THE REALITY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS IN PRESIDENT BUHARI’S ADMINISTRATION

THE REALITY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS IN PRESIDENT BUHARI’S ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There is no gainsaying the fact that the famous doctrine or principle of separation of powers is as old as man, what we are saying in essence is that, separation of powers has been in existence since man came to the society. It is apposite to state that the doctrine of separation of powers was in existence arid strictly observed in this country before the advent of the British. This foregoing position can be demonstrated when a recourse is made to the old Oyo empire, where there were in existence the Alarm, Oyo Mesi, the Ogboni among other traditional title holders who took charge of the administration of the said empire. There was a manifest undoubted separation of powers between the Alafin who was the head, the Oyo Mesi, and the Ogboni, this brought about the necessary checks and balances, so that power is not concentrated in the hands of the Alafin, which is capable of being misused or abused.
The doctrine of separation of powers as practiced by the then Oyo- empire was premised on the YORUBA Adage which say that:
(I) AgbajowoLafinsoya, ajejeowokankogberu don. (ii) Akil fee mefiLabaAlade — enifojesukonimumi. (iii) Enikankiijeawade, Igikankole da igbo Se.
Meaning that, no man is an island to himself and cannot be all in all. The point we are trying to drive home is that, the principle of separation of Powers is not strange to the African society and therefore, the principle cannot be said to be imbibed or imported from the white man but in its formalized theoretical notion it is an imported value into our body polity.
The significance of good governance in any given nation cannot be underestimated. Therefore, the essence of governance is to ensure the development of every sector of the national entity. To this end, every emerging and successive government formulates policies in order to reform the political, economic, cultural and social structures.

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THE REALITY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS IN PRESIDENT BUHARI’S ADMINISTRATION

THE ROLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND PUBLIC COMPLAINTS COMMISSION: A STUDY OF CHILD ABUSE

THE ROLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND PUBLIC COMPLAINTS COMMISSION: A STUDY OF CHILD ABUSE

ABSTRACT

The study examined the role of Human Rights institutions in the country in addressing the problem of child abuse. The objective of this study is causes, types and effects of child abuse on the child, the family and the nation.  The work is meant to draw closer attention on this increasing scourge and access measures of addressing to preserve the fundamental human rights of the child as entrenched under the Nigeria Child Right Act. In the study, the researcher defined what child abuse is; the various forms of child abuse, and also identified some of the causes and consequences of child abuse as a reflection of the societal problem and its impact on the life of the child.  The study also evaluated the extent of damages it does to the abused child and the Nigerian society. In order to gather relevant data and information on the subject matter, the researcher used the questionnaire as data collection instrument, which was administered on 200 respondents within the FCT which is the limit of the scope of the study.  A self constructed questionnaire titled Child Abuse Questionnaire (CAQ) was administered on the students after validation. The instrument has construct validity co-efficient of 0.756 and reliability co-efficient of 0.95. The statistical technique that was used to analyse the data collected was Chi-Square distribution test. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between poverty and economic deprivation and child abuse in Nigeria. Also the study revealed that child abuse is still very prevalent in Nigeria and also that religious and cultural influences contribute to child abuse in Nigeria.

The result revealed that the Rights institutions are not doing enough to arrest the problem of child abuse and that the child right act is not working in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

The Collins concise dictionary defines juvenile as pertaining to the young or immature of youth orchildhood. This comprises the child and the adolescent. According to World Health Organization(WHO), a child falls within the age group of 0-19 years. Some countries further include any oneless than or up to 21 years. The Nigerian labour act defines a child as those who are 16 years of ageand below but the International Labour Organization (ILO) has brought it down to children below15years of age.

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THE ROLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND PUBLIC COMPLAINTS COMMISSION: A STUDY OF CHILD ABUSE

THE RULE OF LAW AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN NIGERIA: EXAMINATION OF ABUSES AND NON-OBEDIENCE

THE RULE OF LAW AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN NIGERIA: EXAMINATION OF ABUSES AND NON-OBEDIENCE

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Rule of law and democracy are both legal and political issues which have gained attention not only in Nigeria but world over. In general, both form the basis of advocacy of most international bodies or institutions, with the intention of sustaining and maintaining world peace.
The rule of law is a principle which provides that no person is above the law, that no one can be punished by the state except for a breach of the law, and that no one can be convicted of breaching the law except in the manner set forth by the law itself . The rule of law stands in contrast to the idea that the leader is above the law – a feature of old Roman, Nazi , and certain other past law or legal systems .
Without the rule of law, societies will be in a perpetuate state of conflict. Just as one observes the rule of grammar in order to make sense in conversation, so a society must abide by rule of laws to maintain peace. The rule of law is therefore imperative for the maintenance of public order.
Political parties do canvass for votes during elections. An elected party by majority votes gains the legitimacy to govern according to the rule of law; anything contrary to this is not rule of law but rule of man tainted with whims and caprices that can never be in conformity with the true interest of the people. So any form of arbitrariness and impunity, such as we have witnessed in Nigeria before 1999 , creates the despondency leading to revolt as we have seen in part of North Africa and the Middle East .
Majority rule creates the legitimate legal basis for legislative governance of a state. Legislations, which seek to regulate the political, economic and social life of a state, are indispensible for the enthronement of the rule of law. The functions of law are therefore to create an ordered atmosphere in a polity, which enhance peaceful development of the state.

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THE RULE OF LAW AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN NIGERIA: EXAMINATION OF ABUSES AND NON-OBEDIENCE

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF USE OF LEGISLATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PRACTICE

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF USE OF LEGISLATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PRACTICE

ABSTRACT

This research project focuses on an appraisal of the role of use of legislation in environmental health practice in Nigeria. Like many developing countries, Nigeria has struggled to maintain a balance between its economic development and the sustainability of its environmental resources and health. This dichotomy is reflected by    severe environmental problems including crude oil devastation of the Niger Delta’s marine environment and contaminated groundwater in Lagos, its largest megacity. The slow emergence of legal structures for protecting environmental resources indicates the national preoccupation with economic advancement, and has led to the sad neglect of the environment. This research work argues that although there is now more awareness about the importance of safeguarding environmental resources, the progress made is still paltry. This minor progress is highlighted by extensive and continuing pollution of important environmental resources.          The research material concludes with a recommendation to strengthen laws and institutions for environmental enrichment and sustainable development.

 CHAPTER ONE

GENERA INTRODUCTION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Environmental law was developed in response to the public perception that human health and the environment were inadequately protected. It is at this point that the Environment needs protection, and whether law is successful in protection of the environment will depend significantly upon the range of entities that it is able to protect. It is imperative that Environmental law is a concept that will be discussed in this unit using various scholastic ideas in that direction and succinctly, students/readers will be abreast with the facts dealing with the topic. And the Government participation by all tiers is inevitable if measures designed to protect the environment is to be effective. It is at this point that, law has a key role to play regardless of technological or scientific design or devices. The core objective of preservation, conservation and maintenance of purify environment can only be achieved only if the law can be mobilized to operate in partnership with science and technology. Environmental law in Nigeria is that branch of public law which contains rules and regulations which have as their object or effect the protection of the environment.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF USE OF LEGISLATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PRACTICE

HUMAN RIGHTS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

HUMAN RIGHTS AND NATIONAL SECURITY:  A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0       GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Fundamental Rights are rights derived from natural or fundamental or constitutional law. They are rights which remain in the realm of domestic law, which are recognized, entrenched and guaranteed in the constitution of a country or any other legal instrument such as the African

Charter on Human and People’s Rights. Fundamental Human Rights are also described as rights which are inalienable and guaranteed to every person.

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Right guarantee fundamental human rights. These Fundamental Human Rights are not privileges in the sense that they could be withdrawn at the whims and caprices of the government of the day. They are rights which the executive and legislature are enjoined to respect and the judiciary to protect. However, there are instances where these guaranteed rights are violated either by the law enforcement agents or in quasi-judicial proceedings[2]

Furthermore, where there are breaches of these rights, the appropriate means to secure the enforcement of the victims‟ fundamental right is paramount. It is against this background that the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules was enacted. On 29th May, 1999, a new constitution came into being. Some judicial opinions[3] were of the view that the Fundamental Rights ( Enforcement Procedure ) Rules1979 was dead pursuant to section 42(3) which provides who to make rules for the practice and procedure for the High court towards the enforcement of the provision of Chapter IV. For effective enforcement of the rights guaranteed under the 1999 Constitution, the 2009 Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules was enacted, It was signed In November 11,2009 by the then Chief Justice IdrisLegboKutigi and came into force with immediate effect replacing the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure)Rules 1979.

The purpose of the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules is to facilitate the enforcement of fundamental rights[4]. The Rules provide for redress where there is a violation or even apprehension of likely violation of these rights[5]. The fundamental rights are provided in

Chapter IV of the 1999 Constitution and Chapter 1 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Rights. Where the violation has occasioned injury which could be compensated in financial terms, courts are duty bound to make orders of reparation in monetary terms if applied for and proved.

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HUMAN RIGHTS AND NATIONAL SECURITY:  A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DUTY OF CARE OF AN EMPLOYER UNDER NIGERIAN LABOUR LAW

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DUTY OF CARE OF AN EMPLOYER UNDER NIGERIAN LABOUR LAW

ABSTRACT

The laws which govern employment occupy a position of considerable importance in any modern society. This is so because of the tremendous contributions which workers can make to national growth and development, as well as the general well-being of the nation’s citizenry. Labour law has a vital role to play in the mobilization of the work force for national growth. The major players in employment are essentially-the employer and the employee and whenever there is a contractual relationship between these two parties, the binding contract naturally brings about rights and duties which must be complied with. Their respective rights and duties have to be analysed wholly in contractual terms. In many civilized countries, a case study of Nigeria; it has been observed from historical antecedents, a structured favour to employers over and above the employees’ liability arose. As much as it is an undisputed fact that employers reserve the right to dismiss alongside other rights, employees also have rights which they can also exercise. But in most circumstances, due to ignorance of many employees, the opportunity to challenge such unlawful acts of the employers eludes them. Efforts has been made in this research projects to identify these problems associated with provision of care by the employer to the employee, their causes and also solutions have been suggested in the concluding chapter for a need to reform the whole set up as it affects labour law and practice in Nigeria.The need for industrial harmony demands that parties in employment and industrial relationship are aware of the rights and responsibilities accruing to them. These change as society itself changes. The objective of this paper is to highlight and analyse the changes in the roles of employers to employees in order to avoid conflict in the relationship. The writers found that the relationships in employment have been affected by the changes in international law and our national laws. The paper recommends constant enlightenment of employers/employees on new labour laws creating new statuses and obligations for employers and employees.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE DUTY OF CARE OF AN EMPLOYER UNDER NIGERIAN LABOUR LAW

JUSTICE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND THEORIES OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

JUSTICE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND THEORIES OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

The idea of environmental justice has been a central concern for academics in a range of disciplines, and both the concept and its coverage have expanded substantially in the past two decades. Clearly, the discourse of environmental justice has been broadening and expanding in scope far beyond its initial application to inequities in the distribution of environmental risk, and here I examine this development in three key ways. First, the researcher explores how the early work on environmental justice pushed beyond simple boundaries. The idea of environmental justice challenged the very notion of ‘environment’, examined multiple reasons for the construction of injustice, and illustrated the potential of varied and pluralistic conceptions of social justice. More recently, there have been numerous ways in which the discourse has expanded. As key reflections have argued, there has been a spatial expansion of the use of the term, both horizon-tally into a broader range of issues and vertically into examinations of the truly global nature of environmental injustices (Sze and London 2008, Walker 2009).

This expanding sphere of the environmental justice discourse has, I argue, been extended further with the application of the frame to climate change and climate justice, as well as growing concerns and movements around local food and energy that have become the centre of some environmental justice organis-ing. Climate change has pushed environmental justice to more broad considera-tions of both environment and justice. The turn to a growing focus on sustainable materialism illustrates a sophisticated analysis of power and injustice on the part of environmental justice movements and an important development in transformative politics and practice. Both trends extend a conception of environmental justice into a new realm – where environment and nature are understood to create the conditions for social justice.

While ithas been previously argued (Schlosberg 2004) that theories of environmental justice, and academic work on the concept in general, were often detached from the innovations of both movements and theory, the broadening and deepening work on environmental justice in the past decade shows much more thorough engagement with these innovations.

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JUSTICE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND THEORIES OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESOLUTION OF AVIATION DISPUTE (CASE STUDY NIGERIAN AIRLINES)

LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESOLUTION OF AVIATION DISPUTE (CASE STUDY NIGERIAN AIRLINES)

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The topic of this research is “Legal framework for the resolution of aviation dispute.” Aviation is basically a transnational and border-crossing phenomenon, without which globalization (the flow of people and goods and the mixing of cultures) would have been difficult and the awareness that we all live on one planet could not have been established. The difference between this awareness and the ancient organizational principle of humans, the principle of national sovereignty is not completely clear. A group of people (a nation) live on a particular part of the earth (the national territory) and claim that this area is for them, and exercise legal power (government) over this area. This principle is known as „Sovereignty of Nations‟ or „Self-Determination of the Peoples‟ and is based on the notion that human beings are organized into groups or communities that have settled, but that such settlement is the reason why they claim exclusiveness of all powers for themselves on that part of the earth area which they occupied.

This ancient organizational principle results to the point that although there are so-called areas of international sovereignty in the world, that is, areas that are not claimed by anyone like the high seas, there are no areas in the air space that are considered „mutual property for all of mankind‟. This notable principle in customary international law is known as „the principle of territorial sovereignty‟ was confirmed in the Paris Convention of 1919[] and reiterated in the Chicago Convention of 1944[2] and it gives each state to the exclusion of all others, a unilateral and absolute right to permit or deny entry into its territory and to control all movements therein.[3] According to Milde, this principle is “a cornerstone of international air law and … declaratory of general international law.”[4] Specifically, this state authority (also referred to as „national interest‟ principle) precludes the operation of scheduled international air services over or into the territory of a state without its permission or special authorization. Moreover, such authorization is required for state aircraft[5], pilotless aircraft[6], and aircraft carrying munitions[7], with an exception carved out for a restricted freedom of civil, non-scheduled flights8.

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 LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESOLUTION OF AVIATION DISPUTE (CASE STUDY NIGERIAN AIRLINES)

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN AFRICAN TRADITION AND WESTERN CULTURE

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN AFRICAN TRADITION AND WESTERN CULTURE

ABSTRACT

Conflict is a disagreement or clash between people, ideas; or in the case of our study, cultures. Therefore, culture becomes a unique and sentimental phenomenon that is not only cherished but also protected dearly by an individual as well. Thus, a literature has become the means through which cultural sentiments are projected and expressed. For a long time, Africans in particular, have been subjected to cultural imposition and displacement of western culture. This report aimed at examining the Euro centric psyche that considers westernization superior. This study has adopted the sociological theory by focusing on Soyinka’s text; The Lion and the Jewel and Death because it best suits our study. We discussed these conflicts through societal norms and belief system, psychological conflict and generation gap.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction

The intent of this study is to analyse  WoleSoyinka’s play The Lion and the Jewel from the light of cultures in conflict to encourage others to read the works of African literature. The play is characterized by the conflict between cultures. This conflict exists between Lakunle the schoolteacher who is influenced by Western cultureand Baroka who is uneducated and represents the traditional one. This study shows the concepts of culture that has focused on the conflicts between old and new, western and tradition. The researcher tries to highlight not only the plight of Nigerian people but the Africans continents as a whole. In the play, there is a confrontation between the tradition and modernity. The researcher relates the modernity to the influence of British culture on Nigerian way of life. Lakunle who stands for change in the play is facing a challenge with Baroka who stands for the tradition. The conflict in this study has different sides. So, it may be as a result of generation gap, or education or age (old and new) or mind and belief. The conflict may exist among the characters themselves.

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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN AFRICAN TRADITION AND WESTERN CULTURE

THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to Study

The explosion of drug peddling and cultism in the higher institutions of learning in Anambra State is a glaring reality. The situation becomes more worrisome when one realizes that Anambra society is now replete with cultic activities.

There is always a spill-over of tension and crises from the various campuses to the towns. Tranquility which had been the heritage of the Anambra people, for years now has become an illusion.

The various higher institutions of learning in the state had within a decade experienced one form of disruption or the other as a result of the activities of cultists. These crises reached their climax in 1990 and have resisted decline seriously. As a result, academic activities in the schools are being strangulated. The religious, political, economic and social lives of the people are adversely affected. The atmosphere is tense as there is a feeling of uneasiness both within and outside the campuses. It is against this background that this research work is set.

Our duty here is to bring to the fore the devastating effects of drug peddling and cultism in Anambra State by tracing its origin and operations in the various higher institutions of learning. From historical perspective, the project work will expose the types of cults found in the various schools and the reasons behind the difficulties experienced over the years in the effort to expunge them from these institutions. Along this line, efforts will be made to trace the attempts made so far by individuals, the various religious groups, the government and non-governmental bodies in the fight against the menace of drug peddling and cultism.

Although it has been conjectured that enough efforts have already been put in by Nigerians as far as the fight against drug peddling and cultism is concerned (Enejo 2002: 237), the present researcher believes that this research work will contribute in no small measure to finding further solutions to the challenges of peace and security and the role of drug peddlers and drug peddling and cultism in Obosi town in Anambra state.

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THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The police force is regarded as the most visible governmental agency through which the character of a government and political system may be assessed. This is so because the police are the guardian or vanguard of the status quo. The role of the police in any human society cannot be over-emphasized. The police force is not only central to individual self-actualization, but also to social cohesion, economic development and democratic consolidation (Wabara, 2004). To a large extent, the actions and behaviours of the police reflect the political and economic character of society as well as what those in power are willing or able to tolerate or condone. Elemika (1999) seems to agree with the foregoing statement where he states that the goals, performance, problems and challenges of policing are determined by the social, economic and political structures of society. According to Elemika (1999), the police are subject to the dictates and interests of those who control the political and economic resources of society. Hence, the ability of the police to respond to popular demands of citizens as opposed to their subservience to the interests of political and economic power-holders is determined by the extent to which political and economic resources are equitably distributed and the citizens afforded opportunity for participation in the determination and implementation of public policies.

Before Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the number of enlightened and educated Nigerians was very minimal and the few privileged elementary school graduates had dreams that were much larger than being a policeman or women. Consequently, officers were recruited from among illiterate natives who saw themselves as white man’s tool for the oppression of their fellow citizens. Elemika (1999) further lends credence to the foregoing where he states that the history of the police forces in the country indicates that the various forces were established, organized and maintained by colonial and post-colonial governments primarily for order maintenance that engenders repression, a culture of impunity: corruption, incivility, brutality, lack of transparency and accountability. After Nigerian independence, concerted efforts were made by the first set of the country’s indigenous leadership to correct the perception of the police by the public. The efforts were however short-lived as frequent military regimes that started in 3966 only furthered the mentality of oppression.

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THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA

EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study are as follows: To ascertain the extent to which prison congestion in Nigeria poses a serious constraints on prison administration, to find out the extent funding has affected on the administration of Nigeria prison and to verify the extent to which lack of rehabilitation and correctional equipment in Nigeria Prisons constitutes a constraint to rehabilitation of inmates, and also the prevention of crime in Nigeria. The researcher adopted a survey design using Nigerian Prison Service, Agodi Gate Ibadan as a case study. The data used were mainly from primary sources which supported secondary sources. Data generated were analysed using tools like simple tables, and percentage. The findings showed that inadequate funding of prisons by federal government of Nigeria constitutes an impediment to effective administration of Nigeria Prisons, lack of correlation facilities for the rehabilitation of offenders in Nigeria prisons is positively related to the increase of recidivism among prison inmates, the Nigeria extant laws on prisons have impacted negatively on the administration of her Prisons. The study recommended among other things that federal government should increase the funding of Nigeria Prison, and the need for government to amend the extant laws on prison to emphasize punishment and grant the rehabilitation of both Awaiting Trial Men (ATM) and the convicted.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

Crime is any act or behaviour which violates the norms (normative behaving) of a society. This would mean that a criminal should be seen as any person who breaks any of the rules or norm of behaviour by which society is governed and has the possibility of affecting the wellbeing of other members of the society.(Roth 2006) Therefore, the importance of crime prevention and control, maintenance of law and order to the development and growth of a society,both in the physical and economic sense, cannot be over emphasized.

Roth (2006) is of the opinion that ‘it is only a mind that is secured and at peace that can rationally address the issues of procreation,economic development and societal growth. A disturbed mind is a restless and distraught personality. It is therefore imperative to have peace and order in the society to assure its growth and development.The role of law enforcement in the maintenance of peace and order as well as crime prevention in the society is a foregone conclusion.

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EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA

IMPACT OF FAKE DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS PURCHASING INTENTION IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY)

IMPACT OF FAKE DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS PURCHASING INTENTION IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY)

                                                                  CHAPTER ONE

                                                                 INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The essence of being in business by any business outfits is to produce for sales and profits. In order to remain in business an organization must generate enough sales from its products to cover operating costs and post reasonable profits. For many organizations, sales estimate is the starting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in most cases, before production units could be arrived at while production units will in turn affect material purchases. However, taking decision on sales is the most difficult tasks facing many business executives. This is because it is difficult to predict, estimate or determine with accuracy, potential customers’ demands as they are uncontrollable factors external to an organization. Considering, therefore, the importance of sales on business survival and the connection between customers and sales, it is expedient for organizations to engage in programmes that can influence consumers’ decision to purchase its products. This is where advertising and brand management are relevant. Advertising is a subset of promotion mix which is one of the 4ps in the marketing mix i.e product, price, place and promotion. As a promotional strategy, advertising serve as a major tool in creating product awareness and condition the mind of a potential consumer to take eventual purchase decision.

DECEPTION IN ADVERTISEMENT

Deception’ through the advertisement is a common phenomenon today. Among others some of the Advertisers published the misleading, fraudulent and deceptive advertisement through mass media such as TV, radio, bill boards, sigh boards, transportation, satellite channels and so on. Some deceptive and fraudulent products are sale for some complex diseases like Agma, cancer, diabetics, etc for which company are offering strong guarantee to cure these complex those diseases through their Advertisements within very short period of time. Sometimes they are publishing their Advertising through mass Medias not only for above diseases, but guaranteed to solve all kinds of physical and mental problems by single doges of medicines or through their (Addatik) power.

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IMPACT OF FAKE DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS PURCHASING INTENTION IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY)

THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The concept of air pollution is a term that applies to any chemical, physical or biological agent that affects the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a dynamic, natural gas system that supports all life on earth. More than 4.6 million people die every year due to air pollution and most is attributed to indoor pollution. Indoor air pollution is one of the most overlooked threats to human health, affecting young children who spend an estimated 80% of their time indoors. Studies released in the past few years clearly demonstrates that poor indoor air quality not only increases asthma symptoms but can also be responsible for headaches, fatigue, nausea, allergic reactions, hormone imbalances and liver, kidney or central nervous system damage.

Some people think that outdoor pollution like green house gases and its effects are dangerous but studies have shown that indoor pollutions has the most significant effects. A recent study conducted by Johns Hopkins` Bloomberg School of Public Health found that in many cases, the level of indoor pollution was five times higher than outdoor and that the presence of these elevated levels of pollution significantly increased asthma symptoms in the children being studied. These findings are all the more alarming paired with the fact that no regulations currently exist for indoor air quality; not in schools, day-care facilities or even in hospitals. Sources of indoor pollution are limitless and some of these sources include: household cleaning agents, pesticides, biological pollutants, building and remodelling materials; to mention but a few.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problems associated with air pollution are continuously on the rise; this is because of the alarming increase in anthropogenic activities that adversely affects the climate and environment and most importantly the health of individuals worldwide. Studies have revealed that the slightest decrease in air pollution can lead to a significant increase in the peoples’ health and increase the life expectancy of individuals world-wide. According to the epidemiology journal; the U.S government and agencies have made significant improvement in reducing the incidence of air pollution and in turn; there has been a decrease in the occurrence of respiratory diseases.

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

IMPACT OF SANITARY LANDFILLS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

IMPACT OF SANITARY LANDFILLS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

In terms of Sustainability and environment, the natural elements play important roles for ecological preservation. Water is the most abundant environmental resource on earth but its accessibility is based on quality and quantity, as well as space and time. It may be available in various forms and quantity but its use for various purposes is the subject of quality. About 70% of the human body and about 60-70% of plant cells is made up of water (Smith and Edger, 2006). It is one of the determinants of human settlement, existence and activities on the earth. Its quantity is fixed but dynamic in formation and storage. Of all the environmental concerns that developing countries face, the lack of adequate, good quality water remains the most serious (Markandya, 2004). Once contaminated, groundwater may forever remain polluted without remedy or treatment. Water is one of the determinants of human earth system. Diseases may spring up through water pollution, especially groundwater contamination, and rapidly spread beyond human expectation because of its flow mechanism (Afolayan et al., 2012). One of the major factors that make the earth habitable for humans is the presence of water. Forming the major component of plant and animal cells, it is the basis of life and therefore the development of water resources is an important component in the integrated development of any area.

Water is critical to our daily lives and is an extraordinary compound in nature. It covers 71% of Earth (USGS, 2014). Water is the most important resource of a country, and of the entire society, since no life is possible without water. It has this unique position among other natural resources, because a country can survive in the absence of any other resource, except water (Garg, 2009). According to the National Water Policy (2002), in the planning and operation of systems, water allocation priorities should be broadly as follows: drinking, irrigation, hydropower, ecology, agro-industries and non-agricultural industries, navigation and other uses. About 68.7% of the fresh water is tied up in polar ice caps and glaciers, and a further 30.1% is underground as groundwater, most of which is not available for use (Gleick, 1996).

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IMPACT OF SANITARY LANDFILLS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMMAME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN EKITI STATE PROPOSAL

THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMMAME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN EKITI STATE PROPOSAL

1.1       Introduction

Like most themes in social change and development, the problem of rural-urban migration and agricultural development is a complex subject. One thing however is clear; the phenomenon of rural-urban migration is grounded in the persistent inequality in the allocation of social and economic infrastructure such as pipe borne water, good roads, electricity, health facilities, and industries, among others in rural and urban communities. This has been experienced since the colonial era.

To Braun (2004), people tend to be pulled to the areas of prosperity and pushed from areas of decline. Migrants are usually concerned with the benefits they hope to gain by moving and usually give less thought to the problems that they will incur as a result of the migration process. Migration is an inevitable part of human existence, with a long history. However, its pattern has changed considerably over time, from the search for space, especially in the middle ages, to that of congestion in large cities (rural-urban migration) in the modern age, especially in the last millennium.

Useful natural resources, which can be harnessed for socio-economic development, abound in Nigeria particularly in the rural areas. Coincidentally, Nigeria has a large proportion of both rural sector and rural people, which is a quintessential feature of developing countries (Akande, 2002). The most distinct characteristic of Nigeria‟s rural areas is the widespread involvement of the inhabitants in agriculture. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in terms of its contribution to the GDP of the Nation after Oil. The sector contributes about 41 percent of the country’s GDP, employs about 65 percent of the total population and provides employment to about 80 percent of the rural population (ADF, 2005).

In Nigeria, the rural sector is distinguishable from the urban sector in terms of the respective volumes of agricultural and non-agricultural components of economic activity that take place in the two sectors. Thus economic activity in the rural milieu revolves around the exploitation or utilization of land. It centres principally on farming, animal husbandry, poultry, fishing, forestry, food processing and cottage industry. It has been estimated that agricultural activity occupies four-fifth of the rural population in Nigeria (Olatunbosun, 1975:10).

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THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMMAME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN EKITI STATE PROPOSAL

AN EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OLULOYE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE

AN EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OLULOYE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE

ABSTRACT

This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities for industrial waste management in Oluloye Industrial Estate.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to Study

Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid waste can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes. Nigeria’s major urban centres are today fighting to clear mounting heaps of solid waste from their environments. These strategic centres of beauty, peace and security are being overtaken by the messy nature of over flowing dumps unattended heaps of solid wastes emanating from household or domestic or kitchen sources, markets, shopping and business centres. City officials appear unable to combat unlawful and haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes which are a clear violation of the clean Air and Health Edicts in our environmental sanitation laws, rules and regulation.

Refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues in Nigeria today. All stakeholders concern with the safety and the beautification of our environment have come to realize the negative consequences of uncleared solid human wastesfound in residential neighbourhoods, markets, schools, and central business districts in our cities. These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment. It is no longer in doubt that Nigerian cities are inundated with the challenges of uncleared solid wastes. As a result, urban residents are often confronted with the hazardous impact to their collective health and safety.

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AN EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OLULOYE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE

EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway which has a large impact on quality of life and poses a great burden on health services. In children, asthma is the most commonly reported chronic disease in developed countries.  Environmental factors, importantly including improvedhygiene, ambient air pollution exposures, and early-life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, contribute to the development of asthma. In a recent systematic review and meta-analyses, we found statistically significant associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and the incidence and lifetime prevalence of childhood asthma, although there was significant heterogeneity in some of the risk estimates. These effects are biologically plausible. Britain’s Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants proposed four mechanisms by which air pollution can affect asthma; oxidative stress and damage; inflamed pathways; airway remodeling; and enhancement of respiratory sensitization to allergens. Oxidative stress relates to common asthmatic traits, and was suggested to play a role in asthma pathogenesis. Further, it was previously highlighted as one chief pathway which underpins the adverse health effects of (traffic-related) air pollution on the respiratory systems. TRAP is a particularly important and challenging exposure to study given its ubiquity, its dominance in present urban areas, its proximity to human receptors, and its high spatial and temporal variability. Concerns about children’s health and the factors that affect it are important determinants of health policies. In particular, policies that aim to prevent the adverse effects of environmental factors on health consider children as the population group that deserves the highest level of protection. High-level international policy documents, such as the declarations of the Ministerial Conferences on Environment and Health convened in London in 1999 and Budapest in 2004, highlight this concern. The Budapest Conference also adopted the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe, which formulates actions aiming to prevent and reduce the burden of environment-related diseases in children in the WHO European Member States. Reduction of the adverse effects of air pollution on children’s health, and in particular on the occurrence of respiratory disease, is one of the four regional priority goals of the Action Plan. The most effective policy actions are those based on well-established evidence of the links between children’s health and environmental exposures, ensuring that the prevention of exposure leads to improved health.

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EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN MAKURDI BENUE STATE

ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN MAKURDI BENUE STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. 1 Background of the Study

Soil is one of the world‘s greatest resource. It has been described as a natural body of animal, mineral and organic constituents, differentiated into horizons of variable depth which differ in morphology and physical, chemical and biological characteristics (Joffe, 1948). It is an important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet’s life. A major function of soil on man is that it supports food supply and food security. Soils affect food security directly because it supports agriculture. Agriculture produces the food we eat and provides the primary source of livelihood for 36% of the world‘s total workforce (ILO, 2007). Therefore, threat to soil is threat to food security and economies which rely on agriculture. Food security is directly linked to the ability of the land to support populations (Scherr and Yadav, 1996).

Global concern about soil degradation has grown because of its threat to agriculture and food security. Low agricultural production, food insecurity, low income of the rural population and poverty are consequences of soil degradation (Junge, Deji, Abaidoo, Chikoye and Stahr, 2008). Agcaoili, Perez and Rosegrant (1995) estimated that increasing degradation would lead to as much as 10% decline in productivity in the developing countries and could lead to worsening malnutrition in the developing world.

Some of the challenges posed by soil degradation to food security in the developing countries are; long-term investment and appropriate technology development, dampened economic growth effects of lower farm incomes in irrigated, high quality rain fed and densely populated marginal lands due to lost soil productivity and threat to nutrition and deaths from malnutrition and diseases associated with poor diets (Eswaran, Almaraz, Van den Berg and Reich, 1997; Swift and Shepherd, 2007).

Soil degradation is a loss of soil function. It is a serious and most common form of land degradation because the soil is the basis for production (Blum, 1998). It encompasses physical, chemical and biological deterioration. Examples of soil degradation are loss of organic matter, decline in soil fertility, decline in structural condition, erosion, adverse changes in salinity, acidity or alkalinity, and the effects of toxic chemicals, pollutants or excessive flooding. Soil degradation is the decline in soil quality caused by its improper use, usually for agricultural, pastoral, industrial or urban purposes

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ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN MAKURDI BENUE STATE

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY STRATEGY FOR REDUCING HEALTH RISKS IN URBAN AREAS

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY STRATEGY FOR REDUCING HEALTH RISKS IN URBAN AREAS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of Study

Today, there is no doubt that the world has increasingly become urban and the 20 century witnessed rapid and unprecedented urbanization of the world’s population. The global urban population increased from 13% in 1900 to 29% in 1950, 49% in 2005 and it is estimated that by 2030, 60% of the population will live in the cities. This trend is a reflection of the growth of urban population that increased from 220 million in 1900 to 732 million in 1950 and is expected that there will be 4.9 billion urban dwellers by 2030 (annual urban growth rate of 1.8%). Almost all of this growth will be in lower income regions of Africa and Asia where urban population is likely to triple and in Asia will more than double. Of all the regions of the world, Asia and Africa are urbanizing faster and are projected to become 56% and 64% urban, respectively by 2050. Three countries; Nigeria, India, and China combined are expected to account for 37% of the projected growth of the world population between 2014 and 2050. At the beginning of the 20 century, just 16 cities in the world (mostly in developing nations) contained a million people or more. Today, more than 400 cities have a population of a million or more, about 70% of them are found in developing countries. For the first time in history, in 2007, more people live in cities and towns than will be living in rural areas and by 2017, the developing nation is likely to have become more urban in character than rural. While, there is no universal definition of what constitutes urban settlement, the criteria for classifying an area as urban may be based on one or a combination of characteristics as human population threshold, population density, proportion employed in non-agricultural sectors, presence of infrastructures such as paved roads, electricity, piped water or services, and presence of education and health services. On the other hand, urbanization denotes a process whereby a society changes from a rural to urban way of life or redistribution of populations to urban settlements associated with development and civilization. For millennia, urban areas have been centres and drivers of commercial, scientific, political and cultural life, having a major influence on the whole countries and regions. The Nigerian society is undergoing both demographic transition (people are living longer) and epidemiological transition (change in population health due to changes in lifestyle) mainly as a result of urbanization.

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY STRATEGY FOR REDUCING HEALTH RISKS IN URBAN AREAS