Dedication                                                                               iv.

Acknowledgement                                                                    v.

Abstract                                                                                   vi.

Table of contents                                                                     vii.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Background of the study                                                  1

1.2    Statement of the  problem                                       3

1.3    Objectives of the study                                                    4

1.4    Research questions                                                          5

1.5    Significance of the study                                                  5

1.6    Assumptions of the study                                                 6

1.7    Scope of the study                                                          7

1.8    definition of terms                                                           7

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0    Introduction                                                                    8

2.1    Conceptual framework                                                     9

2.2.5 Scope of Almajiri schools curriculum                                 12

2.3    Impact of the Almajiri system of education on child,

family and national development.                                      20

2.5    Strategies for improving the almajiri system of education    36

 

2.5.1 Government  support (funding)                                        37

2.5.2 The integrative approach                                                 38

2.5.3.         Private sector participation in the Almajiri system

of education                                                                    40

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research design                                                              43

3.2    Population of the study                                                    44

3.3    Sample size and sampling procedure                                 45

3.4    Instrument for data collection                                          46

3.5    Procedure for data collection                                            46

3.6    Procedure for data analysis                                              46

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    Introduction                                                                      47

4.2    Section A bio-data                                                            48

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary                                                                        58

5.2    Conclusion                                                                      59

5.3    Recommendation                                                            60

 

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

Khalid (2000), describes almajiranci as seasonal migration of school age male children from rural to urban areas in northern Nigeria in search of Qur’anic education. In this contemporary era, Almajiranci has degenerated to the extent that it has now greatly exposed the children to various types of moral or social hazards. Many of these children metamorphasize into drug addicts, dropouts, street beggars etc. they seldom go back to their villages or home towns.

 

 

The Almajiri system of education during the pre-colonial days, pupils hold with then parents for within the immediate environment from where the pupils came from (Junaid: 2004). The Danfodio revolution brought with it some modifications, the establishment of an inspectorate of quranic literacy, the inspectors reported directly to the emir of province,  concerning all matters relating to school.

 

Shehu (2004), states that the colonialists specifically came up with policies aimed at destroying the traditional Qur’anic schools and replacing them with the western style school. Some people in protest of ave their children in trust to the Qur’anic schools wama to go to the village or its outskirt to teach them Qur’an. It was after independence that serious efforts were made to improve the system of Qur’anic schools. Islamic scholars and organizations like Jama’atul Nasril Islam (JNI) struggled to establish and maintain the schools. Sir, Ahmadu Bello Sardauna of sokoto’ established Quranic schools in muslim localities, this effort gave birth to Ishuyyats.

 

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ASSESSMENT OF ALMAJIRI SYSTEM OF EDUCATION; IT’S IMPLICATION FOR CHILD, FAMILY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE.

FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

 

Abstract
The study of Financial Impediment to the Sustainable Growth and Development of Small-Scale Enterprises Operating in Plateau State, Nigeria employed a descriptive survey design. The study covered only the central senatorial zone in the state with five local governments namely; Pankshin, Mangu, Bokkos, Kanke, and Kanam local government. The population for the study was 206 made up of 57 and 149 registered entrepreneurs and employees of small-scale enterprises in the six local governments in central senatorial zone of Plateau State. Since the total population of the proprietors and the employees are small and manageable no sampling was carried out. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled ‘Financial Impediments to Small-Scale Enterprises Questionnaire’, (FISSEQ). The questionnaire items were developed based on the information gathered from the literature reviewed. The questionnaire was subjected to face-validation by three experts. Two of the validates came from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and one of them is from department of Vocational and Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, in Kaduna State. The reliability of the instrument was done using Cronbach Alpha (α) method. The coefficient result yielded 0.86 which was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument. The researcher with the help of three research assistants administered the questionnaire to the respondents. The data collected for the study was analyzed using mean to answer the research questions and standard deviation to determine the closeness or otherwise of the responses from the mean, while t -test statistic was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference at the probability of 0.05 level of significance at relevant degree of freedom with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found out that inaccessibility of credit facility, government financial regulatory policies, and poor financial management practices impede the growth and development of small scale enterprises in Plateau State. From the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst others that government and other financial institutions operating in Plateau State should make credit facilities available to all categories of small scale enterprise and should ensure adequate monitoring of how the small scale enterprise utilized the funds.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Business exists in different forms and sizes. A business can be undertaken on a small scale, medium scale or large scale basis. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are seen as driving forces that promote and contribute immensely to the economic development of any country. Small-Scale Enterprises (SSEs) are the backbone of an economy as major contributors of job creation and play an important role as efficient providers of intermediate goods and services to large firms (Muhammed, 2010).
The concept of Small-Scale Enterprises (SSEs) varies from country to country, region to region and from agencies to agencies. Different authors often use different parameters such as the number of employees, sales volume, turnover and capital to differentiate small, medium and/or big scale enterprises (Ahmed, 2006). However, these parameters do not provide uniform benchmark for all industries. Furthermore, what is a big capital today may become small in years to come (Aremu and Adeyemi, 2010). Consequently, there are as many definitions of SSEs as there are scholars and institutions. Makhbul (2011) stated that small scale industries (SSIs), small scale businesses (SSBs), and small scale enterprises (SSEs) are some of the terms that are used interchangeably to describe small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs).

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FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

Abstract
The study investigated the influence of home television viewing on academic achievement of children in upper Basic Education Level in Kaduna State. The study established the influence of televisions viewing on the pupils’ language development and achievement in basic science. The study also determines the influence of televisions viewing on pupils’ numeracy development and achievement in social studies. The study was guided by four research questions and four formulated null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of probability. The design of the study was an ex-post facto survey design. The area of the study was Kaduna State of Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the children in the upper basic level of education in schools in Kaduna State. Multistage and stratified random sampling techniques were used in selecting the 320 pupils that were used for the study. A researcher-developed instrument called ‘pupils television viewing identification questionnaire’ (PTVIQ). The instrument was face validated by three experts in the department of vocational Teacher education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The internal consistency reliability coefficient obtained using Cronbach alpha method was 0.67. Data were collected by recording the continuous assessment scores of pupils on Mathematics, English languages, Basic Science and Social Studies. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test analysis was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study included: that home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on Basic English continuous assessment tests; the home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on basic Mathematics

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Television is an electronic device which transmits picture and sound. It is used for entertainment, information and commercials. With the advent of satellite and digital technologies, there are unlimited programmes on television. For instance, there are programmes on news, education, culture, weather forecast, sports, music and a plethora of both good quality and inappropriate contents (Santrock, 2005). Television combines the appealing features of the movies and radio and it is one of the most popular amusement devices during the childhood years. It may lure children away from other forms of play.
For the preschool child and even older child, television viewing is an added play activity, though, not a substitute for active play and other forms of passive play. For many children, it is more popular and more consuming of their play time than all other play activities. Television is still an important medium for children if it is used it actively. However, according to Livingstone (2002) children regard television viewing as a source of entertainment. In other hand, many parents often see television, particularly for young children as an important educational tool that can assist their intellectual development (Rideout, 2003).

 

 

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INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

 

ABSTRACT

This research work is concerned with the evaluative study of teaching and learning of English grammatical structures in the primary school. The research deals with the nature, objectives, methods steps and the problems of teaching and learning of English grammatical structures in some selected primary schools in Kaduna North Local Government. In chapter one, the problem to be investigated was stated; objectives, hypothesis, scope and delimitation of the study were well treated. While chapter two reviews relevant literature related to the teaching and learning of English grammatical structures in the primary school. The last three chapters centered on research methodology (i.e. methods of data collection), tabulation, analysis and discussion of data collected, summary, recommendations for the improvement of teaching and learning of grammatical structures in the primary school; there is also a general conclusion of all the issues raised in this research work.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         i

Approval    –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         ii

Declaration         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         iii

Dedication –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         iv

Acknowledgement       –         –         –         –         –         –         –         v

Abstract     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         vi

Table of Contents        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         1

1.2     Statement of the Problem    –         –         –         –         –         3

1.3     Objectives of the Study         –         –         –         –         –         4

1.4     Hypothesis          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         6

1.5     Scope and Delimitation of the Study      –         –         –         7

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     Introduction        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         8

2.1     Meaning of English Grammar and Structure –         9

2.2     Objective of Teaching and Learning of English

Grammatical Structures in the Primary School       –         14

2.3     Views of some Linguists about the Teaching and

Learning of English Grammatical Structures in the

Primary School   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         16

2.4     A Survey (Review) of some Methods of Teaching

Grammatical Structures       –         –         –         –         –         20

2.5     Steps in Teaching and Learning of English

Grammatical Structures in the Primary School       –         27

2.6     Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         30

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology          –         –         –         –         –         31

3.1     The Use of Questionnaire    –         –         –         –         –         31

3.2     Interview   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         32

3.3     Observations      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         32

3.4     Text Analysis      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         33

3.5     Analysis of Primary School English Syllabus –         34

3.6     Analysis of Pupils’ Work Books     –         –         –         –         34

  • Source of Data –         –         –         –         –         –         –         34

CHAPTER FOUR

3.0     Data Analysis     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         36

4.1     Analysis of Data obtained from Questionnaire        –         36

4.2     Findings from Interview       –         –         –         –         –         50

4.3     Text Analysis      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         52

4.4     Analysis of the Primary School English Syllabus54

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         58

5.2     Conclusion –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         59

5.3     Recommendations       –         –         –         –         –         –         60

References –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         64

Appendix   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         66

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

The teaching and learning of English Language is very important in our society today. This is because of the various roles it plays in the geo-political structure of the country. In Nigeria, English Language is used for communication, education, economic and social purposes. In the school system, English Language is not only taught as a subject but it is also the core subject by which over school subject is being taught.

Despite the above, less attention is given to the grammatical aspect of English in the primary school. Today, the nature of teaching and learning of English grammatical structure in the primary school has become area of great interest to teachers, researchers, and policy makers because through it the acquisition of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) is greatly enhanced.

 

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AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN TOTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASSARAWA STATE

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN TOTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASSARAWA STATE

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page   –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         i

Declaration          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         ii

Approval     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         iii

Dedication –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         iv

Acknowledgement        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         v

Abstract      –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         vi

Table of Content –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         vii

List of tables        –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         ix

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0     Background of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         1

1.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         1

1.2     Statement of the Problem       –         –         –         –         –         7

1.3     Purpose of the Study    –         –         –         –         –         –         9

1.4     Significance of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         9

1.5     Basic Assumption of the Study        –         –         –         –         10

1.6     Research Questions     –         –         –         –         –         –         10

1.7     Scope of the Study        –         –         –         –         –         –         10

1.8     Limitations  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         11

1.9     Historical Background of Toto Local

Government         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         11

1.10   Operational Definition of Terms       –         –         –         –         14

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review          –         –         –         –         –         –         16

2.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         16

2.2     Historical Background of Universalization of Education in

Less Developed Country       –         –         –         –         –         17

2.3     Historical Development of UBE in Nigeria          –         –         17

2.4     The Problems of UBE Scheme        –         –         –         –         20

2.5     The Meaning and Origin of Universal Basic Education        24

2.6     Relevance of Teacher in the UBE   –         –         –         –         27

2.7     Teachers Production and Utilization for the UBE        –         31

2.8     The Relevance of Infrastructure and Facilities in Promoting

Universal Basic Education     –         –         –         –         –         36

2.9     The Role of Instructional Materials in Promoting Universal

Basic Education  –         –         –         –         –         –         –         40

2.10   Summary of Review of Related Literature         –         –         43

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology          –         –         –         –         –         44

3.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         44

3.2     Research Design          –         –         –         –         –         –         44

3.3     Area of the Study          –         –         –         –         –         –         44

3.4     Population –         –         –         –         –         –         –         –         45

3.5     Sample and Sampling Techniques –         –         –         –         45

3.6     Instrument for Data Collection         –         –         –         –         46

3.7     Validation of the Instrument   –         –         –         –         –         47

3.8     Reliability of the Instrument    –         –         –         –         –         47

3.9     Method of Data Collection      –         –         –         –         –         47

3.10   Method of Data Analysis        –         –         –         –         –         47

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0     Data Presentation and Analysis      –         –         –         –         49

4.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         49

4.2     Analysis of Head Teachers Questionnaire        –         –         49

4.3     Analysis of Teachers Questionnaire         –         –         –         53

4.4     Analysis of SUBEB Official questionnaire          –         –         56

4.5     Major Findings     –         –         –         –         –         –         –         59

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations-          –         60

5.1     Introduction          –         –         –         –         –         –         –         60

5.2     Re: Statement of the problem          –         –         –         –         62

5.3     Implication of the study           –         –         –         –         –         61

5.4     Summary of procedure used           –         –         –         –         61

5.5     Recommendations        –         –         –         –         –         –         62

5.6     Suggestion for Further Research    –         –         –         –         63

5.7     Conclusion           –         –         –         –         –         –         –         63

Reference

Appendices

LISTS OF TABLE

TABLES                                                                                     PAGE

Summary of the Infrastructure Development     –         –         30 – 33

 

Population sample Table        –         –         –         –         –         38

 

Analysis of the Head Teacher’s Questionnaire –         –         43

 

Analysis of the Teacher’s Questionnaire  –         –         –         45

 

Analysis of the SUBEB Official Questionnaire   –         –         46

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Background of the Study

1.1     Introduction

It is today universally accepted that Education is the fountain and foundation of all wisdom, therefore, the importance of education in any community cannot be overemphasized. Education is the major factor for sustainable development as well as a strong pillar around which every other action revolves. This is because education is the most necessary and effective weapon identified by the world over advancement of human progress and development. For rapid socio – economics and social political development of Nigeria, education or at least the basic one is indispensable (Wales,1996).

 

The biggest obstacle that needs immediate attention in Nigeria and other developing countries is how to reach the unreached. Education wise, how to take education to the door steps of the masses. A lot of researchers found that between 65% to 70% of children do not go to school. From analysis made by stakeholders, it was obvious that the explanations advanced that low enrolment among others was mostly financial. Many parents find it hard to enroll their children in the school and where they do, many of the children do not stay to complete their studies due to financial problem, poverty and low level of awareness on the needs to send children to school. The Universal Primary Education (UPE) Scheme was the first attempt at the national level by government to establish a universal education programme in Nigeria. It was launched in 1976 by President Obasanjo, the then Military Head of State, compared to the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme launched in 1999 (Isyaku, 2000).

 

The objectives of the UPE were more modest and directed by what was perceived to be the needs of the nation at the time it was; To ensure that every Nigerian child from age of six, attended primary school and remained therefore the next six years, under a free education scheme funded by the federal and state government (Obasanjo, 1999).

 

It is of interest to note that the UPE was not a total failure as general opinion tends to portray. This was so because the programme recorded and increased in the number of children in primary school from 6 million in 1977 when it started to `12 million in 1980 (Obasanjo, 1999).

 

The obstacle UPE faced, began from the middle of the 1980s were also acknowledged. The problems faced them were categorized in three broad groups. First, is the population explosion of the 1980s which led to sudden astronomical rise in the number of school age children who could not be accommodated within the existing school structure, this was in turn due to inadequate schools and acute shortage of trained and qualified teachers. Second was the decline in national revenue which militated against the allocation of sufficient funds for the expansion and quality improvement of the scheme. The third and final problem was political instability in the country which caused confusion in terms of what priority should be given to advance education at all levels for UPE to go beyond mere recommitment and for it to represent the actualization of the “expand vision”, all hands must be on deck (of those who lead, the led and those who stand between the leaders and the led) must occupy sincerity, transparency and accountability to implement the UBE programmes.

 

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN TOTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASSARAWA STATE

SAFETY SKILLS REQUIRED BY TECHNICAL COLLEGE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION STUDENTS IN HANDLING EQUIPMENT

SAFETY SKILLS REQUIRED BY TECHNICAL COLLEGE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION STUDENTS IN HANDLING EQUIPMENT

 

ABSTRACT
The study sought to determine the safety skills required by technical college electrical installation students in handling equipment. The study was carried out in Plateau and Kaduna States. A survey research design was employed for the study. The population for the study was 80 comprising of 39 electrical installation teachers and 41 electrical installation workers in the field. The entire population was used for the study. A structured questionnaire item was used for collecting data from the respondent. Four research questions were developed to guide the study and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data for answering research questions while t-test for independent samples was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference at 0.05 level of significance. It was found out that all the safety skills identified in handling hand tools, operating machine tools, workshop safety and the personal protective equipment are required by electrical installation students in technical colleges for effective functioning in the workshop. It was recommended that all the safety skills identified should be integrated into the curriculum of electrical installation trade at technical college level.

 

 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Occupational safety is of paramount concern to both workers and students. Students and even parents are much more interested in the level of safety provided in a particular occupation. Graduates who possess required safety skills would always fair better in an occupation, especially technical occupations. The knowledge of safety practice skills by electrical installation students in technical colleges is an essential prerequisite for effective use of tools and machines in the workshop. Skilled electrical worker is not just someone who can perform any electrical job correctly but a worker who can complete every job safely (Oranu, Nwoke and Ogwo 2002). Safety has become a major determinant for effective and successful performance in a job.
In the view of Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyeamaechi and Ekon (1999), safety is the art of taking precaution for the avoidance or reduction of accidents in order to protect people and property. Oranu, Nkowe and Ogwo (2002) further view safety as the ability to perform every simple task involved in a job without causing damage to tools, equipment or materials used in performing the task. Safety practice is the ability to perform a task with necessary precautionary measures exhibited for the purpose of preventing accidents. Practice means doing something repeatedly in order to improve performance. For students to perform a task with little or no record of accidents in electrical workshop, certain related skills are required by them.

 

 

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SAFETY SKILLS REQUIRED BY TECHNICAL COLLEGE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION STUDENTS IN HANDLING EQUIPMENT

THE INFLUENCE OF AUDITOR’S TYPE ON THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA

THE INFLUENCE OF AUDITOR’S TYPE ON THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the years, the influence of auditors on financial reports of firms or companies all over the world has become a source of concern to users of financial
information’s such as investors, shareholders, stakeholders etc. In view of the importance of quality financial reporting, the International Federation of
Accountants (IFAC) and it audit arm, International Auditing and Assurance Standards Boards (IAASB) stated that audit service is an assurance service that the
financial statement prepared by the managers is true and fair and free from intentional and unintentional errors and misstatement and, that it also conforms
to the relevant rules and regulations guiding the preparation and presentations of accounting information’s. According to (IAASB 2013) global financial
stability is supported through high quality reporting which can be achieved thought high quality auditors type.
Auditors type can be seen as an audit firm made up by a group of auditors or a single auditor with the sole responsibility ofexaming books of accounts
vouchers of organization in order to detect fraud, errors, misstatement and rendering professional services. The auditors type are:
1. The Big4 auditors
2. The Non Big4 auditors
Joint auditors
The ability of audit firm to provide high audit quality, capable of producing high financial reporting quality is attributed to certain features of the auditor’s
firm. These features are:
1. Auditors independence
2. Auditors compensation
Auditor’s type.
For the purpose of this study our concern will be drawn to just one of these features which is the “Auditors type”.
The auditors type is conceived as financially independent and highly experienced from any pressure from the client’s “to look the other way” in their role of
discovering irregularities. Moreover, Big4 auditors have more to lose should a scandal arises in that their brand names and reputation as more valuable
compared to the Non-Big4 auditors.
According to Becker, Defond, Jiambalvo and Subra manian (1998) is o
the opinion that, the Big4 auditors have shown to have higher accrual quality
financial report while the lowest level of quality occurs when a single auditor is responsible for the audit engagement.
Therefore, this study is motivated by critical role that the auditor’s type influences the quality of financial report of manufacturing firm in Nigeria.

 

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THE INFLUENCE OF AUDITOR’S TYPE ON THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA

MATERIAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SKILLS NEEDED BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

MATERIAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SKILLS NEEDED BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

 

Abstract
The major purpose of this study was to investigate material resources management skills needed by preschool teachers in Ondo State. Specifically, it determined skills needed by preschool teachers for planning, organizing, controlling and evaluating the use of material resources in their classrooms. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The area of the study was Ondo State. The population for the study consist of 892 respondents. These include 196 Headmasters/mistress, 679 preschool teachers and 17 Home Economics lecturers from tertiary institutions in the State. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting the 197 respondents which include 90 preschool teachers, 90 preschool management members and the entire 17 Home Economics lecturers in tertiary institutions in the State. The instrument for data collection is a 68-item structured questionnaire titled: “Resources Management Skill Needs Questionnaire (RMSNQ). The instrument was subjected to face validation by three experts. To obtain the reliability of the instrument, 20 copies of the questionnaire were trial tested on 20 similar respondents from Ekiti State. The data collected from the trial testing were analysed using Cronbach Alpha reliability method in which a reliability coefficient of 0.75 was obtained for the entire instrument. The data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of three research assistants. Out of the 197 copies of the questionnaire distributed to the respondents across the state, 186 copies were completely filled and retrieved representing about 94% return rate. The data collected were analyzed using mean for answering the research questions while analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the hypotheses at p≤0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study include: 68 material resources management skills needed by preschool teachers in Ondo State which specifically include: 15 material resource planning, 14 material resource organizing, 19 material resource controlling and 20 material resource evaluation skills. There were no significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of preschool teachers, preschool management and Home Economics lecturers on the materials resource skills needed by preschool teachers in Ondo State. Based on these findings, the following recommendations among others were made that: the educational administrators in the state should ensure that preschool teachers are skilled in planning, organizing, controlling and evaluation of the use of material resources in preschools in the state; that the identified skills in planning, organizing, controlling and material resource evaluation that are required by preschool teachers should be made a focus to organize conference and workshops for preschool teachers for skill update in material resource use evaluation.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Pre-school education is education given to a group of children between the ages of three and five in preparation for primary schools. According to Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) (2004), pre-school education includes the crèche, the nursery and the kindergarten. It is an early childhood programme that should be ran by professionally trained adults (Barnett, 2003). A pre-schooler according to Lindberg (2009) is a child between the ages of 3 to 6 admitted into elementary school for educational group experience. The characteristic needs of a child at the pre-schooling age which the school should be able to provide for include creative play, social interaction and natural expression. A pre-schooler is also expected to be taught social skills and provided with an academic foundation for first grade.
The objectives of pre-school are given in the National Policy on Education 2004 to include: providing effective a smooth transition form home to the school; preparing the child for the primary level of education; providing adequate care and supervision for the children while their parents are at work; inculcating social norms in the child and inculcating in the child the spirit of enquiring and creativity through playing among others (FGN, 2004). To achieve these laudable objectives, efforts must be made by the major stakeholders in preschool education to ensure adequate management of the required resources.

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MATERIAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SKILLS NEEDED BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR( A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT IN ENUGU)

THE IMPACT OF AUDIT REPORT AND INVESTMENT DECISION IN NIGERIA(A SURVEY OF SELECTED MINISTRIES IN RIVERS STATE)

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Listed companies in Nigeria use financial statement such as audit report etc as one of the major medium of communication with their stakeholders.
Therefore, stock market regulators and accounting standards settlers are tying to improve the quality of financial statements in order to increase the
transparency level in financial reporting (Vishnani S., Shah B.K, 2008). Financial statement may consist differentypes of information. Which can be named as
financial information/Accounting information and Non-financial information/Non Accounting Information? Accounting Information are information which
describes in account for a utility. It processes financial transaction to provide external exporting to outside parties such as to stockholders investors, creditors
and government agencies etc. and non accounting information are information which cannot be measured in monetary terms to make
investment decision by the investors. This type of investment is called Ethical investment.
Audit export is essential in making sound investment decisions and it will undue the informational asymmetry problem between the firm’s manager and the
investors (Hossain, D.M Khan, A., Yasmins I. 2004). Though the investors use non financial information in order to make investment decision, still
conventional investors give more weight to financial information. Akintoye (2008) discovered that the quality of accounting information in terms of
accuracy adequacy, reliability  and mode of disclosure is a major determinant of the level of efficiency of the capital market and other decision tasks.
Recent happenings in the Global World however and various empirical studios imposed that accounting information in published financial statement lost
their relevance over the period of time. (Ball and Brown 1968, Oyeunde D.T 2009).
The preparation of a company financial statement is regulated by the companies and Allied matter Act 1990 (CAMA 1990) as amended and the accounting
standards for example, section 331 of CAMA 1990 provide procedure which management of every registered public limited liability company should follow in
preparation of this financial statements. Sections 334 of CAMA 1990 also provide the duties of the directors in preparation of financial statement. In the same
vein, section 342 of CAMA 1990 provide reporting standard of the directors of the financial statement prepared. On the other hand, accounting standard set
the underlying standard for the preparation of financial statement. The sole aim of preparing financial statement is to report to the shareholders which are
the owners of the company on the financial performance of the company. When shareholder receives financial statement of the company they have invested
in, most of them simply look to see whether the business has made profit. They are aware of only one thing that is, that the company has made profit. They
do not know if it was a “good” profit nor do they know whether these were any dierence
from the profit in the previous years.
By human initiatives these might be the tendency of the management preparing progress statement of account to suit their own interest instead of giving
proper and correct information to the owners and investors. The management annual financial statement may contain error and may not disclose all
information required by law. In respect to this, audit of the financial statement is therefore necessary so as to show that the financial statement shows a true
and fair view.

 

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THE IMPACT OF AUDIT REPORT AND INVESTMENT DECISION IN NIGERIA(A SURVEY OF SELECTED MINISTRIES IN RIVERS STATE)

APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR( A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT IN ENUGU)

APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR( A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT IN ENUGU)

 

ABSTRACT
Accounting can be defined as the recording summarizing analyzing and interpretation of an organization.
Accounting system is a set of rules regulations and procedures which are articulated by a appropriate theoretical force into a system. Ti process data into
information which are required as input in the decision making system of the organization.
Based on these definitions accounting of public sector involves activities of collecting analyzing recording summarizing reporting and interpretation of transaction of government units.
The objective of the study is to determine he effectiveness
of the existing system of accounting of government units to appraise the system and ascertain
their suitability to analyze the problem associated with the system of accounting adopted (if any) by these organization and to identify future improvement.
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in this research. Research question were formulated and a questionnaires comprising statement
drawn form the research question were prepared as well.
Interviews as a primary sources and textbooks as a secondary sources were also used.
Some of the major finding form the analysis of data collected are appointment of unqualified accountants to act as accounts supervisor negative attitude of
most accountants towards accountability resulting to inadequate keeping of records and accounts the erect of self accounting system which is now used as
an act for embezzlement/ self enrichment by the public sector accountants inadequate training and development of public sector accountants which results
to lack of proficiency of public sector accounting system incompetent among accountants in the public sector and the delay is presenting and preparation of
annual financial statement in the public sector.
On the basis of these finding the following recommendation are made viz.
Adequate internal control system has to be institute by the management for the prevention and detection of fraud and irregularities is the public sector
Training of the account personnel should be adopted in the public sector service.
Financial statement must be prepared and present to members annually to have the related information on their loopholes and area to improve on.
The above recommendation of fully implemented will enhance government accounting system and records and also stimulated improved financial reporting system in the public sector.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Accounting system is an organization has a significance impact is the efficient
management and administration of the organization accounting has been
called the “language of business and financial decision” because it provide management with data needed for decision making and for efficient operation of the firm.
Walgenbach Dlttrich and Hanson defined accounting as the process of recording classifying reporting and interpreting the financial data of an organization.
Once an accounting system has been defined and installed recording and classifying data become some what routine and repetitive. Accounting is a
dynamic profession like language it does not stay static it grows embrace additional rolls in its development trail.
Extensively accounting records has to be maintained not just because these records are required by law but to avoid confrontation with a multitude of
complex variables. Accountants cannot just observe the daily operation instead he must depend on the accounting process to convert business transaction
into statistical data that can be abstracted and summarized in accounting reports.
It is a thing of joy that an accounting body in Nigeria the institute of chartered accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) has lately accredited two institute as recognized
training countries for the purpose of training accountants solely for the public sector though the curriculum for government accounting yet to be fully
developed and integrated into the accountancy programmes of our institutions. Based there is also a great search of textbook on governmental accounting
is the country these are problem that must be promptly tacked.
Government establishment are set up to provide social goods and service for public welfare. These establishment finance their activities principally from
government subventions which are derived directly or indirectly form government various sources in come (such as fees charges central or local taxation and
borrowing) the need for a good book-keeping and accounting system together with proper accountability for public fund cannot be over accounting oicers
operate as an internal security men and through records control what goes on inside the business.

 

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APPRAISAL OF THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR( A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT IN ENUGU)

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is promoting efficiency in all areas of human activities. Individuals, groups and governments all over the world are taking the advantage of this opportunity to transform the activities of various sectors through the development of new skills. Information and Communication Technology has been identified as a major factor for effective service delivery in public sector, including the local governments. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has changed the face of offices and consequently made business environments to wear a new look. This is particularly noticeable in the area of office administration and management (Agomuo, 2005). The author stated that information and communication gadgets, equipment and facilities improve the manner in which message is preserved, recalled, shared and relayed for information and communication purposes. Agomuo further stated that the electronic systems are now available for the performance of many functions that were formerly done manually in offices. This makes for greater effectiveness and efficiency in the performance of office activities. New digital machines and electronic equipment now make for faster, neater, more accurate and more reliable outputs. Most activities of office managers and their assistants are now based on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which promotes organizational efficiency.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY

COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY

 

Abstract
The study was carried out to determine competency improvement needs of technology teachers in the implementation of basic technology in Kogi State. Five research questions guided the study while five null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design. The population for the study was 344 teachers and supervisors of basic technology. There was no sampling because of the manageable size of the population. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. Three experts validated the instrument. Cronbach alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument in which 0.82 and 0.77 reliability coefficients were obtained for the two set of instruments. Weighted Mean and Improvement Needed Index (INI) were employed to analyze data for answering research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that teachers of introductory technology needed improvement in 15 competencies on instructional planning for the implementation of basic technology, in teaching 50 out of fifty four contents of basic technology curriculum to students and classroom and laboratory management for the implementation of basic technology. Teachers of introductory technology needed improvement in applying varieties of teaching methods and techniques for the implementation of basic technology. Teachers of introductory technology also needed improvement in evaluating the learning outcome in basic technology. The hypothesis tested revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers and supervisors of technology on the competencies improvement needs in planning instruction for the implementation of basic technology, in teaching the contents of basic technology curriculum to students in junior secondary schools, classroom/laboratory management for the implementation of basic technology, in using teaching methods and techniques for the implementation of basic technology and evaluating the learning outcomes in basic technology. It was recommended that workshop and seminars should be organized for the teachers of introductory technology in order to build their capacity for the implementation of the basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kogi State. It was also recommended that teachers of technology should be retrained based on areas of needs identified in the study.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
A good educational system is a strong base for technological development. It equips people with knowledges and skills for designing methods and process that will enable them to make maximum use of their natural resources for the benefit of the society. The development of a nation also depends mostly on the type of technology education, the process of impartation inherited or invented and the ability to train her citizens to sustain the level of such technological education development. Technology according Waziri (2005) is the use of the product of creativity, inventions and scientific research in the service of man. Miller, Bakare and Ikatule (2010) described technology as
the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants.
In years back, the teaching of technology education has not been made a major focus at the lower level of Nigerian educational system most especially at secondary school level. To address the lapses, the Federal Ministry of Education brought about the former 6-3-3-4 system that introduced the teaching of introductory technology as a subject in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. Ajeyalemi (1990) stated that what is now technology education was formerly restricted to technical education which in essence meant skills training in crafts and in certain trades and can be used interchangeably.

 

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COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC TECHNOLOGY

ACCOUNTING SKILLS REQUIRED BY BUSINESS EDUCATION GRADUATES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

ACCOUNTING SKILLS REQUIRED BY BUSINESS EDUCATION GRADUATES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

ABSTRACT
The major purpose of the study was to determine the accounting skills required by Business Education graduates for sustainable entrepreneurship in Enugu State, Nigeria. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Four hundred and fifty four (454) business education lecturers and graduates in entrepreneurship businesses in Enugu state under Small and Medium Scale enterprises (SMEs) form the population of the study. While two hundred and forty six (246) business education lecturers and graduates in entrepreneurship businesses in Enugu state under Small and Medium Scale enterprises (SMEs) form the sample, made up of 224 graduates and 22 lecturers. A questionnaire on accounting skills required of business education graduates was used for the study. The reliability of the instrument was gotten using Cronbach Alpha formula with overall reliability index of 0.76 gotten. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. Findings revealed that the accounting skills required by business education graduates are in the area of stocktaking, profit and loss account, bank statement reconciliation, balance sheet and computer based accounting skills. Finally, it was recommended among others, that in-services training should be provided to graduates of business education so as to enable them acquire the skills for sustainable entrepreneurship venture to be achieved.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Business education is a type of education that gives skills for business rated occupations. Business education trains learners or provides learners with information or competencies needed by all in the management of personal business affairs. However, Business Education according to the American Vocational Association in Osuala (2004) is a programme of instruction which consists of two parts: the first part is office education; a programme for office careers through initial refresher and upgrading education, leading to employment and advancement in office occupation. The second part is general business education; a programme to provides students with information and competencies which are needed by all in managing personal business affairs and in using the services of the business world.
Business education is the sum total of human activities directed towards providing and acquiring specialist knowledge, skills and attitude that are required for successful promotion of business enterprise (Osuala, 2004). Anao (2006) defined business education as an educational process or content which has its primary aim as the preparation of people for roles in business enterprise. Two major specific objectives of business education are the preparation of learners.

 

 

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ACCOUNTING SKILLS REQUIRED BY BUSINESS EDUCATION GRADUATES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP