WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

All over the world, Education is recognized as cornerstone for sustainable development. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004), the purpose of education is to equip the citizenry to reshape their society and eliminate inequality for national development that fosters the worth in socio-economic development of the individuals. In the last two decades, the status of women and need to integrate them into socio-economic development processes have dominated the discourse at National and International workshops, seminars, and conferences among others.  The problems of women opportunities for education looms larger at the turn of twenty-first century in Africa and they equally represent two thirds of the world illiterate adults while girls account for a similar proportion of world’s out of school population (Attamah, 2011; Abonyi, Nwocha, and Collins, 2014). However, for women to be integrated into development processes, they need quality education, in order to become co-partners in national and socio-economic development.

Based on the notion of our fore-fathers, in which they believed that women education end in the kitchen, it means that women should not go to school but we know that without formal education there will be no full development. Women should be recognized as human beings believing that women contribute about 45 to 50% of socio-economic development of any Nation. For Example; the former minister of information and communication Professor Dora Akunyili, who through her effort repositioned the Nigeria’s Health Sector as the Direct General, National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) these contributions are actually the fruits of education of the women.  The quantity and quality of education available to Nigeria women will invariably determine the developmental rate of Nigeria families, and Nigeria nation at large.

Women’s role in National and socio-economic development cannot however be overemphasized. The researcher believes on the saying that “behind every successful man there is woman”. This potently indicates that women contribute to the successes attained by great men all over the world. At the home setting women play domestic roles such as caring for children and the entire family, farming, petty trading, cooking of food, washing clothes and a host of others. In spite of these roles, the female is a disadvantaged sex in Nigeria. This is so because they are not given the opportunity to be part of decision making in the society that is to be elected into political position. (Durosaro, 1998; Nzeibe, 2008’and Esere, 2001).
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WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication is a variety of behaviours, processes and technologies by which meaning is transmitted or derived from information. The team is used to describe diverse activities.

Communication is at the core of our humanness.  How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking skills.

          Communication involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc all these are different ways/means through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity that leads to the development of our society at large.

          Communication both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence, understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. These elements include the following people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message inorder to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done simultaneously (sending and receiving] if we were just receivers, we would be no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender and the receiver at the same level.

Messages- in communication, the message is the communication itself. A message is the content of a communicative act. Everything one does with his/her body, or with other medium such as what we talk about, the words we use to express the thoughts and feelings, the sounds you make, your gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps even our touch or smell all communicate information, this is to tell you how effective communication can be, it involves our every second activity/actions. There is no communication without a message being passed across.
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TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study

Nigeria, the most populous black nation in the world with an estimated population of about 140 million people (2006, Census), is endowed with abundant human and natural resources like oil, tin, limestone, zinc, natural gas, good vegetation and climate which varies from being equatorial in the South, tropical in the centre and arid in the north. This great country, 3rd world largest producer of crude oil has about 5.3% annual growth rate but it is estimated that 70% of Nigerians live in poverty (Tola, 2008).

The above features are legacies of decades of prolonged military rules coupled with mis-management and corruption, which have daily impoverished the people and made them “beggers” of a sort amidst plenty. This act of misrule has increased anti-social behaviour amongst the populace. Sadly, the quest for material wealth at all cost has introduced a new dimension of wealth creation into the psyche of Nigerians-which is child

trafficking.

Women and child trafficking is the third largest criminal activity in the world after arms and drug trafficking (Tola, 2008). In the last decade, the phenomenon of women and child trafficking has considerably increased throughout the world and most especially in Nigeria. Every year, million of individuals, mostly children are misled by decot or forced to submit to servitude.

The UN convention Against Transnational orgainsed crime

(2000) defined women and child trafficking as follows;

“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of power, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation”
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THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING

THE PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

In developing and developed countries, teenage pregnancy continue to receive increased attention because of early age at which adolescents engage in sexual activities and the result of unplanned and unintended pregnancies associated with the risk and problem of early motherhood. Lack of adequate information, education and communication on reproductive health services and the perennial concern in different parts of the world reveal that adolescents become sexually active at an early age which lead to a high number of teenage pregnancy today.

In many developing countries, about half the population is under 15 years. These age groups expose themselves into sexual habit which have led many of them into teenage pregnancy and at the same time cost the adolescent their educational background, (Gyan, 2013). Out of wedlock pregnancy and motherhood is not encouraged in Owerri North community at large. When teenage pregnancy is allowed to continue, at times it places the teenage mother’s health in danger because of inadequate parental care received by the teenage mother. So, after birth, the risk of the mother and her child will be high. Those circumstances may be responsible for increase in infanticide, baby abandonment and child abuse. For these reasons, pregnancies among teenagers are creating concern for many industrialized countries today WHO, (2000). Van, (2007), perceived economic factor as a cause of teenage pregnancy, he indicated that teenagers from lower income families are more likely to report having sexual intercourse regardless of the family structure or race. It is further pointed out that teenagers from single parent family homes are more likely to report having the family in combination with the high rate of schools fees in the present school system in Nigeria.
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THE PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE.

EXAMINATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS AGAINST WOMEN EDUCATION IN NKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       There are three (3) basic components of human existence that man requires to satisfy. These to Osinulu (1994) are the physical, the spirituals and the mental. She stressed that physically man needs air, water, and food for survival, while spiritually, he requires religion and mentally, education for nurturing and developing natural intelligence.

       However, the perspective that have been used to study the women have been developed over-time, and are based on personality trails and characterizations and biological and social reactions. There characterizations only differ partially and from one period to the next. Studies on women are as old as history itself, but studies on consciousness are fairly recent, dating back to the suffragettes. Studies on women span through different area, ranging from women and society, the role of women, women and education, due role of women-culture and society, women and industrial society and women and labour market and so on. The different perspective reflect on the roles of women in the different economics.

       Women dedication has been a crucial aspect of gender issues since the latter part of the twentieth century and has attracted much concern and attention at the global, regional, sub-regional, national and even community levels. Indeed the desire to give a positive sense of direction to girl and women who lack education or left school early has necessitated the formulation of favourable policies and the implementation of bold actions in this regard.

       However, the thrust of these actions and available literature has been to promote equal educational opportunity for boys and girls, to increase enrollment figures of girls and women in school at all levels of education, to ensure access to education and eliminate obstacles to women education There is also the need to understand the educational ideas that shaped and influenced the development of women education in Nigeria Research conducted on women according to Amadi (2006) has shown that women are characterized by greater dependency, stronger social orientation and the tendency to become more easily discouraged by failure than men, this trait no doubt is very important in studying the socio-cultural constraint militating against women education in Nigeria.
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EXAMINATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS AGAINST WOMEN EDUCATION IN NKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRCTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

1.1     Background to the Study:

Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness politically (Aluko, 2009 in Iyanda, 2012). Corruption is no doubt a global phenomenon that has threatened and still continues to threaten the developmental efforts in many nations; particularly the developing countries of the world (Kayode, Adagba and Anyio, 2013).

In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that! (Iyanda, 2012).

This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004 in Aluko (2009).

The fundamental challenges battling grassroots development in Nigeria has been one of high level corruption and its twain demons of poverty and economic hardship which have continue in this 21stcentury to elude sustainable development at the grassroots (Ojo, 2014).

The need to catalyze balanced development touching the grassroots, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the grassroot. The grassroot serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The grassroot is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004 in Adeyemi, 2012).

Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the grassroot has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). According to Odo (2014) grassroot is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people. Grassroot appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adeyemi, 2012).

In Nigeria, eradicating corruption has been a major concern of successive government in the country because of its association with sustainable development at the grassroots (Kayode et al., 2013). Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is  as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it.
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EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRCTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

DETERMINANTS OF HIV/AIDS SPREAD AMONG YOUTHS (18-26) IN IKOT EKPENE LGA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

HIV/AIDS has in the past decades had devastating effects on the youthful population, especially, youths by causing deaths and stigmatization. Prevention of HIV/ AIDS is critical for creating a healthy and productive population. According to WHO[i], 95% of the world population should have accurate knowledge about HIV and AIDS to prevent new infections. However, in low and middle-income countries only 24% and 36% of young women and men respectively have accurate knowledge about the disease. Lack of adequate knowledge prevents individuals from taking preventive measures such as using condoms to avoid acquiring HIV and AIDS. 

A positive attitude towards HIV/ AIDS and the people living with it is required to enhance prevention. A positive attitude eliminates stigma and discrimination, thereby allowing individuals to go for HIV tests and seek medication. In the contrary, the negative attitude associated with the disease when it emerged in early 1980s still exists today. This is reflected in the stigma, fear, and discrimination that HIV/ AIDS patients face today. Individuals believe that HIV/ AIDS is a life threatening condition associated with death.
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DETERMINANTS OF HIV/AIDS SPREAD AMONG YOUTHS (18-26) IN IKOT EKPENE LGA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Empowering women has become an oftentimes cited goal of development intervention (Mosedale, 2005). In Nineteen Seventies once women empowerment was initial invoked by the collection feminist and women organizations, it had been explicably wont to frame and facilitate the struggle for social justice and women equality through a metamorphosis of economic, social and political structures at national and international levels (Bisath & Elson, 2003). The necessity to empower women looks to centre on the actual fact that girls have potentials to contribute to the event method however ar forced by some factors that render them engulfed. Whereas the explanations for any specific woman’s impotency (or powerfulness) ar several and varied, it should be necessary to think about what women have in common during this respect.

The common measure is that, they’re all forced by their generative responsibilities, social norms, beliefs, customs and values by that society differentiate between them and men (Kabeer, 2000). These constraints ar formed by male dominated social organization (patriarchy), high rate of impoverishment among women, and gender division of labour. Nonetheless, specializing in the authorisation of women as a gaggle needs an analysis of gender relations, that is, the means within which power relations between the sexes are made and maintained. In patricentric societies like African country, men have final authority over material resources within the house, like land and money crops, and over the labour of women and alternative house members. Women having no direct access to land and money crops or men’s labour, should request these resources from their husbands or from alternative males within the house to whom they’re supposed (Adams & Castle, 1994).
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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

APPLICATION OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON WOMEN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In the world all over, marriage is an institution which calls for a moment of celebration and a milestone in the life of the adult. In practice, marriage is not restricted to the adult; the girl-child may be forced into early marriage without recourse to neither her consent nor the consequences of such forced union. The impositions of a marriage partner upon a child means that the childhood is lost and never regained (UNICEF, 2001). When children are hurried through childhood, and rushed into taking on adult task (such as marriage at a very early age, the effects can be profound and long lasting. Bayisenge (2010) noted that young girls are robbed of their youth and required to take on roles for which they are not psychologically or physically prepared. Many have no choice about the timing of marriage or their partner. Some are coerced into marriage, while others are too young to make an informed decision.

Premature marriage deprives them of the opportunity for personal development as well as their right to full reproductive health, well being and participation in Civic life. It is imperative to say that education plays a particularly important role as a foundation for girls’ development towards adult life. Education is a human right that should be given to all human beings. There are lots of international human right instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right which include the universal declaration of human right (1948), international convention on economic, social and cultural right (1960) etc. The relationship between education and development is well established such that education is a lay index of development.
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APPLICATION OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON WOMEN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BONYI STATE

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SECONDARY STUDENTS SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN RURAL AND URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

The term information technology is complex and difficult to define. However, information technology is as old as man, for instance, it affect and is affected by every aspect of human activities including counselling.

In counselling for example information technology means the application of computers and technologies in counselling process.

What then is a computer? According to Sawyer and Williams (2003:3) a computer is a programmable, multi-use machine that accepts data, i.e. raw facts and figures and process or manipulates them into information we can use, such as summaries, tools or reports. It therefore means that the result of the combination of computers and communications technology result to information technology (info-tech). Example of information technology includes personal computers, as well as new forms of telephones, television and various kinds of handheld devices for sending and receiving of information.

In business terms, information technology refers to the management and use of information using computer based tools. It includes acquiring, processing, storing and distribution of information. It is a term used in referring to business application of computer technology rather than scientific application.

The term is broadly in business for they cannot exists/operate without some kind of information technology. However, this study will be based on how information technology affects students’ sexual behaviour. Preventing HIV/AIDS risks and other killer diseases among young people has been identified as a public health priority in Nigeria. Hostels of secondary institutions has been labelled as “glorified brothels” as some students aided and abetted by the hall partners, the apparent freedom from parental control troll and undue pressure from peers engage in high sexual behaviour. This high risk of sexual behaviour is fuelled and unequal power in sexual relation and its alarming implication from both men and women’s ability to prevent the sexually transmission of HIV as unequal parties are unable to negotiate when and how they can protect themselves from STDs and HIV which has a negative effect on the individual affected.
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A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SECONDARY STUDENTS SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN RURAL AND URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

THE STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING BUSINESS SURVIVAL (A Case Study Of Selected Small Scale Enterprises In Uyo)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Business is an institution organized and operated to provide goods and services under incentive of private gain. the fundamental purpose of any business in the society is to provide goods and services for consumption and the process make profit. business is any human activities that is involved in the production and distribution of goods and services through a socially organized system of exchange. business comprises a wide variety of activities aimed at satisfying the needs and desire of people. It is the sum of total of human activities involved in a production and distribution of goods and services for the purpose of satisfying human wants. Business also refers to the whole field of industry, trade and finance and comprises activities such as agriculture, mining, quarrying, manufacturing, processing and retail distribution and services of all kind (Etuk 1995).

Business survival is the continued existence of a business despite prevailing unfavorable environment. A business cannot survive for a long time if it does not make use of strategies that will enable it maximize sufficient profit. Profit can be used to meet the home for business man. It could also be used to pay salaries of employees, buying raw materials etc.

Upon this background therefore, this research work seeks to examine the strategies that can enhance the survival of small scale business enterprises.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The contributions of small scale business to the growth of any economy cannot be over emphasized. A cursory survey of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria reveal the incessant case of collapse of such business enterprises within few years of their existence. the ugly situation is traceable to the use of ineffective business strategies by owners or operators of these enterprise. The continued collapse of small scale business enterprises will Leighton the level of unemployment and poverty in the country which will sub squally impact negative on the nation’s gross domestic product (GOP). These issues raised the concern of the researcher in examining the strategies for enhancing business survival in Nigeria.
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THE STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING BUSINESS SURVIVAL (A Case Study Of Selected Small Scale Enterprises In Uyo)

THE ROLE OF CAPITAL MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The capital market is a highly specialized and organized financial market and indeed essential agent of economic development because of its ability to facilitate and mobilize saving and investment. To a great extent, the positive relationship between capital accumulation real economic developments has long affirmed in economic theories (Anyanwu, 1993).

Success in capital accumulation and mobilization for development varies among nations, but it is largely dependent on domestic savings and inflows of foreign capital. Therefore, to arrest the menace of the current economic downturn, effort must be geared towards effective resources mobilization. It is in realization of this that consideration is given to measure for the development of capital market as an institution for the mobilization of finance from the surplus sectors to the deficit sectors. The development of capital market in Nigeria, as in other developing countries has been induced by the government. Though prior to the establishment of stock market in Nigeria, there existed some less formal market arrangements for the operation of capital market. It was not prominent until the visit of Mr. J. B. Lobynesion in 1959, on the invitation of the Federal government, to advice on the role the Central Bank could play in the development of local money and capital market. As a follow-up to this, the government commissioned and a set up the Barback Committee to study and make recommendations on the ways and means of establishing a stock market in Nigeria as a formal capital market.

Acting on the recommendation of the committee, the Lagos Stock Exchange (as it was called then) was set-up in March 1960, and in September 1961, it was incorporated under Section 2 cap 37, through the collaborative effort of Central Bank of Nigeria, the Business Community and Industrial Development Bank (Alile&Anao, 1990). With the establishment of the Central Bank of Nigeria in 1959 and the coming into existence of the Lagos Stock Exchange in 1961 and Subsequently, the Nigeria Stock Exchange by an Act in 1979, a sound foundation was laid for the operation of the Nigerian Capital Market for trading in securities of long term nature needed for the financing of the industrial sector and the economy at large. After the incorporation of the Lagos Stock Exchange, it was granted further protection under the law and its activities was placed under some sort of control by the government, hence the passing of the Lagos Stock Exchange Act.
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THE ROLE OF CAPITAL MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY

TESTING THE APPLICABILITY OF WAGNERS LAW IN NIGERIAS ECONOMY (1981-2013)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Backgrounds To The Study

Adolph Wagner (1835-1917) was a German economist, politician, and public finance scholar. He put forward his law of increasing public expenditures in 1893 known as wagner’s hypothesis (WH) or Wagner’s law (WL). Adolph Wagner was perhaps the first to offer a direct economic account of the increasing public expenditures. Musgrave and Musgrave (1988) noted that he anticipated the trends to be realized fifty to hundred years later that development of modern industrial society would give rise to increase political pressure for social progress and a continuous increase in public sector.

Wagner’s law was derived from the historical experiences of the early stages of industrialization in Europe and Germany in particular. Wagner identified three main factors for increased government spending. First, administrative and protective role of government will increase as a country’s economy develops. Secondly, with the expansion of economy, government expenditures on “culture and welfare” would rise, particularly on education and health. Finally the technological progress of the industrialized nations requires government to undertake certain economic services for which private sector is shy (khan, 1990).

Wagner’s law since its emergence has been the subject of intensive and extensive investigations. In particular, after the Second World War (1939-1945), when public consumption declined in favour of the private activities development. In other words, Wagner’s law states that government expenditure grows because there is an increasing demand for public goods and for the control of externalities caused by growth and development of the economy. In effect, the law also suggests that causality runs from national income to public expenditure, indicating that public expenditure is considered endogenous to the growth of national income.

In contrast, Keynesian hypothesis emphasizes that economic growth occurs as a result of rising public expenditure and is considered as an independent exogenous variable to influence the economic growth. The direction of causality runs from public expenditure to national income (Keynes, 1963). Therefore, the Keynesian and the Wagnerian approaches represent two alternative points of views towards the causality between government expenditure and aggregate income.

Thus the growth of public expenditure as a proportion of Gross National product (GNP) has received considerable attention from economists around the world, Nigeria inclusively.
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TESTING THE APPLICABILITY OF WAGNERS LAW IN NIGERIAS ECONOMY (1981-2013)

IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIALIZATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the study

Economic growth and development remain keygoals desired by underdeveloped and developing nations. It is the process of transformations in national attitudes, structure and system of production and the distribution of output that leads to improvement in standard of living. According to Wilson (2002), industrialization dates back to the 18th and 19th centuries when the industrial revolution took place. This period was marked by the invention of machines and the setting up of factories and other industrial changes of that period.

 Industrialization is the bed rock of economic development to the extent that the process of economic development usually begin with industrialization and impossible without it. The pursuit of industrialization by developing economies is hinged on the theoretical and empirical evidences that development nations themselves are highly industrialized.

Industrialization and economic growth are tied together as it provides a large scope for technological progress, on-the-job training and increases in productivity that give rise to wage increases. In addition, it leads to greater backward and forward linkages, more stable and easily controllable production process than agricultural and the most favorablecondition for growth occurs when a proper balance is achieved between industry and agriculture. Industrialization is the process of transforming raw material into consumer goods, producer goods, and services with the help of capital and as well as human resources (Amechi and Azubuike 2004). Today, nations are partitioned intotwo distinct categories as industrialized and unindustrialized. Developed nation are usually the industrialized nations with very high output figures. Industrialization has a trickle down effect on every other activity sector of the economy and the aggregate economy.
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IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIALIZATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.

THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH BETWEEN THE PERIOD 1981-2013.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The most critical function of government expenditure is to maintain reasonable degree of price level stability and an appropriate stable economic growth that will enhance the economy to achieve full development potential and stabilization (Musgrave, 1989). Economic stabilization is achieved when government spending, through its fiscal role succeeds in maintaining high employment, reasonable degree of price level stability and appropriate  rate of economic growth, with allowances for positive effects on trade, balance of payment, savings, investment and productivity (Noko, 2013). As long as the markets are imperfect, macroeconomic financial variables changes necessitate movement in government fiscal operations as well as fluctuation in price level and growth rate. It is the role of government expenditure (spending) to continue to restore this price stability and growth rate fluctuation through the budgetary mechanism. The economy will feel the effect of the government spending more positively when the economic growth rate is on the increase and the price level is relatively stable (Noko, 2013).

Thus, government spending is an aspect of public finance that deals with how government spends the money generated in meeting the needs of the public at large (Noko, 2013). Some scholars have argued that increase in government spending can be an effective tool to stimulate aggregate demand for a stagnant economy and to bring about crowed-in effects on private sector. According to Keynesian view, government could reverse economic downturns by borrowing money from the private sector and then returning the money to the private sector through various spending programs. High levels of government consumption are likely to increase employment, profitability and investment via multiplier effects on aggregate demand (Abdullahi, 2010).

For instance, Lipsey and Crystal (2007), advocate that government spending through its fiscal operations has important effects on the level of Gross Domestic Product in both the short run and long run. It has also been hypothesized that when government spends too much or very little money relative to the availability of goods and services in the economy, there would be corresponding pressures (increase or decrease) on prices, which may give rise to inflation, deflation or stagnation.
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THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH BETWEEN THE PERIOD 1981-2013.

THE IMPACT OF EXTERNAL TRADE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA USING SECONDARY DATA ON GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) EXPORT (EXP)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Trade is generally accepted as a major engine of economic growth of countries. This has been the experience of Nigeria since 1960s even though the composition of trade has changed over years. Economists have been long concerned with what causes different countries to grow at different rates and achieve different level of economic growth and development. One of such factors is external trade in the work of Edwards (1992) external trade is referred to as buying and selling of goods and services between nationals of different countries, or trade agencies of the government of different counties. 

According to Adewuyi (2000) external trade is the exchange of capital goods and services between countries. External trade allows a country or nation to expand her markets for both goods and services that may otherwise not have been available to her citizens.

External trade consists of export and import trade. Export trade involves sale of goods and services to other countries while import trade consists of purchases from other countries. When goods are traded by ways of imports and exports, the transactions are regarded as visible trade. External trade in service is referred to as invisible trade. Thus, for example, if Nigerian exporters avail of British shipping services for transportation of goods, they have to pay for transport services. Hence, services used may be called invisible import by Nigeria sale of services would also regarded as invisible exports. Likewise other services such as banking, warehousing, insurance and railway services are also required in external trade.

Nigeria is basically an open economy with international transactions constituting a significant proportion to her aggregate outputs. To large extent, Nigeria’s economic development depends significantly on the prospects of her export and import trade with other countries. Trade provides both foreign exchange earnings and market stimulus for accelerated economic growth of countries. 
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THE IMPACT OF EXTERNAL TRADE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA USING SECONDARY DATA ON GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) EXPORT (EXP)

THE IMPACT OF EXPORT EARNINGS IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The study of economic growth cannot be properly Discussed without mentioning trade as an engine of economic growth, be it domestic trade or trade with other  countries. The new classical economists, for example, drawing from historical evidence from the nineteenth Century, likened trade to an “engine of growth” (Nurske, 1961). Also, Kravis (1970) dubbed trade to be the “handmaiden of growth”. It has, therefore, become imperative for every Government to pay keen attention to matters relating to trade especially how to attain a higher real productivity in the export sector.

       Exports are goods and services produced domestically and purchased by foreigners. Net  exports are the difference between total exports and total imports. According to Afolabi (2011) Export can be defined as surplus goods and services of a country that are sent to other countries in the world for sale.

    Samuelson and Nordhaus (2010) see exports as the mirror image of imports. That one countries export is another’s imports. However, export is any goods or commodity transported from one country to another country in a legitimate fashion typically for use in trade (Oluchi, 2007).

            Just as there have been a continue increase in the importance of foreign trade so, also have the study of the concept by researchers been on an increase. This however, has led to the evolvement of several theories to analyze the impact of export on economic growth. According to Bbaale and Mutenyo (2011) as cited in Ugwuegbe and Uruakpa 2013) the present literature presents several plausible theoretical arguments supporting the view that exporting activities and overall economic growth are positively associated. On the one hand, exporting implies that a country gains access to the wider external demand, which acts as a stimulus to domestic output and hence economic growth. Second, it is frequently argued that small domestic markets may not grow continuously and that any positive economic shock leading to the expansion of the domestic markets is more likely to decay quickly. On the other hand, large external markets do not always encompass growth restrictions of economies of scale. However, the relationship between exporting and economic growth remains controversial as some authors have argued that export growth precedes economic growth hence giving a stance to the export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis (Arnade et al, 1995; Fosuthornton, 1996).on the other hand, others have provided evidence in support of the growth-led export hypothesis (GLE) by arguing that economic growth comes before export growth (Krugman,1984,Lancester,1980;Henriques and Sadorsky, 1996; Al-Yousif, 1999;Kernel et al, 2002).
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THE IMPACT OF EXPORT EARNINGS IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA.

IMPACT OF CASHLESS POLICY ON THE NIGERIA ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study   

          The recent evolution of technology for financial transactions poses interesting questions for policy makers and financial institutions regarding the suitability of current institutional arrangements and availability of instruments to guarantee financial stability, efficiency and effectiveness of monetary policy. Over the course of history, different forms of payment systems have been in existence. Initially, ‘trade by barter’ was common; however, the problems of barter such as the double coincidence of wants necessitated the introduction of various forms of money (Swartz et al, 2004). Nevertheless, analysts have been predicting the complete demise of study instruments and the emergence of potentially superior substitute for cash or monetary exchanges, that is, ‘cashless society’.

Unlike the barter system which involves the exchange of one good for another, a cashless environment refers to one in which transactions are carried out with minimal exchange of physical cash. It implies that the payment instrument is not physical cash but other instruments such as cheques, electronic transfers, e-payment and so on. The rapid advancement in electronic distribution channels has produced tremendous changes in the financial industry in recent years, with an increasing rate of change in technology, competition among players and consumer needs as argued (Hughes, 2001). Since Nigeria‘s Independence in 1960, there have been different governments, constitutional reforms, change in economic policies and banking reforms, mainly directed at enhancing social welfare and achieving developmental goals but there has been no substantial positive change in Nigeria‘s Human Development Indicators.
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (1981 – 2015)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Government Expenditure no doubt is an important instrument for a government to control the economy of a nation Economists have been well aware of the effects in promoting economic growth Anyway, the general view is that government expenditure notably on social and economic infrastructure can be growth enhancing although the financing of such expenditure to provide essential infrastructural facilities including transport, electricity, telecommunication, water and sanitation, waste disposal, education and health can be growth retarding (Olukayode, 2009).

Nowadays, the relationship between government expenditure and economic growth has continues to generate sense or controversies among scholars in economic literature (lnuwa, 2012) According to him, the nature of the impact of government expenditure on economic growth is in conclusion, and from the view point of the student researcher is still not incontrovertible As a matter of fact, while some author or researchers believed that the impact of government expenditure on economic growth is negative or non-significant (Tuban, 2010). Others believed that the impact is positive and significant ‘Alexiou. 2009).

The structure of Nigeria government expenditure can bawdily be categorized into capital and recurrent expenditure (Muritala 2011). The recurrent expenditure is basically government expenses on administration such as wages, salaries, interest on loans, maintenance cost. etc However, the expenses on capital project like roads, airports, education, telecommunication, Electricity, generator, etc are generally referred to as capital expenditure (Muritala. 2011).

Ironically, the effect of government spending in Nigeria in relation to the economic growth is still a puzzle and an unresolved issue indeed theoretically. it is an unresolved issue Although the theoretical positions on the subject are quite diverse, the conventional wisdom is that or spending is a source of economic instability or stagnation Empirical research does not conclusive support the conventional wisdom, a few studies report position and significant negative relationship between government spending and economic growth while others find significantly negative or no relation between an increase in government spending and growth in real output. It is against this backdrop, the study is undertaken to empirically evaluate the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria.
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (1981 – 2015)

GENDER ISSUES AND THE CHALLENGES OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE 2006-2011

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

          Gender is a social construction and codification of differences between the sexes and social relationship between women and men (Oppong 1987, Mason 1984). The fundamental contributions of women in their households and national economies are increasingly acknowledged in Nigeria and by international community mainly because of their energetic efforts to organize, articulate their concerns and make their voices heard. At both grassroots and national levels, more women associations are taking advantage of the new political openings to assert their leadership roles.

          Gender issues and the challenges of rural development in Nigeria has attracted attention of national discuss from the academia, economist, cultural and political class. They are pressing for an expansion of women’s economic and social opportunities and the advancement of women rights. By improving their own positions, women enhances the country’s broader development prospects. Hence, it is pertinent to note that, women in Nigeria have continued to face enormous challenges.

          A nation’s population is almost divided evenly between males and females except under peculiar circumstances such as war or highly selective immigration which normally affect males more than females (Fapohunda 2012). Furthermore, Fapohunda (2012) states that nevertheless, throughout the ages, the sharing of power, wealth, influence, employment etc between men and women have faced daunting challenges of joblessness, absence of source of livelihood, widowhood and single parenthood. These challenges not withstanding the roles played by women in rural development in Nigeria and in all facts of human endeavours have been quite commendable and notable in the country.           Thus, the growing recognition of women contributions to rural development has not translated into significantly improved access to resources or increased decision-makingpowers. Neither has the dynamism that women displace in the economic, cultural and social lives of their rural communities through their associations and informal networks been channeled into creating new models of participation and leadership. Apart from the political challenges the material conditions under which most rural women live and work continue to deteriorate due to conflict, economic and social decline, spread of disease and neglect on the rights of rural women.
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GENDER ISSUES AND THE CHALLENGES OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE 2006-2011