EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES BY COMMERCIAL BANKS

ABSTRACT
This study investigates the technical support which commercial banks provide for small scale industries in Nigeria (a case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc). The contributions of commercial banks range from the granting of loans to the small scale industries and advisory services are examined. Various determinants employed include the use of primary sources (those collected by the researcher) and secondary sources (those collected from relevant published materials). Importantly, the study provides entrepreneurs, small scale businesses, bankers, researchers and government official a clearer view of the problems facing small scale industries, understand how best to tackle these problems and ways of stimulating development of small scale industries.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Prior to the 1970s or thereabout, the view that large firms were the cornerstone of modern economy dominated economic literature (Nnanna, 2001). The theory of economy of scale which is predicated on the advantages of large scale operations was almost doctrine. In this context, small scale industries (SSIs) were seen as belonging to the past, out-model and a sign of technological backwardness. Indeed, their rapid decline became an index of industrial progress (Owualah, 2001). Lately, however, this view has changed, as the importance of small scale industries in promoting industrialization and economic growth has been recognized globally.
Studies have shown that SSIs have in many countries provided the mechanism for stimulating indigenous entrepreneurship, enhancing greater employment opportunities per unit of capital invested and aiding the development of local technology (Sule, 1986; World Bank, 1995). They help to mobilize savings for investment and promote the use of local raw materials. In addition, the SSIs contribute to the strengthening of industrial linkages and the integration of industrial with other sectors of the economy through the production of intermediate products such as raw materials, spare parts and machinery. It is also recognized that small enterprises adapt with greater ease under difficult and changing conditions as their low capital intensity allows product lines and inputs to be changed at relatively low cost.
In view of these advantages, greater attention has been given to the promotion of SSI globally.
According to Economics Dictionary (1960), industry is defined as the leading sectors of the economy, the totality of all factories, works, power house, mines and workshops which produce tools and equipment, which use the materials and produce the logs, timbers and woods and further use the immediate goods produced by industries as well by agriculture. There is no universal definition of small scale industry. Each country tends to derive its own definition based on the role SSIs are expected to play in that economy and the programmes of assistance designed to achieve that goal. Varying definitions among countries may arise from differences in industrial organization at different levels of economic development and difference in economic development in parts of the same country (Sule, 1986). The criteria that have been used in the definition include capital investment (fixed assets), annual turnover, gross output and employment. Prior to 1992, different institutions in Nigeria adopted varying definitions of small enterprises. The institutions included the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industries, Center for Industrial Research and Development and the National Council on Industry (NCI) streamlined the definition of industrial enterprises to bring in uniformity and providing for its review every four years. The definition was revised in 1996 as follows (NCI, 1986): Small Scale Industry is an enterprise with total cost (including working capital but excluding cost of land) above N1 million, but not exceeding N40 million, with a labour size of between 11 and 35 workers.

The classification of small scale industries in a diagram:
Small scale industry

Factories Non-factories

Cottage Industries Crafts Industry

The increasing development of small scale industries in Nigeria can be appreciated by looking at the pride of place it occupied in many National Development plans. For example, in the second National Development Plan, the government stated that it is its policy to give active support to the promotion and development of small scale industries in the country. To this end, a lot of policies and programme have been initiated by government to enable them attain their objectives culminating in the establishment of the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB). In fact, the forth National Development Plan 1980 – 1985 stated that the objective of establishment special assistance programme for the development of small scale industries is for them to serve as a necessary tool for the development of the Nigerian enterprises.
The term small, medium and large are relative. They differ from industry to industry and country to country. In short, there is no unique of universally accepted definition to these terms. What Nigerians considered very large scale in the 1940s may be qualified now as small scale. Also, the optimum size of a ceramic industry is quite dissimilar to that of a fertilizer plant. Some industries are typically small (crafts, gold milling for example).

EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES BY COMMERCIAL BANKS

ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT GAIN OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC BREED OF BROILERS IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Poultry farming involves, domesticating birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese. They are raised primarily for meat production. Chickens raised for eggs are referred to as laying hens while chicken raised for meat are referred to as broilers.

Exotic chickens are raised in specialized caging systems, they are fed with specialized formulated feeds which are rich in essential minerals, their growth are controlled and the meat production are monitored using feed formulation and vaccines. These exotic breeds are never allowed to range freely or scavenge for food. Turkey on the other hand is a large poultry bird that originated from the temperate parts of the world which is now a popular form of poultry in parts of the world. Its meat is a major sources of protein and its feathers are used extensively for decorative purposes (UF Researchers, 2012).

Indigenous birds on the other hand are set free on free range whereby chickens are allowed to move freely during the day and spend the right in the main house. Overnight housing, perching on trees or on roots and overnight housing within the main house are the common patterns of housing prevailing in the indigenous areas. Lack of housing is one of the major constraints of the indigenous poultry production systems. In Akwa Ibom State, a large proportion of indigenous poultry mortality accounted due to nocturnal predators because of lack of proper housing (Dwinger et al., 2003). Some research works also indicated that the mortality of scavenging birds reduced by improving housing. For instance, in Gambia livestock improvement program, which include improved poultry mortality (19%) relative to that observed in Ethiopia (66%) and Tanzania (33%) where no housing improvement were made (Kitalyi, 1998).
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ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT GAIN OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC BREED OF BROILERS IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS; A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Developments in technology have eroded some of the natural monopoly aspects of traditional public utilities.For instance, electricity generation, electricity retailing, telecommunication, some types of public transit and postal services have become competitive in some countries and the trend towards liberalization, deregulation and privatization of public utilities is growing. However, the infrastructure used to distribute most utility products and services has remained largely monopolistic.

Public utilities can be privately owned or publicly owned. Publicly owned utilities include cooperative and municipal utilities. Municipalutilities may actually include territories outside of city limits or may not even serve the entire city. Cooperative utilities are owned by the customers they serve. They are usually found in rural areas. Publicly owned utilities are non-profitable Private utilities, also called investor-owned utilities, are owned by investors,and operate for profit, often referred to as a rate of return. Public utilities provide services at the consumer level, be it residential, commercial, or industrial consumer. In turn, utilities and very large consumers buy and sell electricity at the wholesale level through a network of RTOs and ISOs within one of three grids, the eastern grid, Texas, which is a single ISO, and the western grid. The concept of ‘services of general interest’ usually employed within the European Union to refer to essential services subject to specific public-service obligations, also finds its counterpart in the United States (Defeuilley, 1999).
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PUBLIC UTILITIES AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS; A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY

AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project gives the insight on the design and construction of a transmission power line vandalism detector system. Vandalism means destructive action. It is a hateful and deliberate defacement/destruction of somebody else’s property or national assets like thehigh-voltage transmission power lines, transmission towers and distribution transformers, etc.The high-voltage transmission power lines strung from support towers form the backbone of the nation’s electric power grid. Many of those 158,000 miles of lines, supported by nearly 800,000 towers, run through isolated areas as they deliver electricity from generating plants to cities. These high-voltage transmission power lines around the world are vulnerable to terrorism, vandalism, physical deterioration and extreme weather. Every year in Nigeria bad citizens vandalize the power line, towers, transformers, generators and other power transmission/distribution facilities. This causes frequent power failure and power surge that seriously affects over 50 million business firms and manufacturing industries in the country. These companies depend on electricity power supply from the power line for their productions. If the power line is vandalized, some of their machines cannot be powered on a generator then income, investments and commodities worth billions of Naira will be lost. If electricity is available during the power line vandalism incident, the lives and properties of the people within the area can be affected as a result of electric shocks, power surge and fire outbreak, etc. Vandalism is now largely driven by the soaring values of copper and aluminum in the international metals market due to increased world market demand fueled by China and India’s growth in industrialization. Consequently, the vandals now operate in wellorganized syndicates complete with offices and hierarchy and accumulate large volumes of stolen materials which they eventually consign for export as scrap. Transformer oil, copper and aluminum are the main targets of these vandals. The uses of the stolen transformer oil are:

  • Mixed with diesel and sold as fuel,
  • Used as fuel for industrial furnaces and as cooling for welding sets,
  • Mixed with vegetable oil and sold as cooking oil.
  • Used as a cosmetic and treatment for wounds.
  • On the other hand, copper and aluminum have been in the past been used on a minimum scale by the informal sector for welding sets but are now mainly exported as scrap. It is this later use that is behind the recent escalation of vandalism.
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AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

In statistical analysis and inference statistics is playing an important role nearly in all phases of human life. Formally dealing only with affair of the state and this account for its name statistics.  

The influence of statistics is now spread to manufacturing companies, agricultural sectors, bank, business communication, economic, education, political science, psychology, sociology and other numerous held of life. It’s therefore, a body of scientific method and theory of collecting, organizing, presenting and analyzing of data as well as drawing valid conclusion and making a reasonable decision. The application is found in all discipline of numerical form.

Furthermore, this project is to explain and to analyze more on fertility and mortality rate of people in “Osogbo Local Government”. This project cover four fiscal year from 2006 – 2009 and data is being collected at Lautech Teaching HospitalOSOGBO. Also computation would be determined from the total number of fertility and mortality rate and this will be use for information required for the actualization of facts.

1.2       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Lautech Teaching Hospital is owned by both Osun State Government and Oyo State Government. The hospital is situated at Idi-seke area in Osogbo Local Government. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital is equiped to standard that no other hospital in the state can complete with it. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital has many professional doctors and well trained and very efficient nurses.

1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To know if the economy can be predicted from the fertility rate.
  2. To predict the economy of Osogbo Local Government using the fertility and mortality rate.
  3. To know the nature of the relationship that exists amongst fertility rate and mortality rate the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
  4. To recommend ways of ensuring adequate documentation of fertility and mortality rate.
  1. Research Questions
  2. What are the challenges of proper documentation of the fertility and mortality rate?
  3. Can the economy of the Nigeria be predicted using the fertility and mortality rate?
  4. What is the nature of relationship that exists between fertility, mortality rate and the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MANURE ON CUCUMBER PLANT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

        One of the aboitic challenges facing crop production in the Tropics is the inherent low concentration of essential nutrients in the soil for crop growth and development (Schlecht et al., 2007). Essential nutrients are those nutrients which are required by plants to complete their  life cycle such as  Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) often referred to as primary nutrients, calcium (Ca),  magnesium (Mg) and  sulphur (S) called secondary nutrients and Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), copper(Cu), manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mb) and Zinc (Zn) called micronutrients (Barker and Pilbeam, 2007). These nutrients can be provided to the soil through the use of fertilizers. Fertilizer can be in organic or inorganic form. The use of inorganic fertilizers has not been helpful as it is associated with increased soil acidity, leaching and nutrient imbalance (Schlecht et al., 2007). According to Ayoola and Makinde (2006) inorganic fertilizers are usually not available and are always rather expensive for the low-income, small scale farmers. Organic manure such as cow-dung, poultry manure, swine waste, sewage sludge, crop residue can be used as an alternative for inorganic fertilizer. The nutrient contained in organic manure is released more slowly and are stored for a long time. Manure application also increase soil porosity and aggregate stability, promotes soil water infiltration and holding capacity, elevates soil organic matter content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability (Powell et al., 1996; 1999;Powell and Unger, 1998).

        However, the main defect in the use of organic nutrient source in crop production is the limited supply (amount) and bulkiness of organic materials. Composting is a management practice to improve manure efficiency or quality. Well managed compost has good agronomic properties such as good water holding capacity, light weight, small particle size. It is cheap and can easily supply nutrients to the crop (Miller and Norman, 1992).

        Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a vegetable crop eaten by most families in the Tropics. It is one of the most popular members of the Cucurbitaceae (vine crop) family. It is cultivated for fresh fruit which is locally consumed or exported to increase national income. The crop is cultivated in most parts of Northern Nigeria and some parts of Eastern Nigeria by peaseant farmers who lack information on some important cultural practices (Ekwu et al., 2007). Cucumber is a vital ingredient in vegetable salad in human nutrition. The fruit varies in shape, size and color. On analysis, mature fruit nutrient composition is 3.8 g dry matter, 0.6 g protein, 2.0 mg calcium, 0.4 mg riboflavin, 0.2 mg niacin and 11 mg vitamin. The fruit also serves as remedy in the treatment of constipation, jaundice and indigestion (Chadha, 2006).
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THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MANURE ON CUCUMBER PLANT

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Typhoid fever, a common and sometimes fatal infection of both adults and children that causes bacteremia and inflammatory destruction of the intestine and other organs, is endemic in countries, especially throughout Asia and Africa (Alex 2015). Chloramphenicol has been the treatment of choice for typhoid fever for 40 years, but the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol,  and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole) has necessitated the search for other therapeutic options (Liam, 2001). Currently ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice in the treatment of enteric fever in Nigeria. Alternatives such as azithromycin and ceftriazone are also recommended (Salada 2015).

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi),has become rare in industrialized countries, yet it remains a major cause of enteric disease in children in developing countries (Salada, 2015), resulting in an estimated incidence of 50 cases per 100,000 persons per year, predominantly in young school-age children [4]. Globally, it is estimated that typhoid accounts for 16 million cases each year, resulting in over 600,000 deaths [5]. Typhoid fever therefore continues to be a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is common in developing countries and concomitant with poor public health and low socio economic indices (yarney, 2010). Residents of poor communities lacking good water and sanitation system are those mostly affected. It is estimated that a total of 400,000 cases occur annually in Africa, with an incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons per year (Epidi 2016).

  • In  Sub-Saharan  Africa  invasive nontyphoidal salmonella (NTS) is also a major cause of bacteremia in adults and children; with an estimated occurrence of 175-388 cases per 100,000 in children and 200-7500 cases per 100,000 in HIV infected adults annually. In Nigeria, typhoid fever ranks among the leading 20 causes of outpatient illness, accounting for 0.92 % of hospital admissions (sory, 2009).
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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)

PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Water is a clear, colourless, testless and odorless liquid that is essential for life. Water is among the natural resources that occupies 708 of the earth surface (Willy et al, 2008). The human body needs about three to four litres of water per day for its normal functions. Apart from drinking and body functions, man needs water for various purposes including for use in transportation, recreation, water disposal, hydroelectric system (Onyeagba and Isu 2009).

Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. It is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Ultraviolent and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Chemically, water is made up of two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen in the ratio 2:1 the boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, at the top of mount. Everest water boils at 680C (1540F) compared to 1000C (2120F) at the sea level conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vets can reach temperature of hand reds or degrees and remains liquid.

Water has the second highest molar specific of any known substance, after ammonia, as well as high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ mol-1). Both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules these two unusual by buffering large fluctuation in temperature. Water plays a critical role in regulating body temperature, it carries nutrients throughout the body, it improves digestion, it eliminates waste and toxins from the body.
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PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Water is an essential part of human nutrition. It is required for the maintenance of personal hygiene, food production and prevention of diseases (Adegokeet al. 2012). A reliable supply of clean wholesome water is highly essential in a bid to promoting healthy living amongst the inhabitants of any defined geological region (Dada, 2009). Water is one of man’s priceless resources but it is generally taken for granted until its use is threatened by reduced availability and/or quality. Water is not only essential for life; it also remains an important source of disease transmission (Mbah and Muhammed, 2015) and infant mortality in many developing countries.

Edema et al., (2011) also described water as a key parameter influencing survival and growth of microorganisms in foods and other microbial environments.

Most potable water in Nigeria comes from three sources, which include rainwater, surface water and ground water.  Similarly, Okeriet al. (2009) noted that most of the water consumed in Nigeria is obtained from rainwater, lakes, rivers, springs, streams and ground water including boreholes and private wells which do not always produce pure water due to the presence of different contaminants.  In many developing countries, availability of potable water has become a critical and urgent problem and it is a matter of great concern to families and communities depending on Nonpublic water supply system (Okonkwo et al., 2008). Increase in human population has exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water in developing countries (Ibemesim, 2014). Most people living in the major cities of Nigeria do not have access to pipe borne water, probably due to its unavailability and/or inadequacy where obtainable (Omaluet al. 2010).
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PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FOOD HYGIENE AMONG FOOD VENDORS

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Food hygiene practices is a subject of wide scope and it is a broad term used to describe the preservation and preparation of foods in a manner that ensures the food is safe for human consumption.1 Food hygiene deals with the prevention of contamination of food stuffs at all stages of production, collection, transportation, storage, preparation, sale and consumption. Food borne illness is defined as a disease, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.2 This process of kitchen safety includes proper storage of food items prior to use, maintaining a clean environment when preparing the food, and making sure that all serving dishes are clean and free of bacteria that could lead to some type of contamination. The food storage aspect of food hygiene is focused on maintaining the quality of the food, so that it will be fresh when used in different recipes. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illnesses.3 This include the number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit diseases from one person to the other as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

Debates on genetic food safety include such issues as impact of genetically modified food on health of further generations and genetic pollution of environment, which can destroy natural biological diversity. In developed countries, there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries, the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory, food poisoning is hundred percent (100

%) preventable.3 Food sanitation also extends to keeping the preparation area clean and relatively germ-free.  Mixing bowls,  spoons, paring knives  and  any other  tools  used in  the
kitchen should be washed thoroughly before use.
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KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FOOD HYGIENE AMONG FOOD VENDORS

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH “SPOILED” TOMATOES IN GWAGWALADA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Tomato (lycopersicumesculentum) is an animal plant, having a weak woody stem covered with glistering red iscultivated in many parts of the world. the tomato plant is widely cultivated in many parts of the world and also has a smooth stain. It is green when immature but becomes bright red or yellow as it ripens. These products are considered important worldwide (Robins et al; 1994).

Tomato fruit is a well vegetable eaten raw as salad or for garnishing various foods in Nigeria as well as in many part of the world. The fruit contains high amount of carbohydrate, fat,organic acid,water,minerals,vitamins and pigments(Reddy,2009)

When spoilt as a result of life process of fungi, yeast and molds, the sugar are rapidly used up being changes into acetic acid lactic acid, alcohol and carbondioxide,the amount of these substances depending on their types of organism which are most activities particular sample in question.

In generally, adequate heat processing is given to tomato paste to achieve commercial sterility (speck 1994), but subsequent abusive post process handling /storage may lead to understand microbiological changes. It is public knowledge that can of tomato paste often show external evidence of spoilage under tropical retail condition (Anon, 1980)

Tomato fruit contains a lot of water which makes them susceptible to spoilage by microorganism.Also,the high water content makes storage and transportation of vegetable difficult. The microorganism reduce not only the nutritional values but also the market value s of tomato fruit. Micro organisms also affect the seller due to the spoilage of tomato.
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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH “SPOILED” TOMATOES IN GWAGWALADA

AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF THE WOUND INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The primary function of intact skin is to control microbial population that live on the skin surface and to prevent underlying tissue from becoming colonized and invaded by potential pathogens (Ndipet. al., 2007). Exposure of subcutaneous tissue following a loss of skin integrity (i.e. wound) provides a moist, warm and nutritious environment that is conducive to microbial colonization and proliferation.

A wound is defined as any injury that damages the skin and therefore compromises its protective function. An acute wound is generally caused by external damage to the skin, including abrasions, minor cuts, lacerations, puncture wounds, bites, burns and surgical incisions. A wound is a breakdown in the protective function of the skin; the loss of continuity of epithelium, with or without loss of underlying connective tissue (Leaper and Harding, 1998). Wounds can be accidental, pathological or post operative. All wounds contain bacteria but majority of the wounds do no get infected. There are many variables that can promote wound infection when there is a discontinuity of skin barrier. This include both host and organism related factors like bacterial load and type, immune competence of host co-morbid like diabetes mellitus, etc (Mir et. al., 2012). An infection of this breach in continuity constitutes wound infection. Wound infection is thus the presence of pus in a lesion as well as the general or local features of sepsis such as pyrexia, pain and indurations.

Wound infections are one of the most common hospital acquired infections and are an important cause of morbidity and account for 70-80% mortality (Gottrupet al., 2005; Wilson et al., 2004). Wound infections can be caused by different groups of micro organisms like bacteria, fungi and protozoa. However, different micro organisms can exist in polymicrobial communities especially in the margins of wounds and in chronic wounds (Percevil and Bowler, 2001). Infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients irrespective of the cause as it delays healing (Pondeiet al., 2013). It also causes longer hospital stay and increased expenses. In order to recognise early signs and symptoms of infections in a wound, whether complicated or not, skilled and vigilant team of doctors and paramedical staff is required (Moore andRomanelli, 2006).
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AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF THE WOUND INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY RATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Infant mortality refers to the death of a child born alive before its first birthday and child mortality is the death of a child aged between one and five years. Demographers have for a long time been interested in the study of mortality which is one of the components of population change. Infant and child mortality are among the best indicators of socioeconomic development because a society life expectancy at birth is determined by the survival chance of infants and children.

Childhood mortality is an important indicator of all heath programs and policies; likewise it contributes to population projection. Childhood mortality measures also help identify specific population that are at increase in health risk. Several measures of childhood mortality are calculated using Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data. During the twentieth century almost all countries experienced decreases in child mortality rate. However, the timing and pace of the decline varied substantially. Sustained reductions in child mortality began in the nineteenth century in Europe, North America, and Japan and continued gradually throughout the twentieth century. Major declines in other parts of the world generally began only after World War II.

Mortality reductions in Asia, Latin America and Africa were usually much more rapid that they had been in countries that began mortality declines earlier. By 1999 there were great variations in child mortality among countries for example, although less than 0.5 percent of children died before the fifth birthday in Iceland, more than 33 percent died by age five in Niger. Since the 1960s the decline in child mortality sometimes has appeared to have stagnated as was the period from 1975– 1985, when many poor countries experienced severe crises and other problems such as economic recovery from the 0.1 crisis of 1973 – 1974. Recent evidence suggests that child mortality has continued to decline in most countries since 1980. However, during the 1990s the HIV/AIDS epidemic halted or reversed declines in child mortality in some eastern and southern African countries. For example, in Zimbabwe in the period 1990 – 1994 there were 50 deaths under age five per 1,000 live births.
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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY RATE

SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL PRACTICE IN PREGNANCY AMONG EXPECTANT MOTHERS ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC IN KWALE DELTA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

Pregnancy is the most vital time for having a proper nutrition plan. The high demand for nutrients is to deposit energy in to the new and developing tissues, the growth of maternal mother tissues including the breast and the uterus, and the increased energy necessities for tissue synthesis make pregnant women more susceptible to the dangers of malnutrition (Daba, 2011). In line with finding of Daba (2011), Pregnant women more at risk of malnutrition. In 2010, maternal and child malnutrition was accountable for 1.5 million deaths worldwide.

Maternal nutrition continues to gin populaity in many part of the world (Ojo, 2010). this may be attributed to the reality that pregnancy is associated with growth in physiological, metabolic and nutritional necessities imparted to the women by her growing infant (Arkkola, 2008). throughout pregnancy, the body’s energy requirements, protein and minerals increase by 13%, 54% and 50% respectively (Hoffmann, 2013). Therefore, the pregnancy period becomes a vital point to meet those needs for macro and micronutrients. Proper eating at some point in pregnancy assist prevent complications of pregnancy, facilitate postpartum recovery, assist breastfeeding, and additionally prevent the onset of disease in adulthood. However, if nutrients isn’t always maintained throughout pregnancy, malnutrition ensues.

It has being established by Saha (2007) that Socio economic and demographic status is one of the most critical factors related to pregnancy outcome and dietary desposition of expectant mothers. When Socio economic and demographic status is low, medical care will consequently be insufficient which can further lead to other unfavourable outcomes (kruger 2012). In pregnant women, low Socio economic and demographic status which is often described as financial hardship and low exposure to globalization, can increase the danger of detrimental pregnancy outcome. several studies have discovered that low Socio economic status is also associated with pregnancy complications such as abortion, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and eclampsia (kings, 2013; Obasi, 2015; Demin, 20016). women with low Socio economic don’t often have the means to acquire enough prenatal care and this may affect their dietary decision,  leading to insufficient consumption of precise nutrients at some during pregnancy.
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SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL PRACTICE IN PREGNANCY AMONG EXPECTANT MOTHERS ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC IN KWALE DELTA STATE

SEX EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING HIV/AIDS AMONG YOUTHS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        The issue of sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/Aids among secondary school students in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state has been of concern in the Local Government. Sex education is most appropriate for our time when the world at large and our society in particular has lost grip with the true knowledge and values for her sexuality.

Sex! This three-letter word connotes different things to different people. Sex and sexual symbols abound in our society. One can find sexually explicit information or images in the movies, book, television shows, on-line programmes, etc. Alters and Schiff, (1997). This all-important issue is no more treated with respect; it used to be accorded in the past. For instance, if one take a look at magazines or pictures, one will find attractive young men and women in advertisement for clothes, perfumes, soap, among others. This gives the impression that whether their product is a clothes, perfumes or soap. Advertisers and promoters know that “sex sells”.

The term sex refers to one’s gender, male or female as well as to sexual intercourse and certain intimate activities that involve the Alters and Schiff, (1997).
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SEX EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING HIV/AIDS AMONG YOUTHS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

MIDWIVES’ AND MOTHERS’ PERCEPTION OF MIDWIVES SERVICE SCHEME

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Pregnancy and childbirth are normal physiological processes that bring joyful experiences to individuals and families. However, in many parts of the world, pregnancy constitutes a perilous journey, a risky and potentially fatal experience for millions of women especially in developing countries. Over 289,000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum period (World Fact book, 2014 and WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA &The World Bank 2014). About 70% of these deaths are largely treatable or at least preventable (UNICEF, 2010) and nearly all these deaths (over 90%) occur in developing countries where fertility rates are higher and a woman’s life time risk of dying during pregnancy and childbirth is over 400 times higher than in developed countries (Audu, Takai, &Bukar, 2010).

The situation in Nigeria is especially grave as maternal mortality rateas high as630 per 100,000 live births is still recorded (World Health Organization, UNICEF & The World Bank, 2014), thus including Nigeria among the nations with the highest number of maternal deaths (WHO, 2010, National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA) 2009). Nigeria makes up only 1% of the total world population but accounts for about 10% of the global estimate for maternal mortality (FMOH & NPHCDA, 2010). The new-born and under-five mortality rates follow the same trend with an estimated infant mortality rate of 74/1,000 (Index Mundi, 2014).This ugly trend has been traced to deliveries being attended to by unskilled birth attendants (N&MCN Newsletter 2011 & NPHCDA, 2009). It is against this backdrop that the Midwives Service Scheme [MSS] was initiated in 2003 by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (N&MCN) though originally as a mandatory service for newly qualified basic midwives (NMCN Newsletter, 2011).
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MIDWIVES’ AND MOTHERS’ PERCEPTION OF MIDWIVES SERVICE SCHEME

MEASURES UTILIZED FOR PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN THE LABOUR WARD OF UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH), CALABAR.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study

Nosocomial infection also known as Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) is a localized or systemic infection acquired in a hospital or any other health care facility by a patient admitted for a reason other than the pathology present during admission. It may also include an infection acquired in a healthcare facility that may manifest 48 hours after the patient’s admission into the health care facility or discharge (Hildron, Edwards, Patel, Horan, Sievert, Pollock & Fridkin, 2008). Epidemiological studies report that nosocomial infections are caused by pervasive pathogens such as bacteria (Lepelletier, Perron, Bizouarn, Caillon, Drugeon, Michaud & Duveau, 2005), viruses (De-Oliveira, White, Leschinsky, Beecham, Vogt, Moolenaar, Perz & Safranek, 2005) and fungi present in air, surfaces or equipment. The pathogens are not present or incubating prior to the patient’s admission into healthcare facility and are most likely transmitted by direct person-to-person contact during invasive medical procedures (Anderson, Kaye, Chen, Schmader, Choi, Sloan & Sexton, 2009). Some of the pathogens are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents, andthis necessitates the prescription of more potent and costly antimicrobial agents (Mulvey & Simor,2009).

Nosocomial infections are prevalent nationally and internationally; and occur in patients of all age groups: neonates (Aly, Herson, Duncan, Herr, Bender, Patel & EI-Mohandes, 2005), immuno-compromised adults and the elderly (Lepelletier, Perron, Bizouarn, Caillon, Drugeon, Michaud& Duveau, 2005).  The  most frequent  types  of nosocomial  infections  are  those associated  with  the  urinary tract,  surgical  wounds,  respiratory  tract and  blood  stream (Lo, 2008). It is a serious global public health issue, causing the suffering of 1.4 million people across the world at any given time (WHO, 2007).
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MEASURES UTILIZED FOR PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN THE LABOUR WARD OF UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH), CALABAR.

ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND IMPLICATION ON THE HEALTH OF THE CHILDREN IN THE RURAL AREA IN EKITI

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

  1. Introduction

Efforts to assuage poverty cannot be complete if access to good water and sanitation systems are not part. In the 2000, 189 nations adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, and from that, the Millennium Development Goals were made. Goal 4, which aims at reducing child mortality bytwo thirds for children under five, is the focus of this study. Clean water and sanitation considerably lessen water-related diseases which kill thousands of children every day (UN, 2006). According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 1.1 billion people lacked access to an enhanced water supply in 2002, and 2.3 billion people got illfrom diseases caused by unhygienic water. Each year 1.8 million people die from diarrhoea diseases, and 90% of these deaths are of children under five years (WHO, 2004).

Ghana Water Company Limited had traditionally been the major stakeholder in the provision of safe water and sanitation facilities. Since the 1960’s the GWCL has focused its activity in the urban areas at the expense of rural areas (GWCL, 2007) and thus, rural communities in the Ekiti state are no exception. According to the Ghana 2003 Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ II) Survey Report (GSS, 2005), roughly 97% in Accra, 86% in Kumasi and 94% in Sekondi-Takoradi owned pipe-borne water. Once more, the report show that a  few households do not own any toilet facilities and depend on the bush for their toilet needs, that is 2.1%, 7.3%, and 5% for Accra, Kumasi, and Sekondi-Takoradi correspondingly. Access to safe sanitation, improved water and improved waste disposal systems are more of an urban than rural occurrencein Ghana. In the rural poor households, only 9.2% have safe sanitation, 21.1% use improved waste disposal method and 63.0% have access to improved

water.  The  major  diseases  prevalent  in  Ghana  are  malaria,  yellow  fever, schistosomiasis (bilharzias), typhoid and diarrhoea. Diarrhoea is of critical concern since it has been recognized as the second most universal disease treated at clinics and one of the major contributors to infant mortality (UNICEF, 2004). The infant mortality rate in Ghana stood at about 55 deaths per 1,000 live births (CIA, 2006).
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ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND IMPLICATION ON THE HEALTH OF THE CHILDREN IN THE RURAL AREA IN EKITI

AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of Study

The number of teenagers giving birth each year is staggering. In fact more than 10% of young mothers are teenagers. Nigerian birth rate for adolescent is one of the highest in the world and the prevalence among female adolescent in Nigeria of sexually transmitted infection including HIV is climbing rapidly. In an effect to reduce her high pregnancy rate by teenagers including other problems, Nigerians developed a national reproduction health policy in the year 2000 that focuses on preventing risk sexual behaviour during adolescent (national Population Commission) Nigeria demographic and health survey 2004, Abuja Nigeria Commission 2006. To become a parent, at any given age you have the capacity of generating a          life–altering experience. Irrespective of race, education and socio-economic status motherhood and fatherhood both places high demands on one’s life that were not there before the birth of a child. Indeed, becoming a parent comes with several responsibilities, and when people of school ages (students) become parents, the new responsibilities can be very over-whelming and daunting. And for teenage parents that lack the support of their own parent, this experience can be more challenging and horrifying as they crave and seek support in   adult–oriented systems in which even the older parents may find rather difficult to cope.

Teenage parents or students with children, as they are usually referred to in some literature, are parents that fall within the age bracket of thirteen (13) and nineteen (19). More often, these students drop out of school due mostly to pressures they experience, which include stigmatization that is limited with early parenting; isolation from their peers; and lack of the necessary support from their family, friends, schools, social service agencies and other organizations. These factors emerge because of the cultural and normative values that teenage pregnancy tends to breach.

According to the latest statistics, Nigeria has the highest teenage birth rate in Africa and the Niger Delta region seem to be the highest in the country (Channels Television, 15th July, 2013). To find research materials on this topic, we employed two basic methods which are Education are textbooks and Internet (using the Google search). A variety of terms were used either alone or in combination, and these include teenage parents, teenage pregnancy, student parents,  school–age parents, adolescent parents, school-based child care, pregnancy, student achievement, drop-outs, and graduation.
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AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

THE USE OF IGBO LANGUAGE IN ADVERTISING PRODUCTS IN EASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

            Advertising is drawing attention to goods and services for the purpose of attracting patronage. The basic aim of the advertiser according to Ebeze (2003) is to sell. Its effectiveness is therefore measured in terms of the volumes of sales it is able to attract or record. To be effective, advertising is expected to be able to attract attention, arouse interests, create a desire and motivate action (Umeogu 2013). When this is the case, the advertisement is said to be persuasive or effective.

            Advertising persuasion is rated based on many factors but ultimately language is central to all these factors (Shrimp 2000:3). This is supported by his idea that “of all the elements that characterize a social group and distinguished it from other groups, whether in arts, music, dance, attitude and beliefs, festival behavior etc, the most central is language”. What this means is that the use of an indigenous language is highly necessitated by its indispensability and importance in advertising if a truly effective communication is to take place.

According to Goddart (2002), advertising permeates our daily lives. It has become so ubiquitous that it is generally believed that no product can survive the competitiveness of market forces without it.

Udemmadu (2013) observed that many of the advertisements in Nigeria are done in a foreign language – English which makes them actually alienating. Consequently, the value and essence of the message is hidden from the majority of the target audience. This is because the populace at large has various indigenous languages as their mother tongues. Essentially, there are about 521 indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria (Udemmadu 2013). However, this research work is narrowed to the use of Igbo language which is one of the major languages spoken in Nigeria.

             The Igbo language is one of the three major languages in Nigeria. The native Igbo speaking states include: Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo. Traces of the Igbo culture and language could also be seen in Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers and Delta States (Udemmadu 2013). According to Umeogu (2013), the languages of communication in the igbo speaking cities are mainly Igbo and English. However, English language has been given a pride of place in the media houses in Nigeria to the detriment of indigenous languages like Igbo despite the fact that the recipients of the advertisements are chiefly indigenous users.
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THE USE OF IGBO LANGUAGE IN ADVERTISING PRODUCTS IN EASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS