TO EXAMINE THE EXTRACTS (LEAF, STEM AND ROOTS) OF ALSTONIA BOONEI ON THE ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MELLITUS

TO EXAMINE THE EXTRACTS (LEAF, STEM AND ROOTS) OF ALSTONIA BOONEI ON THE ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MELLITUS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Throughout the world, many cultures still rely on indigenous medicinal plants for their primary health care needs (Farnsworth et al., 1985). 25% of modern medicines to date, are derived from plants that have been used by traditional medical practitioners, (Cragg et al., 2005). It is a fact that traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance. Although modern medicine may be available in many developed countries, people are still turning to alternative or complementary therapies including medicinal herbs. Yet, few plant species that provide medicinal herbs have been scientifically evaluated for their possible medical applications. The safety and efficacy data are available for even fewer herbs, their extracts and active ingredients and the preparation containing them. Tropical and subtropical Africa contains between 40–45,000 species of plant with a potential for development and out of which 5,000 species are used medicinally (Van Wyk, 2008). Still there is a paradox, in spite of this huge potential and diversity, the African continent has only contributed 83 of the 1100 classic drugs globally (Van Wyk, 2008). African countries are at a stage where traditional medicine is considered more for its capacity to generate other medicine than for its own sake. In many cases research undertakings and the commercial use stemming from that research have always relied on information provided by the local communities and, in many instances, have hardly benefited from the research results (Rukangira, 2004). In Africa, traditional healers and remedies made from plants play an important role in the health of millions of people. The relative ratios of traditional practitioners and university-trained doctors in relation to the whole population in African countries are revealing. In Ghana, for example, in the Kwahu district, there are 224 people for every traditional practitioner, compared to nearly 21,000 people for one university-trained doctor (Rukangira, 2004).

1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

The medicinal value of plants have assumed a more important dimension in the past few decades owing largely to the discovery that extracts from plants contain not only minerals and primary metabolites but also a diverse array of secondary metabolites with antioxidant potential. Antioxidant substances block the action of free radicals which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, cancer,

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TO EXAMINE THE EXTRACTS (LEAF, STEM AND ROOTS) OF ALSTONIA BOONEI ON THE ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MELLITUS

 

INVITRO ANTI-OXIDANT CAPACITY OF YOYO BITTERS AND ITS NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

INVITRO ANTI-OXIDANT CAPACITY OF YOYO BITTERS AND ITS NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate invitro antioxidant capacity of yoyo bitters and its nutritional effect on the weight of male albino wistar rats. Sixteen(16) rats weighing (163±2.00g) were randomly picked into two equal group; (Group A and B). The rats were acclimatized for 7 days, after which 1ml 0f yoyo bitters were administered once daily to group A respectively for the period of 28 days while group B were received distilled water which serve as control. The feed was weighed throughout the period of the experiment. Each group were given 300g of mash grower feed daily and animals were also weighed weekly. At the end of 4 week, a significant increase was observed in the weight of the test rat (208.08±9.37g) compared to control (192.69±10.20g). The relative weight of the following organ: Liver, Kidney, Heart, Lungs, Spleen, Testes and Pancreas were observed and its was statistically significant (P<0.05). The total antioxidant capacity was compare using T test, the value of the test and control are statistically significant (P<0.05), Hydroxyl free radical n al activity (P<0.05) and DPPH scavenging activity (P<0.05).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 HERBAL BITTERS

Herbal medicine is “the knowledge, skills and practice based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness” (W.H.O 2005). There are different systems of herbal medicine and the philosophy and practices of each are influenced by the prevailing conditions, environment, and geographic area within which it first evolved (W.H.O 2005), however, a common philosophy is a holistic approach to life, equilibrium of the mind, body and the environment and an emphasis on health rather than on diseases. Generally, the focus is on the overall condition of the individual rather than the particular ailment or disease from which the patient is suffering and the use of herbs is a core part of all system of traditional medicine. (Ergebreten 2002; Conboy et al., 2007; Rishon 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008).

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INVITRO ANTI-OXIDANT CAPACITY OF YOYO BITTERS AND ITS NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

THE DEVELOPMENT AND MASS PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL SYNTHESIZED DRUGS HAVE REVOLUTIONIZED HEALTH CARE IN MOST PART OF THE WORLD

THE DEVELOPMENT AND MASS PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL SYNTHESIZED DRUGS HAVE REVOLUTIONIZED HEALTH CARE IN MOST PART OF THE WORLD

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 HERBAL BITTERS

Herbal medicine is “the knowledge, skills and practice based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness” (W.H.O 2005). There are different systems of herbal medicine and the philosophy and practices of each are influenced by the prevailing conditions, environment, and geographic area within which it first evolved (W.H.O 2005), however, a common philosophy is a holistic approach to life, equilibrium of the mind, body and the environment and an emphasis on health rather than on diseases. Generally, the focus is on the overall condition of the individual rather than the particular ailment or disease from which the patient is suffering and the use of herbs is a core part of all system of traditional medicine. (Ergebreten 2002; Conboy et al., 2007; Rishon 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008). Over the past 100, the development and mass production of chemical synthesized drugs have revolutionized healthcare in most part of the world. However, large section of the population in developing countries still rely on traditional practitioners and herbal medicine for primary care. In Africa, up to 90% and in India, 70% of their population depend on herbal medicine to help meet their healthcare needs. In China, herbal medicine account for around 40% of all healthcares delivered and more than 90% of general hospitals in China have unit for herbal medicine (W.H.O 2005). However, use of herbal medicine is not limited to developing countries, and during the past two decade public interest in natural therapies has increased greatly in industrialized countries, with expanding use of ethnobonicals. In the united state, in 2007, about 38% of adult and 12% of children were using some form of herbal medicine (Ernst, Schmint and Wider; Barnes, Bloom, and Nahim). The most common reasons for using herbal medicine are that, it is more affordable; more closely corresponds to patients idealogy, allays concerns about the adverse effects of chemical (synthetic) medicine, satisfies a desire for more personalized health care, and allows greater public access to health information.

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND MASS PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL SYNTHESIZED DRUGS HAVE REVOLUTIONIZED HEALTH CARE IN MOST PART OF THE WORLD

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

ABSTRACT 
Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page————————- i
Certification—————–ii
Dedication————————.iii
Acknowledgement——————-.iv
Abstract————————–v
Table of Content——————–vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction ——————-1
1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant———.4
1.3 Research aim and objectives———.7
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation———8
2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation——.8
2.2 Classes of Inflammation———-9
2.3 Types of Inflammation———–.10
2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation—-13
2.4.0 Properties of Mediators———-16
2.4.1 Histamine—————- 18
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)—- 21
2.4.3 Cytokines——————– 24
2.4.4 Arachidonic acid ————— 30
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)—— 34
2.4.6 Free Radicals————–.36
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)———— 37
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals——. 40
2.4.7.0 Complement system———-. 41
2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 45
2.4.7.2 The Kinin System———–. 48
2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system——— 50
2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents——–53
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 53
2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS—-.55
2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs—-58
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Materials—————— 60
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used——– 60
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents——61
3.1.3 Animals——————–62
3.2 Methodology——————.63
3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials–63
3.2.2 Extraction——————-.63
3.3 Fractionation—————— 64
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography———.64
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract—————–. 65
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis——————–.65
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract—————–.66
3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography———- 71
3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. ——– 72
CHAPTER FOUR
Result———————–.75
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion——————— 79
Conclusion——————— 81
References———————.82
Appendixes——————87

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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

DETERMINATION OF PRION PROTEIN (PrP) AND CHANGES IN FERTILITY HORMONES WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN ALBINO RATS

DETERMINATION OF PRION PROTEIN (PrP) AND CHANGES IN FERTILITY HORMONES WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN ALBINO RATS

ABSTRACT

Wistar albino rats, numbering thirty five (35), were nurtured in the animal house of University of Nigeria Enugu Campus and used for this work. This work is designed to determine the presence of prion (PrP) in Wistar albino rats and the possible changes that sleep deprivation can cause in PrP and fertility hormones. Twenty four (24) of the animals (15 females 9 males) were successfully sleep-deprived for 14 days while 11 were not deprived of sleep. The non-sleep deprived rats were used as a control group in addition to PrPc commercial control, for the prion protein determination. The body weights of the rats were obtained before and after sleep deprivation. Serum samples were collected before and after sleep deprivation for the fertility hormone assay while brain tissues were extracted from each sleep deprived and non-sleep deprived rat after 14 days for prion protein determination and histological studies. Single platform sleep deprivation technique was used for sleep deprivation, ocular venipuncture for blood collection, euthanization for sacrificing the rats and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method for both hormone assay and prion protein determination respectively. Part of the brain tissues were prepared histologically (sectioning and staining) using congo-red staining technique for possible sleep deprivation induced morphological changes. The presence of PrP as determined, was confirmed by comparison of the values of the two control groups and test samples while a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PrP concentration after sleep deprivation was observed when compared with non sleep deprived group of albino rats. Sex hormones such as testosterone and oestradiol, decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The concentrations of prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone and the body weight of the rats also showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) after sleep deprivation compared with the normal control rats. The concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone had no significant (p > 0.05) changes after sleep deprivation when compared with control group of albino rats.

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DETERMINATION OF PRION PROTEIN (PrP) AND CHANGES IN FERTILITY HORMONES WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN ALBINO RATS

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed at finding the effects of alcohol on some biochemical parameters. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) apparently healthy, non-hypertensive male alcoholics were used for the study. Forty (40) non-consumers of alcohol were used as control. The activity of alanine amino transferase (ALT) in the control was 10.50±2.00 IU/L while it was 16.50±1.50 IU/L; 17.50±2.00 IU/L and 18.31±2.00 IU/L in alcoholics who showed preference for palm wine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. Also, the activity of aspirate amino transferase (AST) in the control was 9.51±0.35 IU/L while it was 18.44±0.40 IU/L, 19.21±0.19 IU/L, 20.32±0.64 IU/L i n alcoholics who showed preference for palm wine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. The ALT and AST activities of alcoholic subjects who showed preference for distilled spirit was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those who showed preference for palm wine and beer. The activities of alcoholics who showed preference for palm wine was the lowest. Furthermore, the serum total bilirubin concentration of the alcoholics was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The serum total bilirubin concentrations were 18.65±2.10

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Generally, alcohol designates a class of compounds that are hydroxyl derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, in this study, the term alcohol used without additional qualifications refers specifically to ethanol. A variety of alcoholic beverages have been consumed by man in the continuing search for euphoria producing stimuli. Among some people, alcohol enjoys a high status as a social lubricant that relieves tension, gives self confidence to the inadequate, blurs the appreciation of uncomfortable realities and serves as an escape from environmental and emotional stress. Alcohol has been loved and hated at different times by different people. Alcohol has been celebrated as healthful especially to the heart (red wine) and most pleasant to the taste buds; and then dismissed as “demon’s rum” and “devil in solution” depending on the prevalent view.

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EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, METHANOL AND N-HEXANE LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF KIGELIA AFRICANA ON SOME OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, METHANOL AND N-HEXANE LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF KIGELIA AFRICANA ON SOME OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

ABSTRACT

Globally, the estimated incidence of diabetes and projection for the year 2030 as given by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is 350 million. Kigelia africana is highly used for ethno medicinal purposes although there is paucity of scientific information on its use. This work was therefore, aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic and antioxidative potential of the plant. Ethanol, methanol and n- hexane extracts of the leaves of Kigelia Africana were used for the study. Alloxan diabetes was induced in a total of 60 adult male albino rats weighing between 90 and 160 g. The alloxan was dissolved in cold normal saline. After 72 hr, diabetes was confirmed and the rats were divided into twelve (12) groups of five (5) rats each. Group 1 served as the normal control, group 2 was the diabetic untreated, group 3 received 2.5 mg /kg b.wt of glibenclamide, groups 4, 6 and 8 received ethanol, methanol and n-hexane leaves extract while group 5, 7 and 9 received ethanol, methanol and n-hexane fruit extract respectively of 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extracts. Groups 10-12 were administered equal combination of the leaves and fruits extracts. The rats were fed orally for 21 days after which some biochemical and oxidative parameters were statistically analysed. Phytochemical screening for different bioactive compounds was done using standard methods and indicated the presence of flavoniods, alkaloids, saponins, soluble carbohydrates, tannin, steroids, glycosides and reducing sugars. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of proteins (13.9%), carbohydrates (63.5%), fats and oil (11.4%) and crude fibre (2.2%). LD50 showed that the extracts were safe.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Insulin deficiency in turn leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Kumar et al., 2011). During diabetes, failure of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by fat and muscle cause glucose concentration in the blood to remain high, consequently glucose uptake by insulin-independent tissue increases. Increased glucose flux both enhances oxidant production and impairs antioxidant defenses by multiple interacting non-enzymatic, enzymatic and mitochondrial pathways (Klotz 2002; Mehta et al., 2006).

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EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, METHANOL AND N-HEXANE LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF KIGELIA AFRICANA ON SOME OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

ELUCIDATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL NATURE OF THE LEAVES OF SENNA MIMOSOIDES

ELUCIDATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL NATURE OF THE LEAVES OF SENNA MIMOSOIDES

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the phytochemical composition, immunomodulatory, leukocyte mobilization, haematological and antihepatotoxic effects of the aqueous extract of Senna mimosoides leaves were evaluated. The study also covered the effect of the extract on theactivity of lactase and the assessment of the damaging effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ameliorative effect of the extract on liver tissue using histopathological technique. This study was aimed at validating the traditional use of S. mimosoides leaves in folklore medicine to treat breast milk toxicity in neonates by elucidating its immunological and biochemical nature. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition showed the presence of 2.67 ± 0.0013 mg of flavonoids; 3.43 ± 0.0028 mg of alkaloids; 1.97 ± 0.0030 mg of saponin; 2.32 ± 0.0032 mg of terpenoids; 0.86 ± 0.0023 mg of steroid; 3.61 ± 0.0025 mg of phenol; 8.31 ± 0.0032 mg of reducing sugar; 4.75 ± 0.0034 m g of tannin; 1.61 ± 0.0031 mg of cyanide; 2.75 ± 0.0029 mg of glycoside and 4.68 ± 0 .0033 mg of soluble carbohydrates for every 100 g of the extract. For the animal model experiment, one hundred and thirty (130) albino rats were used. The experimental design was divided into four (4) phases containing five (5) groups of five (5) rats in each group. Rats in group A (control) were administered 0.2 ml of normal saline; rats in groups B, C and D were treated with 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of S. mimosoides leaves respectively; group E rats received levamisol or silymarin (standard drugs) while group F rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) only. Administration of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg of the extract resulted in a dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) increase in primary antibody titre with a value of 6, 8, 13, and secondary antibody titre with a value of 11, 26, 34. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response shows that the extract produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in footpad swelling of the rats. The extract (50, 100 and 250 mg/kg) and levamisol (25 mg/kg) at 24 hr after challenge, significantly (p < 0.05) boosted DTH reactions observed respectively as 1.412, 1.504, 1.816 and 1.827 mm difference in thickness of footpad before challenge and 24 hr after challenge while the control ellicited a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase with a difference of 0.614 mm. At 48 hr after challenge, there was an additional increase in footpad swelling observed as 1.908, 1.918, 2.304 and 2.326 mm for the extract and levamisol respectively.

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ELUCIDATION OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL NATURE OF THE LEAVES OF SENNA MIMOSOIDES

MODULATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS BY LEAF EXTRACTS OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F) AND TECTONA GRANDIS (LINN)

MODULATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS BY LEAF EXTRACTS OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F) AND TECTONA GRANDIS (LINN)

ABSTRACT

The immuno-modulating effects of leaf extracts of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F) and Tectona grandis (Linn) on both humoral and cell mediated immune responses were evaluated in vivo.The responding cells were defined by flow cytometry and secretion of various cytokines by ELISA. Structural elucidation of the bioactive molecules responsible for the observed effect was equally attempted. Results of the quantitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts revealed abundance of bioactive compounds such as soluble carbohydrates (1.624 ± 0.002; 0.910 ± 0.003 mg/100g), tannin (6.593 ± 0.228; 5.325 ± 0.526 mg/1 00g), flavonoids (3.780 ± 0.228; 3.285 ± 0.526 mg/100g), saponins (3.285 ± 0.526; 0.744 ± 0. 004 mg/g), reducing sugars (293.364 ± 0.002; nil mg/100g), glycosides (8.683 ± 0.003; nil mg/g), terpenoids (2.436 ± 0.002; 2.546 ± 0.003 mg/100g), alkaloids (3.363 ± 2.247; nil mg/100g), phenol (8.574 ± 0.002; 8.096 ± 4.494 mg/100g) and hydrogen cyanide (0.395 ± 0.004; 0.344 ± 0.004 mg/g) for Telfairia and Tectona respectively. Acute toxicity studies carried out on the extracts showed no mortality or adverse reaction to the test mice up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight which indicates that they are safe for consumption. The first stage of this study investigated the immune-modulating effect of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Telfairia occidentalis and Tectona grandis on immune-compromised and non-immune-compromised rats.

The study has provided compelling evidence for an immune-modulatory effect of the extracts investigated. It also confirmed that this effect is mediated via action on cytokine expression and synergistic anti-oxidant activity and that moderate boiling does not affect this effect adversely. The two plant extracts performed similarly in most of the parameters determined.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The reality of our modern society shows a preponderance of activities that elevate free radicals generation, engender stress, ultimately weaken the immune system and increase susceptibility to infections and diseases. The immune system is a system of biological structure and processes within an organism that protect against disease. It is designed to protect the host from invading pathogens and to eliminate disease (Sharmaet al., 2004; Naga and Rajeshwari, 2014).Immune system is core to maintenance of health and general well-being and is intricately associated with the four major causes of death which include injury, infection, degenerative disorders and cancer.

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MODULATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS BY LEAF EXTRACTS OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F) AND TECTONA GRANDIS (LINN)

NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF SYNSEPALUM DULCIFICUM PULP AND THE EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF SYNSEPALUM DULCIFICUM PULP AND THE EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

ABSTRACT

The nutritive and antinutritive compositions of S. dulcificum pulp were analysed to augment the available information on the anti-diabetic effect of the plant. Biochemical parameters like liver function enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) and bilirubin concentrations,serum total protein, serum albumin and globulin, kidney function parameters (creatinine and urea concentrations), blood glucose, serum lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were determined in rats that were administered different concentrations of the methanolic extract to ascertain their effects. The internal organs (liver and kidney) were also removed and used for histopathological studies. From the result of the study, the proximate composition shows that S. dulcificum contains 7.75% protein, 59.55% moisture content, 4.36% ash, 6.24% crude fibre, 3.26% fat and 18.84% carbohydrate.The result of the mineral analysis shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 100 mg/g calcium, 24.20 mg/g iron, 9.49 mg/g zinc, 6.22 mg/g copper, 0.01 mg/g chromium and 0.01 mg/g cobalt. Vitamin analyses shows that the S. dulcificum pulp contains 0.04% vitamin A, 22.69% vitamin C, 0.01% vitamin D and 0.02% vitamin K. Anti nutrient analyses of the pulp show 5.67% oxalate, 0.03% phytates and 0.02% hemagglutanin. Amino acid profile shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 8.055% tryptophan, 1.35% phenylalanine, 0.7% isoleucine, 0.5% tyrosine, 1.05% methionine, 0.4% proline, 0.69% valine, 1.1% threonine, 0.4% histidine, 0.5% alanine, 1.02% glutamine, 1.6% glutamic acid, 0.7% glycine, 0.3% serine, 1% arginine, 0.1% aspartic acid, 1.23% asparagine, 0.6% lysine and 0.6% leucine. Quantitative phytochemical analysis shows that the pulp contains 3.45% saponins, 57.01%`flavonoids, 7.12% tannins, 0.0001% alkaloids, 0.0001% glycosides, 0.0003% resins, 0.0002% terpenoids, 0.0001% steroids and 0.0003% cyanogenic glycosides.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The worsening food crisis and the consequent widespread prevalence of malnutrition in developing and under-developed countries have resulted in high mortality and morbidity rates, especially among infants and children in low-income groups (Enujiugba and Akanbi, 2005). Food has been defined as any substance containing primarily carbohydrates, fats, water, protein, vitamins and minerals that can be taken by an animal or human to meet its nutritional needs and sometimes for pleasure. Items considered as food may be sourced from plants, animals or fungus as well as fermented products like alcohol.

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NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF SYNSEPALUM DULCIFICUM PULP AND THE EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) IN AGEING MEN ATTENDING CLINIC

BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) IN AGEING MEN ATTENDING CLINIC

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at investigating biochemical changes associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia in ageing men attending clinic at the university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria. The assessment included 50 men with BPH attending clinic in addition to 50 healthy men (control). All samples were divided into 5 groups and with varying age ranges (Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: BPH patients ≤ 60 years, on treatment, Group 3: BPH patients ≤ 60 years, not on treatment, Group 4: BPH patients ≥ 60 years, taking treatment, Group 5: BPH patients ≥ 60 years, not on treatment). PSA levels of BPH positive subjects under treatment increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the control. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) high level of calcium in subjects who were ≤60 years of age that are on treatment compared with group 1 (control). Also, the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) recorded a high significance (p < 0.05) in comparison to the normal control. In the same study, zinc level decreased non-significantly (p > 0.05) in the groups under investigation and the level of sodium in the blood of positive treated and untreated BPH patients was non-significantly (p > 0.05) high when compared to the healthy subjects. Iron level showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) elevation in subjects ≤ 60 years of age who were on treatment and a significantly level (p < 0.05) in the other groups under investigation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland. It refers to stromal and glandular epithelial hyperplasia that occurs in the periurethral transition zone of the prostate that surrounds the urethra. BPH clinically manifest as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consisting of irritative (urgency, frequency, nocturia) and obstructive symptoms (hesitancy, a weak and interrupted urinary stream, straining to initiate urination, a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying) (Miller and Tarter, 2009). Prolonged obstructions may eventually lead to acute urinary retention (AUR), recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), hematuria, bladder calculi, and renal insufficiency (Curtis, 2006). The prevalence of LUTS due to BPH increases with increasing age. Moderate to severe symptoms occur in 40 and 80% of men after the age 60 and by 80 years, respectively. Nearly all men develop microscopic BPH by the age of 90 years (Ogunbiyi and Shittu, 1999).

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BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) IN AGEING MEN ATTENDING CLINIC

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE SUGAR AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF INDUSTRIALLY PROCESSED FRUIT JUICES SOLD WITH FRESHLY PREPARED FRUIT JUICES

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE SUGAR AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF INDUSTRIALLY PROCESSED FRUIT JUICES SOLD WITH FRESHLY PREPARED FRUIT JUICES

ABSTRACT

The sugar and mineral levels of industrially processed fruit juices (mainly 100% and 50% fruit juices) sold to consumers in Enugu state, Nigeria were determined and compared with that of freshly prepared fruit juices. The liquid nature as well as the versatility of juice has increased the ease with which fruit juices can be altered with sugar, contaminants, water or inferior juices by unethical suppliers. This research was performed to address the potential concern that industrially processed fruit juices (especially those with ‘100% natural’ and ‘no sugar added’ label) may differ in quality with respect to sugar and mineral contents (including heavy metal contents which is deleterious to quality) from extracted juice of fresh fruit, as well as to address in part the ongoing public health concerns of excessive sugar consumption, micronutrient malnutrition and heavy metal contamination. The fruit juices tested included apple, orange, pineapple and red grape juices. All industrially processed fruit juices and fresh fruits used were purchased in Enugu state, Nigeria. The fresh fruits were juiced and all samples including industrially processed and the freshly prepared fruit juices were tested for total soluble solid (TSS) content, fructose, glucose, sucrose, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe and heavy metals contents such as Cu, Zn, As and Pb. Findings from the analysis of the TSS content of fruit juice samples demonstrated no significant (p > 0.05) difference between the industrially processed and freshly prepared fruit juices; however, difference in sugar and mineral levels between industrially processed and freshly extracted fruit juices was significant (p < 0.05). Industrially processed fruit juices contained higher glucose, sucrose, Na, Ca, P, Cu and Zn contents, and lower fructose, K and Mg contents when compared to freshly prepared fruit juices. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) contents of industrially processed fruit juices when compared with the freshly extracted juices. Lead (Pb) was not detected in any of the samples. This study demonstrated no quality issues of concern in relation to the products because all the parameters considered in the study were within the standard acceptable range for fruit juices and nectar.

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE SUGAR AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF INDUSTRIALLY PROCESSED FRUIT JUICES SOLD WITH FRESHLY PREPARED FRUIT JUICES

EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)EGG DIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILE LEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)EGG DIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILE LEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

ABSTRACT

Egg consumption is a popular choice for good nutrients, but by far the egg most often consumed by human is the chicken egg, typically unfertilized. Quail eggs help treat tuberculosis, asthma, and diabetes and it can also help prevent kidney, liver, or gallbladder stones. Thus, this study is aimed at determining quail egg’s dietary effect on the blood sugar and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. The quail egg sample was analyzed for its various nutritional compositions using the Association of Official Analytic Chemists (AOAC) methods. Sixty (60) processed quail eggs and shells, using the cooked-dry method, were administered to thirty six (36) alloxan induced diabetic rats which were grouped into nine (9) different groups of four (4) rats each, at varied doses per group for a duration of seven (7), fourteen (14) and twenty one (21) days. Their lipid profiles were determined using standard methods while histological analyses were carried out using the standard paraffin process method (tissue processing method). Results showed that quail eggs are good sources of protein, lipids and moisture (15.10±0.16%, 31.39±0.26%and 50.18±0.25% respectively). However, the ash and carbohydrate contents are minimal (1.13±0.09% and 0.65±0.05% respectively). Elemental analysis indica tes that the shell is a rich source of Calcium, 3000.00mg/100g; Zinc, 38.15mg/100g; Iron, 175.40mg/100g; Phosphorous, 120.00mg/100g and Magnesium, 78.00mg/100g. Rats treated with two (2) Raw Quail eggs (2RE) showed the best performance in terms of lowering the blood glucose level and weight gain when compared with the insulin treated rats. Statistical analysis of the blood glucose at intervals (day 7, day 14 and day 21), indicates that for a mid-term and long-term treatment of diabetes, quail eggs can be of effective use. Quail egg treatment does not also affect the serum lipid profile of diabetic rats but can however lower or reduce the level of any risk of diabetic dyslipidemia. It is concluded that intake of diets rich in magnesium and leucine, such as a quail egg diet provides, either alone or as part of a therapeutic regimen, can have beneficial effect in the prevention and management of type 1 diabetes.

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EFFECTS OF QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)EGGDIET ON BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILELEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence, complications and cost of conventional drugs in the management diabetes necessitated the search for alternative treatment. As a result, this study seeks to evaluate the composition, anti-diabetic potential toxicity and tissue-protective effects of both the water and methanolic extracts of Persea Americana (avocado pear) seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were investigated. This study was conceived and designed based on information on the local use of the seed in diabetes treatment. Proximate and anti-nutritional constituents of the seed were determined and 100g of the sample was extracted with 1000ml of both water and methanol using the maceration method. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator and stored at 4oC until use. The effects of different doses (200mg/kg.b.wt., 300/kg.b.wt.) of both water and methanolic extracts of P. Americana seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, insulin. The glucose level and weight of the rats were measured weekly for 21 days. The liver function tests and the histopathologies of the liver, and kidneys, were investigated. Results of the proximate investigation shows that the seed is rich in carbohydrate (49.03± 0.02 g/100g), lipid (17.90± 0.14 g/100g), protein (15.55± 0.36 g/100g) moisture (15.10± 0.14 g/100g) and ash (2.26±0.23 g/100g). Anti nutritional components such as total oxalate (14.98±0.03 mg/100g), tannin (6.98±0.04 mg/100g) and phytic acid (3.18±0.16 mg/1 00g). Results also showed that both the water and methanolic extracts exhibited significant anti-diabetic effects on the experimental rats. However, the methanolic extracts showed a better anti diabetic effect than the water extracts. The extracts showed no significant effects on the liver function parameters (bilirubin, conjugate bilirubin, AST, ALP and ALT) compared with the normal control but rather reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced albino diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of P. Americana seeds extracts in the management of Diabetes mellitus. It seems P. Americana seed contains substantial amount of nutrients that could warrant its utilization in animal feed or food. However, further studies are required to identify the active ingredient responsible for the anti-diabetic properties of the seed extract.

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EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS OF WATER AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) SEED ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN FRESH WATER FISH DRIED UNDER DIFFERENT DRYING REGIMES

LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN FRESH WATER FISH DRIED UNDER DIFFERENT DRYING REGIMES

ABSTRACT

Preservation of fish by drying over different types of heat regimes have been known. However, there has not been a comprehensive comparison in terms of the possible contamination associated with these drying regimes. This work was set to evaluate the levels of PAHs that are likely to accumulate in the bodies of fresh water fishes dried under heat from charcoal, sun (sun drying), electric oven and polythene augmented drying regimes (burning of used cellophone materials). The levels of sixteen PAHs were determined in fish samples harvested from Otuocha River in Anambra State, Nigeria. The fish samples were dried, pulverized and subjected to soxhlet extraction using n-hexane at 600c for 8hrs. The water content of the eluants were further removed with florisil clean-up before Gas chromatographic – mass spectrometric analysis. Results obtained showed that sun-dried fish had PAHs concentration to be 35.7+ 0.2µg/g; oven dried gave 47.7+ 0.2µg/g and charcoal dried 79.53+ 0.2µg/g, while drying with firewood resulted in 188.1+ 0.2µg/g. Charcoal drying augmented with polythene resulted into PAHs level of 166.2+ 0.1µg/g while fish dried under heat generated from burning firewood and polythene material resulted into PAHs concentration of 696.3+0.2µg/g. Preliminary analysis of the fresh water samples and the undried fish samples (control) revealed that the fresh water contained total PAHs level of 2.86+ 0.1µg/ml, while the fresh fish 4.97+ 0.2µg/g. The concentration of PAHs in all the dried fish under different drying agents were significantly higher than the control.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene rings (linear, cluster or angular arrangement), or compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms grouped into rings containing five or six carbon atoms. They are called “PAH derivatives” when an alkyl or other radical is introduced to the ring, and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) when one carbon atom in a ring is replaced by a nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur atoms. PAHs originate mainly from anthropogenic processes particularly from incomplete combustion of organic fuels.

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LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN FRESH WATER FISH DRIED UNDER DIFFERENT DRYING REGIMES

EFFECT OF CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND TRICHODERMA HARZANIUM ON NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF PRE-TREATED BENGAL INDIGO (INDIGOFERA ARRECTA) SEEDS

EFFECT OF CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND TRICHODERMA HARZANIUM ON NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF PRE-TREATED BENGAL INDIGO (INDIGOFERA ARRECTA) SEEDS

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The genus Indigofera Linn. is a large genus of about 700 species of flowering plants belonging to the sub-family Papilionoideae in the family Fabaceae / Leguminosae. They occur throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Burkill (1995) recognized 60 species while Soladoye and Lewis (2003) recorded 60 species in Nigeria with over 60% abundance in the Northern region of the country with 27 species distributed across the South Western area of the country. Indigofera in Greek means indigo dye which is famous for the natural blue colors obtained from the leaflets and branches of this herb. The most important of the species are Indigoferaarrecta and Indigofera tinctoria. Indigofera spp. display excellent adaptation to a range of environments, and possessdiverse morphological and agronomic attributes, significant to their use as forage and cover crops (Hassen et al., 2006). Some of these species, Indigofera tinctoria and Indigofera suffruticosa are used to produced indigo dyes while some have medicinal values such as Indigofera articulate used for the treatment of toothache, Indigofera oblongifolia, Indigofera suffruticosa and Indigofera aspalthoides are usedas anti–inflammatories for treatment of insect stings, snake bites and swellings (Shahjahan et al., 2005); and Indigofera arrecta extract is used to relieve ulcer pain. The stem of Indigofera tinctoria is chewed to cure cough and decoction of leaves is used to cure chest pains, epilepsy, nervous disorders, asthma, bronchitis, fever and complaints of stomach, liver, kidney and spleen- especially in Cameroon (Takawira-Nyenya and Cardon, 2005). The twine paste cures dislocation. Also the warm leaves dismiss bruises (Ibe and Nwufo, 2005). Phytochemical investigation of Indigofera species shows that they are rich in organic and fatty acids, flavonoids such as carotenoids and coumarins (Yinusa et al., 2007).

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EFFECT OF CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND TRICHODERMA HARZANIUM ON NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF PRE-TREATED BENGAL INDIGO (INDIGOFERA ARRECTA) SEEDS

EVALUATION OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

EVALUATION OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

ABSTRACT

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Thyroid Dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrinopathies seen in general population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is commonly associated with altered thyroid function. The aim of the research is to evaluate TD in patients with T2DM attending Endocrinology Clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,Sokoto.Blood samples were collected from 80 Type 2 diabetic patients and 80 non diabetic (control) and analyze for fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycatedhemoglobin (HbA1c),thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),triiodothyrorine (T3),thyroxin (T4), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipo protein (HDL-C)and low density lipo proteins(LDL-C).The levels, of FBS, HbA1c,Cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were observed to be significantly high and the level of HDL-C was significantly low in diabetics as compared to control(non diabetic patients).The levels of T3 and T4 were significantly low while the level of TSH was significantly high in Type 2 diabetics as compared to non diabetics.Pearson correlation shows a very strong positive relationship between FBS and HbA1c and weak positive relationship between these sugars and Thyroid hormones(TSH,T3,andT4). Thyroid dysfunction may complicates metabolic control in diabetes mellitus (DM).It is therefore patients to recognize and where necessary treat thyroid dysfunction in order to stabilize metabolic control.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrine disorders seen in adult population(Diezet al., 2011).The prevalence of Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising faster than any other form of diabetes because of increased urbanization which encourages development of obesity due to reduced physical activities, increase consumption of refined foods and snacks globally (Zimmet, 1999; Zimmetet al., 2001).Thyroid hormones, namely Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4); either or both of which may be elevated or reduced have both direct and indirect effect on blood glucose homeostasis (Udionget al.,2007).

Elevated levels of free circulating thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) produce hyperglycemia by causing polyphagia,enhancing glucose absorption from gastro-intestinal tract, accelerating insulin degradation and stimulating glycogenolysis (Webb,2004).Reduced level of the hormones hypothyroidism may cause hypoglycemia (Webb,2004; Cooper, 2003). Hypothyroidism, the most commonly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction has greater implications for Type2 diabetic in whom there is pre-existing dyslipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease (Cooper,2003;Rama et al; 2003; Johnson, 2006).Moreover, thyroid hormones have significant effects on the synthesis, mobilization and metabolism of lipid (Dias et al., 2011; Murray et al., 2000).

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EVALUATION OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

STUDY ON THE DESTABILIZATION OF LYSOZYME AND THE CHAPERONE-LIKE ACTIVITY OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN

STUDY ON THE DESTABILIZATION OF LYSOZYME AND THE CHAPERONE-LIKE ACTIVITY OF ALPHA CRYSTALLINE

ABSTRACT

Destabilization of Lysozyme and chaperone like action of alpha crystallin isolated from goat’s eye lens was investigated at various temperature ranges in phosphate buffer (pH 7.1) solution and dithiothretol (DTT). This was monitored spectrophotometrically at 260nm. The heat and DTT-induced destabilization of lysozyme was prevented by alpha crystallin in a concentration dependent manner. Alpha crystallin like other chaperones, fulfils its chaperone like action in preventing aggregation of denatured proteins by the formation of complexes.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Proteins are the workhorses of the living cell. Although proteins may differ in sequence, shape and function, but have in common, the same stereo configuration (i.e. they all have to fold into specific three-dimensional structures) which are mandatory for proper function (Bruce et al., 2002). Protein structures however are not rigid, but have a dynamic life style, which may involve unfolding and refolding, complex association and dissociation (Anfisen, 1972). Stress and also many physiological events require proteins to surrender their structure or to regain it at a later stage. A very large number of distinct conformations exist for the polypeptide chain of which a protein spends most of its time in the native conformation, which spans only an extremely small fraction of the entire configuration space. Thus, the amino acid sequence of proteins must satisfy two requirements: one, thermodynamics and the other kinetic. The thermodynamics requirement is that the sequence must have a unique folded conformation, which is stable under physiological conditions. Most proteins can be denatured by heat, which has complex effect on the weak interactions in proteins (Vandenberg et al., 2000). If the existing temperature is increased slowly, a protein conformation generally remains intact until an abrupt loss of structure and function occurs over a narrow temperature range (Nelson and Cox, 2008). The spatial arrangement of atoms in a protein is called its conformation (Deechongkit et al., 2004).

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STUDY ON THE DESTABILIZATION OF LYSOZYME AND THE CHAPERONE-LIKE ACTIVITY OF ALPHA CRYSTALLINE

ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING SOME VOLUNTARY AND COUNSELLING TEST (VCT) UNITS

ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING SOME VOLUNTARY AND COUNSELLING TEST (VCT) UNITS

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the dietary pattern and nutritional status of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) attending some voluntary and counseling test units in Kaduna metropolis.The studied subjects consisted of 74 adult patients infected with HIV between the ages of 18 and 60 years and 74 age-and-sexed-matched apparently healthy volunteers who were HIV negative as control group.A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the subjects. Dietary diversity of the subjects and control were assessed using food frequency questionnaire. Blood serum total protein, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically while serum zinc and iron were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result obtained shows that majority of patients (39.19%) were between 26 and 33years. A sizeable percentages of patients (33.78%) and control (52.7%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.00kg/m2), while some patients (25.68%) and control (37.93%) were under weight (BMI < 18.49kg/m2).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, popularly known as AIDS, is caused by the virus, Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). This is a tiny germ that is invisible to the eye that attacks the immune system of the body. AIDS is a condition in which the virus damages the body immune system and renders it helpless against any infection, (Hawkes et al., 2002). According to the World Health Organization (2005), AIDS is the most dreaded, most feared and the most talked about disease in the world today.It is a deadly disease that has no cure. According to Ojedokun (2004), there are two main sub types: HIV I and HIV II. HIV I is the most common type all over the world while HIV II is only common in West Africa. The intensity and the pattern with which HIV/AIDS affects nutritional status are very much different from that in other infections and in ordinary case of inadequate nutrients intake (Piwoz and Preble, 2000). Due to lack of cure for HIV/AIDS, the immune system of infected patients is under constant exposure to infections which adversely affect the nutritional status and immune competence of the subjects in question (Piwoz and Preble, 2000).

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ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING SOME VOLUNTARY AND COUNSELLING TEST (VCT) UNITS

ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION

ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the relationship between some trace elements and antioxidant enzymes was carried out on 98 under-five children with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and 98 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children (control). The malnourished children involve those with Marasmus, Kwashiorkor and Marasmic-kwashiorkor. Venous blood (2ml) was collected from both PEM children and control for biochemical analysis using standard methods. Results obtained show that mean serum total protein (55.76±3.95) and albumin (26.43±2.78) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (1.87±0.32) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (42.38±5.03) activities in malnourished children were significantly lower.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Severe malnutrition is common among developing countries both in rural and urban areas (Psaki et al., 2012).It is responsible for at least half of the 7.6 million child‟sdeaths each year indeveloping countries (Park et al., 2012). Children who are poorly nourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year (UNICEF, 2008). Malnutrition magnifies the effects of every disease, including measles and malaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which malnutrition is an underlying cause are diarrhoea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%) and measles (45%) (Black et al., 2003). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is one of the most prevalent and devastating forms of malnutrition in the world (Whitney and Rolfes, 2008).

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ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION