DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PORTABLE CASSAVA GRATER

ABSTRACT

There is need for a hygienic processing of cassava. Prevalent condition in the commercial grating area of this staple food shows a susceptibility of food contamination. This project addresses the need for the development of a home scale cassava grater where the materials, the tuber s of cassava being grated can be properly monitored.

          Some design considerations used in this project are; the machine should be efficient during use in the household as well as moveable (portable) and Safety or easily operated. Another problem considerations is that cassava Produces a large amount of cyanogenic glycosides so in selecting materials, for construction adequate care must be taken not to use materials that cannot degrade /corrode easily due to the acidic content in cassava. The malice component which is made from mild steel which consist of major parts namely, the mainframe which is constructed with angle iron which gives strength and rigidity  o the war all matins, the hopper/s receptacle through which cassava is admitted into the machine for grating, the grating unit consist of the shaft, perforated  mesh  rolled sheet, circular disc and rival pins, the discharge unit   which direct the flow of the grated cassava to astrrage   pit or receptacle, and the electric  motor which is made from cast iron and winding horse power of the machine . The capacity of the grater fabricated was 158kg/hr. the unit cost is #62,100 as against the #75,000 for the current grating unit in the market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                       vi

List of Table                                                                                               x

List of Figures                                                                                            xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Introduction                                                                                          1

1.1Varieties          of Cassava                                                                               1

1.2 Importance of Cassava                                                                         2

1.3 Uses of Cassava                                                                                   3

1.4 Methods of peeling Cassava                                                                          4

1.4.1 Manual Method                                                                                 5

1.4.2 Chemical Method                                                                              5

1.4.3 Steaming Method                                                                              6

1.4.4 Mechanical Method                                                                                     6

1.5 Justification of the Study                                                                      7

1.6 Aim and Objectives                                                                              8

1.6.1 Objective                                                                                           8

1.7 Scope of study                                                                                               8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Literature Review                                                                                  10

2.1 Background to the study                                                                      10

2.2 Economic Importance of cassava product                                            14

2.3 Steps or Procedures for Cassava Processing                                        15

2.3.1 Peeling                                                                                               16

2.3.2 Washing                                                                                            17

2.3.3 Grating                                                                                              17

2.3.4  Dewatering/Dehydration                                                                            18

2.3.5  Fermentation                                                                                     18

2.3.6  Frying                                                                                               18

2.3.7  Sieving                                                                                              19

2.4     Types of Cassava                                                                             19

2.4.1  Manual Grater                                                                                  20

2.4.2  Mechanical Grater                                                                                      21

2.5     Factors Affecting Grating Performance                                             23

2.5.1  Capacity of Grater                                                                                      23

2.5.2  The Rate of Grating                                                                          23

2.5.3  Rough of the Grater Surface                                                             24

2.5.4  Moisture of Cassava Tuber                                                               24

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0  MATERIALS AND METHOD                                                           26

3.1  Materials                                                                                             26

3.1.1  Mild Steel                                                                                          26

3.1.2  Stainless Steel                                                                                   27

3.1.3  Alloy Rubber                                                                                    28

3.1.4  Cast Iron                                                                                           29

3.2  Description of Machine Parts                                                                      31

3.2.1  The Main Frame                                                                                       31

3.2.2  The Hopper                                                                                                31

3.2.3  The Grating Unit                                                                               31

3.2.4  Electric Motor and Pulley System                                                     32

3.2.5  The Discharge Unit                                                                           32

3.3     Project Methodology                                                                         32

3.3.1  Machineries and Machining Processes                                                        32

CHAPTER FOUR:

DESCRIPTION OF THE MACHINE AND ITS MAJOR COMPONENTS

4.0  Description of The Machine and its Major Components                     35

4.1  Cassava Grating Drawing                                                                             35

4.2  Shaft Design                                                                                        40

4.3  Determination of the Bending Moment of each point of loading                   41

4.3.1  Force Exerted on Shaft                                                                     42

4.3.2  Reactions at the Bearings due to Vertical Loading                                     44

4.3.3  Reactions at the Bearings due to Horizontal Loading                       46

4.3.4  Speed Transmission                                                                          48

4.3.5  Power Transmission                                                                         49

4.3.6  Belt Design                                                                                       50

4.3.7  Determine of Centre Distance                                                           50

4.3.8  Length of Belt                                                                                   51

4.3.9  Angle of Contact on Driver Belt Sheave                                           51

4.4     Performance Evaluation                                                                    52

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0     CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                       58

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                        58

5.2     Recommendation                                                                              58

References                                                                                         60

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Materials used in the constructing of cassava grater                     30

Table 2: Indicating the number of loading and time taken for each

     loading in order to evaluate performance of existing Machine     53

Table 3: Indicating the number of loading and time taken for each

     loading in order to evaluate performance of existing machine               54

Table 4: Comparison of the commercial and fabricated grater                             55

Table 5: bill of engineering materials and evaluation                                  57

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Isometric Drawing                                                                       37

Figure 2: Front View Elevation                                                                            38

Figure 3: AutoCAD Drawing                                                                     39

Figure 4: Grafting Drum                                                                                      40

Figure 4: Shaft Bending Moment Determination                                        41

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          Human generation need recipe of various varieties to get energy to perform their daily activities and also to survive, then there is need for consumption of energy giving food like yam, cassava. Cassava is originated from latin America and was later introduced to Asia in the 17th century and to Africa in about 1558, in Nigeria, cassava is mostly plant by subsistence farmers, usually intercropped with vegetables, plantation crop, yam, sweet potatoes, melon,beans, and maize etc. Cassava is propagated by 20-30cm long cutting of the tree stem, space between plants is usually 1-1.5m. Intercropping with beans, maize, and other annual crops is produced in young cassava plantations.

  1. Varieties of Cassava

          Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter, like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain auto nutritional factors and toxins with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts. They must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia or partial paralysis, (Fao, 2001)

The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a “food security crop”) in times of famine in some places. Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they defer pests, animals and thieves.

1.2     Importance of Cassava

          No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does as Africa. Cassava, yams and sweet potatoes is an important source of food in the tropics. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomized in its name for the plant, e.g ege, paki, agble. The production rate world-wide is positive for cassava over the last years, and the production increase by 12.5% between 1988 and 1990 with Nigeria becoming the largest cassava producer in the world. (Bamiro, 2006)

          Cassava and yams also occupy an important position in Ghana,niger republic, Benin republic,Cameron agricultural economy and contribute about 46% of the agricultural Gross Domestic product (GDP). Cassava accounts for a daily intake of 30% in Ghana and is grown by meanly every farmer’s family. Cassava is the most favoured among all Tuber crops and even all food crops by Ghanaian consumers. ( Bamiro, 2007 )

1.3     Uses of Cassava

          Cassava is a staple crop and food source for millions of people in Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa. It has many uses in addition to producing nutrition to humans. The leaves can be eaten as a vegetable or cooked as a soup. They can also be dried as hay and given as feed stuff to animals for extra protein.

The tubers can be processed into many things

  1. Cassava can be processed into flour. The flour can be used to produce most of our local food  and even foreign food.
  2. Cassava can be processed into chips. Cassava chips can be used for animal feed.
  3. Cassava can be processed into ethanol. The ethanol produced from cassava can be used as bio-fuel when combined with additives.
  4. Cassava can be processed into fructose. Fructose is used in industry for sweetening fizzy drinks.
  5. Cassava can be processed into starch. The starch can be used in textiles industry.

            Cassava is usually grown for human consumption. Fufu is a traditional way to consume cassava. There are 14 steps to the process making fufu including peeling grating and washing so its time consuming and labour consuming. Garri is another traditional way of eating cassava. The cassava is grated and put into porous sacks for the water to drain out and for the cassava to ferment slightly.Amala is another way of consuming cassava which includes fermentation,drying,grinding and sieving processes . Cassava flour has been turned into variety of snack foods. You can purchase cassava snack that are promoted as “healthy snacking” in the UK in a variety of flours.

1.4     Method of Peeling Cassava

          There are several methods of peeling cassava, which have been adopted. They include manual, chemical, steaming and mechanical methods. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages

1.4.1  Manual Method

          The manual method of peeling cassava is primitive and cumbersome. It’s unhygienic, time wasting and requires more time of producing small quantities. Also, it’s carried out by hand peeling of cassava using a sharp edged object like knife.

Advantages of manual peeling

1. It require no money

2. No chemical involved which may lead to poison when react with tuber

Disadvantages  of manual peeling

1. So cumbersome and slow

2. Doesn’t  encourage peeling of large quantity.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PORTABLE CASSAVA GRATER

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DEEP FREEZER

ABSTRACT

This project is on the design and fabrication of deep freezer for the preservation of items/products and making the items to cool. The project is able to develop a simple efficient economical and environmental friendly refrigeration system (A freezer) towards better technological advancement in Nigeria. This project modifies the existing refrigeration system with the use of R-600 a which is ozone friendly, and non-contaminant like previous refrigerant of the hydrofluoric-carbon, HFC and CFC like R-12, and R22 which has been phased out according to the general convection at Britain in 1996. The cooling load obtained was 10682KW, and co-efficient of performance be minimized. The material used were mild steel and the inner pipe of the cabinet i.e. evaporator in order to minimize corrosion. For the better improvement of this work, low power consumption of the compressor refrigeration was used so as to maintain the rate of cooling and freezing of large items/products. And the outer dimensions are: length-1245mm, breadth-895mm-0. 895m, Height-906mm-0.96m and the inner dimensions are Iength-1225mm-1.225m; Breadth-895mm-0.895m, Height-886mm- 0.886m.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                                vi

CHAPTER ONE: REFRIGERATION

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Literature Review                                                                              2

1.2     General Definition and Development                                                3

1.3     Purpose and Scope of Refrigerator                                         4

1.4     Objectives of the Project                                                                   7

CHAPTER TWO: TYPES OF REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM

2.0     Types of Refrigerator System                                                 8

2.1     The Vapor Compression Refrigeration System                       8

2.2 The Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System                                       9

CHAPTER THREE: DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS                   PARTS

3.0     Description of the Components Parts                                               13

3.1     Compressor                                                                                      13

3.2     The Condenser                                                                        16              

3.3     The Evaporator                                                                       17

3.4     Pressure Gauges and Thermometers                                                 19

3.5     Strainer/Drier                                                                          19

3.6     The Capillary Tube                                                                 20

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN CRITERIA, CALCULATION AND ELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

4.0     Design Criteria, Calculation and Selection of Equipment                 21

4.1     The Evaporator Cabinet                                                                   21

4.2     Design Condition                                                                              22

4.3     Evaporator for Cabinet Casing                                                         23

4.4     Conducted Heat                                                                       27

4.5     Refrigerant Piping Design                                                       28

4.6     Calculations of Component Parts                                           32

4.7     Refrigerator Load Estimation                                                  40

4.8     Refrigerant Used                                                                     41

4.9     Determination of the Flow Rate                                              47

4.10   Heat Balance for the System                                                   48

4.11   Co-efficient of Performance                                                     50

CHAPTER FIVE: FABRICATION DETAILS

5.1     The External Cabinet and Material Select                               53

5.2     Insulation                                                                                53

5.3     Compressor Base                                                                              55

5.4     Condenser                                                                               55

5.5     Assembly of Part                                                                    55

5.6     Lubricants in Refrigeration System                                         56

5.7     Trouble Shooting in Domestic Refrigerator                                      57

5.8     Bill of Engineering Materials and Evaluation (BEME)            59

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.0     Conclusion                                                                              60

6.1     Recommendation                                                                     60

References                                                                               62

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1:          Hydrocarbon refrigerant Application (Jones, W.p. [(1996)]    45

Table 2:          Common Refrigerant (Jones, W.P. 1996)                                     46

Table 3:          Construction of the Evaporator                                                     54

Table 4:          Trouble shooting in domestic refrigerator                                               57

Table 5:          Bill of engineering materials and evaluation                               59

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:     The Vapor compression refrigeration system                8

Figure 2:     The Absorption refrigeration system                                      10

CHAPTER ONE

REFRIGERATION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The ice cream being sold at the corner stores, the frozen vegetable for dinner, the refreshing water for drinking at the office, water cooler are all dependent on the science of refrigeration. Refrigeration in its specialized forms in a comparative modern development which has been in practice for generations, and its application in controlling environmental condition has made possible some outer space programs and many other scientific and commercial activities as it can be obtained in our houses and on the farm which is considered as an example of a natural refrigeration techniques, the porous clay jugs used in hot desert countries for cooling water, the ice box, for food preservation etc. (Raymond, C.G. (1973).

This write up presents the principle of mechanical refrigeration in vapor compression refrigeration system and it application which gives a clear understanding about the design and operation of the unit.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Refrigeration is branch of engineering that is concerned with the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere [Raymond, C.G. (1973)]. It also the process of removing heat from the substance.

Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration, water was kept cool by storing in semi-porous pots, so that the water could seep through and evaporate. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water [Raymond, C.G. (1 973)].

The first development took place in 1834 when Perkins proposed a hand operated compressor working machine. In 1851 came Gorries and in 1856 Lind developed a machine working on ammonia [Andrew, D. & Alfred, (1970)]. The development was considered quickened in the forties when Dupent put in the market, a family of new working substances, the floro chloro derivate of methane,1 ethane etc. under the name of ferons; then followed the liquefaction of other permanent gases included helium in 1908. [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F.B. (1970)].

In 1926, Ginque and Diebye independently proposed adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. In 19th century application of mechanical refrigeration in fields other than ice making including direct cooling and freezing of perishables foods, air conditioning for industry and human comfort [[Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B. (1970)].

1.2     GENERAL DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of removing heat from a substance. The American society of Engineers defines refrigeration as “the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere”. This implies the development of temperature differential rather than the establishment of a given temperature level.

Therefore refrigeration is accomplished by establishing temperatures differentials and evaporation of liquids or combination of both methods for removing heat from a substances in a refrigeration i.e. heat is put into the working substance at lower pressure and temperature and provide the latent heat to make it boil and change to vapor. The vapor is then compressed to a high pressure and temperature at which the superheated gas can be removed and the fluid is turn to liquid. The total cooling effect will be the heat transferred to the working fluid in the evaporator [Raymond, C. G. (1973)].

In any refrigeration process, three basic factors are involved which are: Heat change, pressure control and liquid gas relationship, therefore a working system will require a connection between the condenser and the inlet to the evaporator to complete the circuit.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DEEP FREEZER

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DOMESTIC DEEP FREEZER

ABSTRACT

This project is on the design and fabrication of deep freezer for the preservation of items/products and making the items to cool. The project is able to develop a simple efficient economical and environmental friendly refrigeration system (A freezer) towards better technological advancement in Nigeria. This project modifies the existing refrigeration system with the use of R-600a which is ozone friendly, and non-contaminant like previous refrigerant of the hydrofluoric-carbon, HFC and CFC like R-12, and R22 which has been phased out according tothe general convection at Britain in 1996. The cooling load obtained was 10682KW, and co-efficient of performance be minimized. The material used were mild steel and the inner pipe of the cabinet i.e. evaporator in order to minimize corrosion. For the better improvement of this work, low power consumption of the compressor refrigeration was used so as to maintain the rate of cooling and freezing of large items/products. And the outer dimensions are: length-1245mm, breadth-895mm-0. 895m, Height-906mm-0.96m and the inner dimensions are Iength-1225mm-1.225m; Breadth-895mm-0.895m, Height-886mm- 0.886m.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                                vi

CHAPTER ONE: REFRIGERATION

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Literature Review                                                                              2

1.2     General Definition and Development                                                3

1.3     Purpose and Scope of Refrigerator                                         4

1.4     Aim and Objectives                                                                 7

CHAPTER TWO: TYPES OF REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM

2.0     Types of Refrigerator System                                                 8

2.1     The Vapor Compression Refrigeration System                       8

2.2     The Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System                         9

CHAPTER THREE: DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS                   PARTS

3.0     Description of the Components Parts                                               13

3.1     Compressor                                                                                      13

3.2     The Condenser                                                                        16     

3.3     The Evaporator                                                                       17

3.4     Pressure Gauges and Thermometers                                                 19

3.5     Strainer/Drier                                                                          19

3.6     The Capillary Tube                                                                 20

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN CRITERIA, CALCULATION AND ELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

4.0     Design Criteria, Calculation and Selection of Equipment                 21

4.1     The Evaporator Cabinet                                                                   21

4.2     Design Condition                                                                              22

4.3     Evaporator for Cabinet Casing                                                         23

4.4     Conducted Heat                                                                       27

4.5     Refrigerant Piping Design                                                       28

4.6     Calculations of Component Parts                                           32

4.7     Refrigerator Load Estimation                                                  40

4.8     Refrigerant Used                                                                     41

4.9     Determination of the Flow Rate                                              47

4.10   Heat Balance for the System                                                   48

4.11   Co-efficient of Performance                                                     50

CHAPTER FIVE: FABRICATION DETAILS

5.1     The External Cabinet and Material Select                               53

5.2     Insulation                                                                                53

5.3     Compressor Base                                                                              55

5.4     Condenser                                                                               55

5.5     Assembly of Part                                                                     55

5.6     Lubricants in Refrigeration System                                         56

5.7     Trouble Shooting in Domestic Refrigerator                                      57

5.8     Bill of Engineering Materials and Evaluation (BEME)            59

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.0     Conclusion                                                                              60

6.1     Recommendation                                                                     60

References                                                                               62

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1:          Hydrocarbon refrigerant Application (Jones, W.p. [(1996)]    45

Table 2:          Common Refrigerant (Jones, W.P. 1996)                                     46

Table 3:          Construction of the Evaporator                                                     54

Table 4:          Trouble shooting in domestic refrigerator                                               57

Table 5:          Bill of engineering materials and evaluation                 59

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:     The Vapor compression refrigeration system                8

Figure 2:     Pictorial view of refrigeration system                                      10

Figure 3;     Pictorial view of compressor                                         23

Figure 4;     Pictorial view of evaporator                                          27

Figure 5;     Pictorial view of condenser                                            29

CHAPTER ONE

REFRIGERATION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The ice cream being sold at the corner stores, the frozen vegetable for dinner, the refreshing water for drinking at the office, water cooler are all dependent on the science of refrigeration. Refrigeration in its specialized forms in a comparative modern development which has been in practice for generations, and its application in controlling environmental condition has made possible some outer space programs and many other scientific and commercial activities as it can be obtained in our houses and on the farm which is considered as an example of a natural refrigeration techniques, the porous clay jugs used in hot desert countries for cooling water, the ice box, for food preservation etc. (Raymond, C.G. (1973).

This write up presents the principle of mechanical refrigeration in vapor compression refrigeration system and it application which gives a clear understanding about the design and operation of the unit.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Refrigeration is branch of engineering that is concerned with the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere [Raymond, C.G. (1973)]. It also the process of removing heat from the substance.

Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration, water was kept cool by storing in semi-porous pots, so that the water could seep through and evaporate. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water [Raymond, C.G. (1 973)].

The first development took place in 1834 when Perkins proposed a hand operated compressor working machine. In 1851 came Gorries and in 1856 Lind developed a machine working on ammonia [Andrew, D. & Alfred, (1970)]. The development was considered quickened in the forties when Dupent put in the market, a family of new working substances, the floro chloro derivate of methane,1 ethane etc. under the name of ferons; then followed the liquefaction of other permanent gases included helium in 1908. [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F.B. (1970)].

In 1926, Ginque and Diebye independently proposed adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. In 19th century application of mechanical refrigeration in fields other than ice making including direct cooling and freezing of perishables foods, air conditioning for industry and human comfort [[Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B. (1970)].

1.2     GENERAL DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of removing heat from a substance. The American society of Engineers defines refrigeration as “the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere”. This implies the development of temperature differential rather than the establishment of a given temperature level.

Therefore refrigeration is accomplished by establishing temperatures differentials and evaporation of liquids or combination of both methods for removing heat from a substances in a refrigeration i.e. heat is put into the working substance at lower pressure and temperature and provide the latent heat to make it boil and change to vapor. The vapor is then compressed to a high pressure and temperature at which the superheated gas can be removed and the fluid is turn to liquid. The total cooling effect will be the heat transferred to the working fluid in the evaporator [Raymond, C. G. (1973)].

In any refrigeration process, three basic factors are involved which are: Heat change, pressure control and liquid gas relationship, therefore a working system will require a connection between the condenser and the inlet to the evaporator to complete the circuit.

1.3     PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF REFRIGERATOR PROJECT

The purpose of refrigerator deals with the use of refrigerator which is in three forms.

i.        To produce the temperature of a substance (Act of cooling).

ii.       To change a substance from one state to another (as water to ice)

iii.      To maintain substance in a desired temperature state (food preservation or ice storage) [Raymond, C. C. 1973].

All the above purpose is personal comfort in both temperature and hot climatic regions. It importance to the society can also be grouped under the following sub headings:

1.       DOMESTIC: Refrigerators are commonly used in the house for domestic purpose. They are usually in all sizes having a compressor rating between (1/2) half and (1) one-horse power and are hermetically sealed type. They are commonly employed for cooling drinks and as food preservation [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B, (1970)].

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DOMESTIC DEEP FREEZER

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF CEILING BOARD USING PLASTER OF PARIS (P.O.P) GYPSUM MATERIAL

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris [POP] is a white powdery mixture of gypsum. It has been named such because the first deposit of gypsum was found in Paris. This powder when mixed with water solidifies, but without losing its volume. During manufacturing process, the gypsum is heated and as such, it does not necessarily require any high heat treatment like ceramics and clays [Worrall 1999]. Because of its property to harden with just water, it is used in a number of areas, but most notably for molding decorative objects.

          According to Cornelis and Hurlbut (1985), plaster results from the calcinations of gypsum (CaS04.2H20), which partially dehydrates to produce a hemi-hydrate (CaS04.1/2H2O). Although plaster of Paris a widely used today: its origin dated 9,000 years old and were found in Amotolia and Syria. It is also know fact those 5000 years ago, the Egyptians burnt gypsum in open-air fire, then crushed it into powder and finally mixed with water to make jointing material for the blocks of monuments, used model of plaster taken directly from the human body.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Plaster is one of the oldest known synthetic building materials: it was used by the Egyptians at least 4000 years ago in the construction of the pyramids, and the Greeks were producing decorative plaster work by 500 BC. The chemistry of the conversion of gypsum to plaster was also investigated early on by chemists such as Le Chatelier (1850 – 1936) and van’t Hoff (1852 – 1911).

Plaster is made by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) powder, thus converting it to calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4.½H2O). The hemihydrate is also known as stucco or Plaster of Paris. Probably so named because of the very large deposit of pure gypsum found beneath Paris. When water is added to the stucco, the material rehydrates to give a solid mass of gypsum. This rehydration is accompanied by an increase in temperature and a slight expansion of the plaster, causing the gypsum to perfectly fill a mould.

2.0     RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES

          The aim of this project is to design and produce ceiling board using Plaster of Paris (POP) gypsum materials.

          The objectives of the study are highlighted below:

  • To produce durable light weight building material for ceiling
  • To determine the strength of the ceiling board
  • To determine its durability.
  • To determine the volume and density of the ceiling board.

3.0     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum material. In the project , the density of the sample will be determined and the flexural test will be carried out to determine the strength of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and Fibre

[know as villas]

when subjected to loading.

4.0     JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The use of plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heart from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.

5.0   METHODOLOGY

5.1     OBTAINMENT OF THE MATERIALS

          The materials obtained for the project design are plaster of Paris, fiber (villas), water and mould.

The used materials were obtained from the following:-

  1. A local commercial POP material dealer Mevlon located at Ibrahim Taiwo Road Ilorin, Kwara State 
  2. The mould used was obtained from Muhummed store at Olomoyoyo Emir’s Road, Ilorin.
  3. Water supply was obtained from Civil Engineering Department Laboratory.

5.2     TOOLS USED FOR THE PROJECT ARE ENUMERATED THUS:-

  1. Scrapper
  2. Measuring tape
  3. Mixing bowl
  4. Bucket
  5. Ranges
  6. Saw 

5.3     MOULD’S PREPARATION

Already made mould (frame work) is used with dimension 710mm x 710mm x 14mm.

5.4     PREPARATION OF SEPARATOR

The separator is a mixture of premier soap and groundnut oil. It is applied to the mould for easy removal of the sample from the mould.

5.5     MIXING OF THE AGGREGATE

          Mixing is the process of thoroughly combining different materials to produce a homogeneous product. In this case water and P.O.P plaster are mixed to form a mortar with mix proportion 3 liter of water to 2kg of P.O.P plaster mixed vigorously to form a homogeneous mixture.

5.6     CASTING

The underlisted steps explain the casting of POP ceiling board:-

  1. Firstly, the mortal was mixed in a clean container (mixing bowl). 
  2. Water was poured into the container (mixing bowl) and plaster of Paris was sprinkled over it.
  3. It took two minutes approximately before absorption.
  4. Then hand was used to mixed the mortal and shake vigorously to obtain a fully homogeneous mixture.
  5. The mortar was poured on the mould and sprayed to ensure it cover all the surface of the mould as first layer
  6. Fibre/villas was added which serves as reinforcement on the poured mortar.
  7. Similar mortar was prepared and poured on it and it was ensured that it covered the entire surface as well which serves as the second layer.
  8. Finally, the sample was left for 13 – 15 minutes to set.

5.7     DETACHING OF THE MOULD

          The detaching of the ceiling board from the mould was done with the adoption of a special technique after the final setting. The setting period is very important and must be adversely followed to avoid breakages.

5.8     ABSORPTION OF WATER TEST

          Water absorption test was carried out on the sample to determine the water absorption capabilities. This test becomes pertinent to measure its response to water leakages from the roof after or during a down – pour. Seven samples was weighted and then immersed in water from one to seven days (1-7) of speculated in sample test, thereafter they were removed from the water and re-weighed as per the speculated days of immersion. The obtained data were recorded against each mass fraction and the mean obtained.

Ms = mass of immersed sample

Md = mass of dry sample

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF CEILING BOARD USING PLASTER OF PARIS (P.O.P) GYPSUM MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING RESEARCH ON NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction                                                                  

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                              

1.3     Aims and objectives of the Study                         

1.4     Significance of the Study                                              

1.5     Scope of the Study                                                        

1.6     Limitation of the Study                                       

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Concept of New Product                                      

2.2     Process of New Product Development                  

2.3     Rationale for New Product Development              

2.4     Concept of Marketing Research                           

2.5     The Rationale for Marketing Research                 

CHAPTER THREE                           

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Population and Sample                        

3.2     Research Design                                                  

3.3     Instrument of Data Collection                    

3.4     Administration of Instruments                   

3.5     Method of Data Analysis                                               

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Brief History Of New Product Development

      In Nigeria Bottling Company Plc                             

4.2     The Company’s Products                                     

4.3     Reason for Embarking on New Product

Development in Nigeria Bottling Company

4.4     Effect of Marketing Research on New Product Development in Nigeria Bottling Company          

4.5     importance of Marketing Research On

New Product Development in Nigeria

Bottling Company                                                         

4.6     Constraints to Effective Use of Marketing

Research in new product development

in the company                                                   

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary of Findings                                          

5.2     Recommendations                                                         

5.3     Conclusions                                                                  

REFERENCES                                                               

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUTION

Marketing research is a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data finding relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company. It is also the activity of presenting, advertising and selling a company product in the best possible way.

     Marketing research is also a systematic approach to the development and provision of information for marketing decision making.

     The collection and provision of information by market research is systematic. It is planned and well organized progress. The method of obtaining information is objective or by interview process.

     Since data are pieces of information it is through the research process that the data collected take on meaning and become information until it is being process into a meaningful information before it become an information;. Information is gathered through marketing research for purpose, it is used by marketer’s to make accurate decisions.

     Marketing research is an encompassing term covering research in virtually all aspects of marketing activities including business, economic, corporate research, advertising research product research, sales and marketing research. “To manage a business well is to manage its future and to manage its future is to manage its information”. Therefore marketing executive must be future oriented. That is they must be

  1. Anticipate change
  2. Forecast the direction and intensity of the changes
  3. And adjust their strategic marketing planning in line with these changes.

To do these marketing manager need a lot of information’s about potential markets and environment force. It is essential that marketing manager understand the research process. They research face in order to evaluate the research effectively. Marketers used a very large amount of research information and in using it they must be it is “as error free” as is humanly possible. As matter of fact obtaining accurate information is a major goal of the research process. Marketing researcher try very hard to eliminate error that can creep research is to reach conclusion and to make recommendation that the marketing manager can use in solving a particular problems. Obviously, if the researcher are collecting information and in drawing conclusion, the market is likely to be given incomplete and accurate. Information a result he or she may make decision. To avoid this situation, marketing researchers attempt to apply the scientific method by concluding their assignment. That is they emphasis objectively and accuracy in collecting information to solve a problem.

The essence of marketing is that, a firm will produce what it can sell rather than what it can produce.

Marketing therefore, require an assessment of consumers needs through research and the orientation of all firms activities toward the satisfaction of those needs.

According to David Hughe and Donald. Donald competently managed enterprise today attempt to realized the marketing concept or orientation if its total efforts to the satisfaction of the market. That attempt can succeed only when they has accurate and up to date knowledge of the ultimate buyer whose decision and motivation should be its guiding star. Peter M. Donald, supports the above ascertains by staling that marketing research is a fact finding process, logical and essential for successful marketing and adoptable to the requirement of the firm operating in market of all kinds.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study wants to find out an answer to series of question and problems. These research also to give the appropriate answers to the following question. Do these organizations? Take up marketing research? What form of marketing research is practiced in your industry or organization? Is marketing research so important to the company in new product development? And lastly to what extent the marketing research can be of help to the industry and organization (Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Ilorin)

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary motive behind this research work is to fulfil the requirement as a pre-requisite for the award of higher National Diploma in Marketing Department of Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin.

Secondly, the study intends to carryout the empirical study of the roles which the marketing research functions actually play in the operational activities of the industry in (Nigeria Bottling Company). The study also intends to find out the justification for marketing research in (Nigeria Bottling Company Ilorin).

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING RESEARCH ON NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY, ILORIN)

DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Steel is a man-made material containing 95% of iron. The remaining constituent are small amount of element derived from the raw-material use in the making of the steel, as well as other element added to improve certain characteristics or properties of the product (Marcus, 1964).
Steel reinforcement are used generally in the form of bars of circular cross-section in concrete structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcement to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of load. In steel reinforcement transverse is very important. They not only take care of structural reinforcement but also help main reinforcement remain in desired positions. They play a very significant role abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc.
As compare with concrete, steel is a high strength material. The useful strength of ordinary reinforcing steels in tension as well as in compression i.e the mild strength, is of the order of 10 times compression strength. Reinforcement in concrete is used to absorb the tensile forces so that cracking which is inevitable in high strength concrete does not weaken the structure.
However, reinforcement is also used for resisting compression forces primarily where it is desired to reduce the cross- sectional dimensions of compression members, as in the lower floor columns of multi-story buildings. Even if no such necessity exist, a minimum amount of reinforcement is placed in all compression members to safe guard them against small accidental bending moment which might crack or fail an unreinforced member (George, 1979).
The most common types of reinforcing are in the form of round bars. The plain round mild steel bars manufactured in accordance with BS 5950 are required to have a characteristic strength in tension of 250N/mm2 with a minimum elongation of 22% accordingly; they are designed grade 250 by the standard.
Since steel is an engineering material, it is therefore necessary to talk about the strength of this material. The strength of material refers to the materials ability to resist an applied force. A materials strength is a function of engineering processes, and scientist employ a variety of strengthen mechanisms to alter the strength of a materials. The general understanding of the relationship between external forces applied to an engineering structures and resulting action of the members of structure can be achieved by studying the strength of the material (Brunch,1978).
Tensile strength measure the force required to pull a material. Tensile strength of a material is a limit state of tensile stress that lead to tensile fracture in the manner of ductile fracture, or in the manner of brittle fracture (Sudden breaking in two or more pieces with a load stress state).

2.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to different researches carried out on collapsed buildings, many were based on the qualities of materials used. The materials which include, concrete and reinforcement are basically the composite materials which determine the strength and stability of a structure. Apart from the different mix ratios used in concrete which may not be accurately applied, there is more concern on the sizes and strengths of reinforcement used in the reinforced concrete structure. The reinforcement being the tensile materials in concrete, bears the tensile stresses on the structures and therefore determine the structures ability to withstand tension. The various concrete elements in buildings are column, beams, slabs, and foundation. If the required sizes and number of bars to be used in the structural elements are not used there will be defects on the structural elements.

3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim is to determine the characteristics strength properties of mild steel reinforcement in Ilorin metropolis with the following objectives:
• To verify the various sizes of mild steel available in the market comply with standard specification.
• To make recommendation based on the finding of this project.

4.0 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

More often in Nigeria we have collapse of buildings several factors can be said to be responsible for a building to collapse. If steel reinforcement is not of standard strength it can cause failure and collapse of the structure. Hence, there is need to verify the strength of the mild steel sold in the market before use in structural work.

5.0 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project will cover the laboratory test that will be carried out on various diameter of mild steel specimen to check for their characteristic strength. Tensile strength test and physical examination of the diameter of various specimens would be carried out using Vanier caliper.

6.0 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

The methods used in carrying out this project include procurement of material, preparation of specimens, testing of specimens, analysis of result, conclusion and recommendation.

DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

COST ACCOUNTING MODEL AS TOOLS FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY ILORIN PLANT)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                         i

Certification                                                     ii

Dedication                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                            iv-vii

Table of content                                               viii-ix

CHAPTER ONE 

1.0 Introduction                                               1

  1. Background of the Study                         1-3  
    1. Statement of research Problem                        3-4
    1. Objective of the Study                              4-5
    1. Research Methodology                             5-6
    1. Significance of the Study                         6-7          
    1. Scope of the Study                                   7
    1. Plan and organization of the Study          7-8

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review                                     9
    • Meaning and definition of Ratio                       9
    • Financial Ratio                                                9-11
    • Users of financial Ratio                            11-13
    • Concept of financial Ratio                                13-14
  • Types of financial ratio liquidity and

profitability                                              14-25

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology                             26
    • Historical background of the case Study  26-35
    • Source of data Collection                         35
      • Primary Source                                       35-37
      • Secondary Sources                                 37-38
    • Method of data Analysis                          38
    • Limitation of the case Study                    38-40

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and Analysis                       41

4.1    Analysis of Data                                      41-57

4.2   Testing of Hypothesis                               57-64

4.3   Findings                                                  64-65

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 66
    • Summary                                                 66-68
    • Conclusion                                              68-69
    • Recommendations                                   69-71

References                                               72

Questionnaire                                          73-76

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In every system, there are major component that are paramount for the survival of the system. This is applicable to financial system. The banking institution had contributed significantly to the effectiveness of the entire financial system as they offer an efficient institution mechanism, through which resources can be mobilized and directed from less essential uses to more profitable and productive investment. The performance of these financial institutions has proved to be effective channel between savers and borrowers. These important roles are played by merchant banks, savings banks, the control banks and development banks.

The banking industry have overtime function in vital banks units facilitating the transfer of assets that are well desired from the public (fund lenders) into other financial assets which are more widely preferred by grater part of the public (fund sackers). Thus, banking industry becomes the bedrock of the two functions of Nigeria banking system, which are deposit mobilization and credit extension. Therefore, an adequate financial system requires the attention of the banks management of profits and liquidity, which are two conflicting goals of Nigeria banking system. Profits and liquidity are effective indicator of the corporate health and performance of not only the banking system (Elyelty 2004), but all profit oriented ventures.       

Therefore, these roles involves bringing together of people who have money and those who need money is crucial in this discussion. So also certain critical factors that are required to facilitate liquidity management and a stable, sound, competitive, financial system adequate regulating, and supervisory, framework and macro-economics capacity buildup.

  1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

 Liquidity on banks profit management in banking industry, the problem innocent in Nigeria banking system is inter-mediation roles, the bank of industry idle funds borrow from lenders to investment such funds indifferent classes of portfolio. Such business activities of the banks is not without problems since the deposit from these funds savers invested by the banks profit maximization can be record and demanded when the later is not in position to meet their financial obligation so also considering the public laws of confidence as a result of banks distress which bedeviled the financial sector in Nigeria

 They intensified competition in the banking sector as a result of terrific emergence of large number of new banks. The problems then become how to identify the optimum point or the level at which banks industry can maintain its assets in other to optimize these two objectives; since each of the liquidity has a different effect on the level of profit. So also profit maximization as the resulted liquidity can lead to both technical and legal insolvency with consequence of low patronage and deposit flight; erosion asset base; other problems includes, excess liquidity, balancing the proportion of the deposit that will be demanded by the depositors at any point in time, and finally accurate selection of the factor that influence the level on banks liquidity possess some problems. All these problems are what the study intends to consider.

COST ACCOUNTING MODEL AS TOOLS FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY ILORIN PLANT)

FABRICATION OF ELECTRICAL POP CORN MACHINE

ABSTRACT

An electric pop corn machine is a machine that is used to pop com for human consumption. It uses electricity as its source of energy, transfer heat energy, that is used to rotate due to the convention of electrical energy from the source to mechanical energy in the motor, the stirrer turns the corn so that it will not burns.

This project went as far as meeting most of the requirement of advancement in technology, which lead to make work easy and comfortable for the user.

To be candid, the burden of mankind because of the existence of technology for this reasons, the government is expected to encourage the young technologist and engineers who has graduated and those who are yet to be graduated from school. By providing them with financial assistance, installation of functional and adequate equipment and facility various installations, competent and qualified personnel and in addition making education free for those who are not financially buoyant. By so doing, we will be boasting of technological advancement if we are ready to adopt indigenous technical experience rather than that of western one, which rather more expansion and at-time in appropriate.   

This project is divided into five chapters, chapter one: introduction, literature review, specification of problem which include requirement of the design, condition for use, characteristic, appearance.

Chapter two: Description of components parts, Body frame work and various types of heating element and material needed for construction.

Chapter three: comprises assembly, principles of operation and control.

Chapter four: Precaution and theory of analysis.

Chapter five: recommendation and conclusion together with references.    

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                         i

Certification                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                            vi

Abstract                                                                           v

Table of contents                                                             vii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. The Background of the Project                                 1
    1. Literature Review                                                     1
    1. Specification of Problems                                         2
    1. Requirement of Design                                             2
    1. Condition for Use                                                     2
    1. Characteristics                                                         3
    1. Appearance                                                              3

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Description of component part                                  5

2.2 Body frame work                                                                5

2.3 Material needed for construction                                       7

2.4 Various types of heating element                                       8

2.4.1 A pan with a lid on it                                              9

2.4.2 Microwave pop corn machine                                 9

2.4.3 An open fire pop corn machine                                       10

2.4.4 Hot air pop corn machine                                               11

2.4.5 Manually operated pop corn machine                     11

2.4.6 Electrically operated pop corn machine                  11   

2.5 Best of the project                                                      12

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Assembly and finishing                                             13

3.2 Principles of operation and control of pop corn machine 14

3.2.1 The aluminum pot                                                  14

3.2.2 Lifting mechanism                                                  14

3.2.3 The stirring mechanism                                          15

3.2.4 Principle of operation                                              15

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Precaution                                                                         17

4.2 Theory of design and analysis                                    17

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                         19

5.1 Conclusion                                                                        19

5.2 Recommendation                                                       19

        REFERENCES                                                         21

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. The Background of The Project

The basic aim of this project is to improve the quality and standard of production of a pop-corn machine and how its producing the popcorn.

        Therefore, it act or promote and improve production rate and limit the frying time, as much as it could performed and lastly production it in a sanitary condition.

        The design and construction of pop corn machine is brought from the perspective of its availability in market.

Also this project is also a means of promoting the diversity in utilization to suit different taste.

1.2   This is the past related work that has been carried out before this project and which are relevant to this project.

Therefore, for the past few years, several processes have been proposed for producing pop-corn machine in commercial use other than local ones i.e (Electrically popcorn machine and natural fire of heat pop corn machine).

  1. Specification of Problem Requirement of the Design

The design is expected to achieve the following objective:-

  • Production of pop corn in long scale
  • Increase the efficiency of producing pop corn
  • Moderate the rotation of the stirrer by using right motor
  • To reduce the heat that will be lost by logging the out put
  • To regulate the voltage used to produce popcorn
  • The presence of bulb to enhance production at night
    • Condition For Use
  • The machine might be used under elevated temperature
  • The machine should be store after used in a clean and dry place
  • Routines clean would be necessary to avoid rusting of the pot
  • The motor should be service from time  to time to maintain its efficiency

1.3.3 Characteristic

The machine should not be heavy, the machine should not be big to enhance effecting stirring. The distance between the pots should not be too large to reduce heat loss. Aluminum should be used for both the frame profile and the construction of the stirrer. Glass should be used due to the case because of the transparency.

FABRICATION OF ELECTRICAL POP CORN MACHINE

FABRICATION OF A PEPPER GRINDING MACHINE

Abstract

The process of crushing and grinding domestic product into powdered form was approached and achieved in this project work taking into account some necessary modifications due to the limitation found in the previous design machine. With the continuous improvement and advancement in the present days technology has brought the invention and making of diverse types and shapes of machine. These machines require different kind of energy for its operation and to produce useful work and it does not waste time. Most of them are operated manually or electrically. Basically, the pepper grinding machine is a useful device for achieving grinding of agricultural product like pepper food stuff and all type of grinding operations. In this grinding mill, the urge shaft is adequately supported with bearing to reduce the supporting materials. The posterior is also fabricated in such a way that there is room for adequate lubrication. These adequate supports given to the urge shaft help to reduce the frictional forces and there by ensures long lifespan of the machine. The materials used for the fabrication of this project are readily available and can withstand the mechanically applied force or stresses

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                         i

Approval page                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                            iv

Abstracts                                                                         v

Table of Contents                                                             vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                               1     

1.1 Aims and objectives of a pepper grinding machine    2

1.2 Objective                                                                    2

1.3 Units of a grinding machine                                      2

1.3.1 The Hopper unit                                                     3

1.3.2 The crushing unit                                                   3

1.3.3 The Power Unit                                                       3

1.3.4 The collection unit                                                  4

1.4 Literature Review                                                       4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Analysis of alternative method to grinding machine 5

2.1 Manual grinding machine                                          5

2.2 Grinding stone                                                           5

2.3 Choice of Alternatives                                                        6

2.4 Mortal and pestle grinding                                                 7

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 General description and its working principle           8

3.2 Component of the pepper grinding machine              8

3.3 Grinding Unit                                                            9

3.4 Bearing                                                                      9

3.5 Pulley                                                                         10

3.6 Machine Stand                                                                  10

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Calculation for the grinding machine                                12

4.1 Volume of the hopper                                                        12

4.2 Mass of hopper                                                          18

4.3 Total weight of the machine                                       19

4.4 Discharge rate                                                            19

4.5 Velocity ratio of the belt drive                                    20

4.6 Efficiency of the grinding machine                             21

CHAPTER FIVE

 5.0 Fabrication detail of pepper grinding machine          22

5.1 Material selection                                                      22

5.2 Consideration for the choice of material                    22

5.3 Fabrication Detail                                                      23

5.4 Testing and observation                                             25

5.5 cost of analysis of material used                                        27

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 Conclusion, Recommendation and Reference            28

6.1 Conclusion                                                                        28

6.2 Recommendation                                                       28

Reference                                                                                 29

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The project titled fabrication of machine is used for grinding domestic food stuff like corn, pepper, beans, tomatoes, melon e.t.c. The grinding operation was carried out in the olden days with the aid of grinding stone. This method is very tedious and unhygienic in nature. The particle of the grinding stone can easily be mixed with the grinding food items which may be hazardous to the food itself and also to the personnel undertaken such task by entering his or her body. It takes a lot of time and energy during operation (wwwcrushermachine.com).

Pepper grinding machine was fabricated purposely to overcome all the challenges which may be encountered when grinding using this primitive method. It can also be used for commercial purpose. Some of the machines were made to be operated manually. With this type of machine, series of labour is been done and a lot of energy been wasted in undergoing such task.

The advent of advanced technology has introduced a new dimension into this kind of grinder, which overcome the problem of hard labour and energy wasted with the use of the electrically operated grinding machine.

1.1 AIMS

The aim of the project is to fabricate pepper grinding machine to eliminate the olden methods of grinding. Electrical power grinder was put into the construction in order to ease the labour directed to the process of grinding and to limit time taken in the operation process.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

  1. To assess student interest and suitability in their respective career.
  2. To afford students the opportunity of relating the theoretical class works with the actual industrial life.
  3. To reduce the time taken and energy required during grinding operation.

1.3 UNITS OF A GRINDING MACHINE

The grinding mill is divided into four main units namely

  1. The hopper unit
  2. The crushing unit
  3. The power unit
  4. The collection unit

1.3.1 THE HOPPER UNIT

The hopper unit houses the food stuff to be grinded and guide the items in an hygienic manner to the crushing unit.

1.3.2 THE CRUSHING UNIT

The crushing unit consists of a space housing the shaft on which it is welded in a helical profile. When this shaft rotate, the welded helical profile move and crushes the food. The crushing staff converges the crushed food into the grinding pepper machine of the two discs.

One of the discs in the grinding units is stationary while the other rotates with the shaft in the crushing section. It is at this unit that the food is been grinded to fine particles. A ball bearing is incorporated and a screw ceases structure in other to contro’ the grinding efficiency of the disc.

FABRICATION OF A PEPPER GRINDING MACHINE

THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON MARKETING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF SHOPRITE ILORIN)

ABSTRACT

The research works seek to identify the impact of internal environment on marketing organization. (A case study of Shoprite) the main purpose of this research topic is take caution on the relevant to the marketing organization. In essence, marketing environment can be seen as the sum of the inter relationship business an between the marketers and the society management. The survival   of business organization depends on how people of market patronize a buy of products. Any organizations either profit oriented and provide product or service to satisfy the need. Business environment is divided into two; internal and external environment. The internal environment is all factor with the organization which an organization have control over it, while the external environment is all the factor outside the organization which an organization have little no control over it.0The purpose of this study is an attempt to find out the impact of all the factors outside the organization, which provide opportunities or pose threats to the organization.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                               

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                   iv

Table of Content                                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                                  ix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study                                                        1

1.2     Statement of Problems of the Study                              2

1.3     Aims and Objectives of the Study                                 2       

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                         3       

1.5     Scope of the Study                                                                  4

1.6     Limitation and Constraints to the Study                       5       

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review                                                          6

2.1     Introduction                                                                            6

2.2     Concept of Marketing                                                    7

2.3     Impact of Internal Environment on Marketing              8

2.4     Concept of Internal Environment on Marketing           9

2.5     Product                                                                          11

2.6     Price                                                                               12

2.7     Promotion                                                                      13

2.8     Place or Distribution                                                      14

2.9     The Internal Environment on

Marketing Organization                                                          17

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology                                                  22

3.1     Research Design                                                            22

3.2     Research Population and Sampling                               23

3.3     Sample Size                                                                             23

3.4     Sample Selection                                                           24

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data Presentation, and Analysis

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation                           25

4.1     Brief History of the Case Study                                              25

4.2     Data Presentation and Analysis                                              28

4.3     Summary                                                                      39

4.4     Conclusion                                                                    40

4.5     Recommendation                                                           41

References                                                                      42

Appendix                                                                       43

Questionnaire                                                                44

ABSTRACT

The research works seek to indentify the impact of internal environment on marketing organization. (A case study of Shoprite) the main purpose of this research topic is take caution on the relevant to the marketing organization. In essence, marketing environment can be seen as the sum of the inter relationship business an between the marketers and the society management. The survival   of business organization depends on how people of market patronize a buy of products. Any organizations either profit oriented and provide product or service to satisfy the need. Business environment is divided into two; internal and external environment. The internal environment is all factor with the organization which an organization have control over it, while the external environment is all the factor outside the organization which an organization have little no control over it.0The purpose of this study is an attempt to find out the impact of all the factors outside the organization, which provide opportunities or pose threats to the organization.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

An understanding of the marketing environment is a prequisite for efficient marketers. This is primary because every marketing units affected by their immediate environment.

In essence, marketing environment can be seen as the sum of the inter-relationship business and between the marketers and the society in management. The word environment does not necessary mean physical environment but it is used to describe all those influence that bears upon the individual organization. In this case organization must be mindful of those environment factors that can militate against their growth and development.

The Nigeria marketing firms is not static it is dynamic in nature i.e. it changes everyday and with this knowledge organization must be able to sense any changes that occurs so as to adopt and a formulate strategy that would enable them to function well in various environment. This project work will be restricted only to those internal environment factors that can have any influence over the operations and the existence of any organization may companies have failed in the past just because of this negligence to recognize the impact those internal endowment accords on their company.

This project work is design in such a way that will enlighten the company and the marketing on how to handle any problem faced by their relationship with there internal environment.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY

The survival of business organization depends on how people of market patronize a buy of products. Any organization, either profit oriented or non-profit oriented must be able to identify the need of its target and provide product or service to satisfy the need.

Basically, most non-profit organization falls to identify the needs and this leads to the untimely death of such organization mostly government and individual programmes are not people oriented due to this, peop1 decided not to buy profit. The reason may be that the organization lack marketing concepts idea and believe that the organization can produce anything’s are to be saved by this study.

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this research works include the following:

  1. Making the company arid marketing managers to understand the various factors of business internal environment.
  2. To create awareness about the impact of internal environment factors on the project
  3. Another impact objectives of this research project is to enable us to understand what constitute the company internal environment why is it so, it’s also important to know this internal environment factors, what function do they play in the activities of the organization, what would likely happen if company fail to understand this factors.
  4. To make organization understand how to access a firm Strength and Weakness in there relationship with their internal environment to successful exploits the opportunities and avoids that in an industry.
  5. Failure research: This study will be great importance to future researcher on the subject (impact of internal environment on marketing) because of its growing importance in the growth development organization.
THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON MARKETING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF SHOPRITE ILORIN)

FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WINDOW BURGLAR PROOF

ABSTRACT

Burglar proofs are major essential application to building structure activities for the beautification and security of the house such as school subtraction detached garage and high durability the ability to secure good quality and high durability at less affordable price to an average in Nigeria has been a problem. It aims to prevent animal and unwanted people into the building while is also maintain by painting to prevent corrosion of the burglar proof.         

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title of project                                                                          i

Approval page                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                iii

Acknowledgment                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                    v

TABLE OF CONTENT    

CHAPTER ONE

1.1Introduction                                                                         1       

1.2 Aims                                                                                   3

1.3 Objective of the project                                                       3

1.4 The Importance for Burglar Proof                                         4       

1.5 Literature Review                                                                4                 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Iron Rod Burglar Proof                                                     6

2.2     Flat Bar Burglar Proof                                                      6

2.3     Wire Mesh Burglar Proof                                                  6       

2.4     Wooden Burglar Proof                                                      6

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    Description of Burglar Proof                                             7

3.2     Material Consideration                                                     7

3.3     Selection of material                                                        7

3.4     Material Problem                                                             9

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Design Calculation                                                          13

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Construction Procedure                                                   16

CHAPTER SIX

6.1     Testing Procedure                                                           17

6.2     Problem Encountered                                                      17

CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0     Conclusion                                                                      18

7.1     Recommendation                                                            19

          Reference                                                                       20

          Appendix                                                                         21               

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Crime is any act of omission or commission of offence that violates a written code of conduct of the land or any geographical location therefore burglar is a crime that is defined by the law of Nigeria.

Burglar proof is an engineering design to control and prevent burglars from having a direct attach or entrance into our places of having

Construction of burglar proof base on the material used such as iron (mild steel) the discovery of iron makes a turning in mains creative innovation to improve his environment conditions as it makes a basic foundation for technological feet in the field of communication production and transportation. To declare iron and steel as the voice of technology is to sat the least  about its benefits taking into consideration their uses and principal properties such ass, atomic weigh 55647, atomic number 26, melting point 15400c, boiling point 30000c oxidation number 2.3 density of 7.85/m3.

The basis of all physical object made of iron depends on the knowledge of history of iron ores wining of the ores, processing of the ore into pig iron and refining of the iron are into steel of various qualities and grades. Man exploits the extensive use of iron as science and technology advances, which brought about the discovery of many uses among which is for making burglar proof.

This iron revolution gave bright hope to main concerning security, in fact it’s advantages over wood which was in use in early years ago has really given satisfaction to man iron burglar proof is termites attach free as a result of its possession of high resistance and high degree of stain this making it highly suitable and durable for security purposes and it has water resistance when coated with anti must or corrosion compare to wood.

As a result of these merits man has substituted the use of wood with metal in burglar proof making metal burglary proof could be of various designs it could be made of mud steel or iron rods throughout and many other shapes for beautification.

This will make it light in weight and more attractive

1.2     AIMS

1.       It Aimed So much of enlightening student especially those in engineering field such as civil and mechanical engineering in area of construction as regards to their profession.

2.       It provides a workshop model of a true metal protector and economics of material, labour and procedures.

3.       It also help the student to be salt reliance hide pendent as well as even when they are out of school.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

Some of main objectives of the project are listed below

(i)      To let the student realize that they can bring a new idea to the engineering construction as this is the first attempt of constructing burglar proof with mild steel as a project

(ii)     To reduce the risk of danger to human life and properties caused by wooden burglar proof

(iii)    To produce decent and stronger type burglar proof

(iv)    Topraticalize the theorical work done in the lecture room

(v)     To make the student more exposed to the use of some complex machines in the workshop

1.4     THE IMPORTANCE FOR BURGLAR PROOF

a.       It encourages the students to be able to put into practice or practical aspect, the theoretical aspect of the work taught in lecture room.

b.       It makes the student to produce a stronger and decent types of burglar proof.

c.       It serves as a security for human life and his/her properties against

d.       It enables engineering student to think on how to protect him an life in their societies

FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WINDOW BURGLAR PROOF

FABRICATION OF METAL PANEL DOOR

ABSTRACT

Security of life and property cannot be over emphasized. Human beings need privacy in their various homes and offices which necessitate the need for doors among other security service. It has been a major challenge for the people to have door of high quality and that are also durable at affordable prices by an average Nigerian. This project was done purposely to fabricate a metal panel door of high quality capable of giving maximum securities to life and properties at affordable price. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstracts

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Definition

Types

Need for metal panel door

Aims and objectives

CHAPTER TWO

2.00   Analysis of alternative method and choice of best alternatives

2.10   Types of door mechanism

2.20   Literature review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     General description of component and it working principle

3.1     Description of component part.

3.1     Working principle

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Design Calculation

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Selection of material

5.1     Mechanical properties

5.2     Physical properties

5.3     Corrosion resistance

5.4     Economic properties

5.5     Environmental properties

CHAPTER SIX

6.0     Conclusion and recommendation

6.1     Conclusion

6.2     Recommendation

6.3     Reference

6.4     Appendix i

6.5     Appendix ii

6.6     Appendix iii

CHAPTER ONE

Many years ago, different types of doors were in use, which includes doors made of woods or grasses. These doors were made to meet the purpose of security to both life and properties. It was later discovered  that doors made of wood do not last longer. They have short life span and they can easily get burnt.

More so, considering the rate at which armed robbers break into houses in our society, one would regret that wooden doors and grass doors gave them the chance to do so because it could easily be damaged.

Furthermore, door made with wood are very risky to be put at open place. This is because doors made with wood when faced with water frequently, it gets damaged. In addition, termites could make the lifespan of wooden doors short.

Meanwhile, based on the aforementioned reasons and also the urge to improve technologically, so as technologist in training, we have come up with a design to serve as an alternative means of making doors of different patterns of today. The patterns that seems to give doors a long lifespan and serves as a means of security to lives of man and properties.

DEFINITION OF DOOR

Door can be defined as hinges, sliding, or revolving barrier at the entrance to a buildings, vehicles, pieces of furniture etc.(Oxford English Mini-Dictionary 5th Edition).

Door can also be defined as a movable flat or panel surface that open and closes the entrance to a building, Hornby A.S{1995}

TYPES OF DOOR

There are different types of doors depending on their purposes, material of manufacture, durability, personal requirement etc. Some types of doors are listed below:

  • Timber/wooden door
  • Steel door
  • Frame and panel door
  • Glass door
  • Battened and ledge doors
  • Flush door
  • Aluminum door
  • Glass door e.t.c.

THE NEED FOR METAL PANEL DOOR

The needs for metal panel door in our modern generation are listed as follows:

  • It last longer than any other door
  • It is of high strength and presentable
  • For the purpose of securing both life and property
  • It gives no easy access for bugler and thieves.

1.4     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.4.1  AIMS

The main aim of this projects is to fabricate the  metal  panel door that will be of high quality capable of giving maximum security to life and property at affordable price.

FABRICATION OF METAL PANEL DOOR

PRODUCTION OF ALUMINIUM POTS

ABSTRACT

          The aim of this project is to produce aluminum pots through sand casting process.  The cast process involved drawing of element to be cast, making of pattern and core boxes, moulding of pattern, and core boxes, moulding or pattern, moulds assembling, melting of a metal pouring into the mould, solidification and cooling of metal in the mould cast knockout and separation of gate runner and riser, casting surface cleaning, removal of core. This process is use to produce metallic article (alloys) of desired shape, dimension, composition and specified properties from molten metal Poured into  a mould whose internal space (impression) reproduce the configuration and dimension of the cast article, with maximum accuracy.        

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                   

Certification                                               

Dedication                                                 

Acknowledgement                                     

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Casting

2.2     Die Casting

2.3     Sand Casting

2.4     Sand

2.5     Types of sand mould

2.6     Quality of green sand

2.7     Pattern

2.8     Mould-making or production

CHAPTER THREE

3.1     Process taken  in production of Aluminium pots

3.2     Procedure for Heating the Metal Aluminium Pot

3.3     Pouring the molten metal (Aluminium) in the mould

CHAPTER FOUR       

4.0     Cleaning, Fettling and Inspection Method, Defects

4.1     Cleaning of Casting and Assessment

4.2     Fettling of Castings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendation

          Reference

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION       

          Aluminium pots are made from Aluminium scap. The shape of the Aluminium pots yard according to the    purpose for which they are produced.

          Hence there are various shapes of Aluminium pot such as cylindrical flat bottom pots spherical bowel pots e.t.c. In some cases means of production of the pots also determine their shapes.

          The pots being reported on are spherical bowel pots and circular called the mouth joined together with a narrower neck. They also possess two EAR-LIKES Handle used. For lifting when loaded. The mouth is covered with a circular lead having a handle as its center.        

          The cast aluminum pot serves several functions its versatility accounts   for its popularity in  many local villages, households where it serves as the primary family cooking utensil, Normally it is suspended from a tripod itself is typically constructed of 75mm diameter tree limbs about two mm  long.

          Prior to the usual of an aluminum reduction plant operation in the country. Local residents used pots made of Aluminum, which came from a distant place. It did not take long for the local entrepreneur to determine that a similar pot made of aluminum was much lighter, had much better heat transfer characteristic, and provided an improved and uniform thermal dispersion into the substance being cooked. These attributes are  important economics consideration where fuel is both scarce and expensive.

          It is some what ironic that the formerly discarded and displaced cast iron pots are used as the pattern for the  sand  moulds made for casting  the aluminium. Such a cast iron pot used for pattern purposes is visible, which shows the  sand mould  being prepared.

          The major aspect in preparation of aluminum cooking pot include preparation of sand, melting and pouring of the molten and finally into already prepared mould and finally the removal of the solicited casting from the sand and its dressing. After the metal had been poured the end product of the foundry operation is known as casting and may vary from a fraction of a kilogram to several tones. Various materials used in the furnace for the production of .aluminum cooking pot includes the materials that `can withstand very high temperature without causing any damage by heating. This materials as called refractory material such as crucibles used in the melting of aluminum scraps. Its should posses properties such as high mechanical strength and chemical stability at elevated temperature so as to withdraw the action of metabolic  melt oxide slag and fluxes.

          The major aspect of preparation of aluminum cooking pot includes preparation of sand, melting.

          Fire clay has sufficient mechanical strength and chemically stable to be used as a lining materials in furnaces for melting of aluminum scraps.

Fluxes are also added during melting of metal inform and control the composition of slag with the required physical and chemical  characteristics of the slag. Parting powder is also added to separate a content of moulding flask or boxes from one another. Surface dressing powder mould against the action of the molten metal and to help to produce good surface on casting.

Surface dressing powder used in the casting of aluminum cooking pot is talc, plumb ago and  coal dust can also be used.

PRODUCTION OF ALUMINIUM POTS

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL SELLING IN MARKETING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF TOTAL NIGERIA PLC

ABSRACT

Personnel selling is face contact with the potential customer.  Personnel selling is moving from the place of production to the place of distribution to shown or demonstrate the production or cajowque of the product to the potential or existing customers.  Other strategies of personnel selling will be pin pointed in the project.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Pages                                                                               i

Certification                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgment                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                   vi

Table of Content                                                                      vii

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1     Introduction                                                                            1

  1. Statement of Research Problem                                               3

1.3     Aim and Objective of Study                                                     5

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                         6

1.5     Scope of the Study                                                                   7

1.6     Limitations of the Study                                                          9

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Nature and Importance of Personal Selling                              11

2.2     Personnel Selling and Marketing                                             17

2.3     Marketing of Petroleum Product                                              28

2.4     Personal Selling and Petroleum Product                                  24

2.5     Management of the Sales Force                                               36

2.6     Evaluation of Salesman’s performance                                    47

2.7     The Effectiveness of Personal Selling in

          marketing of Petroleum Product in Nigeria                              55

2.8     Formulation of Hypothesis                                                      57

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Data Source                                                                             58

3.2     Research Population and                           

Sample Population                                                                  59

3.3     Research Design                                                                      63

3.4     Data Collection Instruments                                                    66

3.5     Method of Data Presentation and     

          Administration                                                                        66

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0     Brief History of Total Nigeria Plc                                              69

4.1     The Management of Total Nigeria Plc

          at the Branch Level                                                                  74

  • Presentation of Data                                                                76

4.4       Analysis of Data                                                           77

4.5     Test of Hypothesis                                                                   87

4.6     Result of Findings                                                                  

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary                                                                       98

5.2     Conclusion                                                                     101

5.3     Recommendations                                                          103

REFERENCES                                                                106

        QUESTIONNAIRE                                                              107

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1 INTRODUCTION

          Personnel selling is the presentation of a product service or ideal by salesman in the direct contact with prospect in order. To make sale’s it is also personnel presentation of product or ideas of commercial significance. To prospective buyer. The America marketing association defines it as oral presentation in conversation with one or more proposal for the purpose of making sales.

          Proposal selling is the most important promotion tool when measured in terms of time and money. The goal of all marketing efforts is to increase profitable sales by offering wants satisfaction to the market over the long run. Personal selling is the major promotion method used to teach the above goal because of this, in many company, personal selling is the largest single operating expenses, often equally 8% – 15% of net sales by using personal selling. The company can pinpoint its target market and the advertising to creating awareness and arouse interest but it is only personal selling that result in actual sales.

          This is because when the salesman is indirect contact, he tries to stimulate desire in an attempt to obtain action. There by creating urge in prospective buyer to take decision. Now and not later petroleum product are industrial goods and as such posses the features of an industrial goods that make it extremely necessary to use personal selling the marketing of petroleum product such characteristics are:

They are sold in bulk and need assurance of the quality of the product, this makes it important use a sales person so that he can demonstrate. The product to the potential industrial users and arrange for quality easy transportation of the goods to their distinction.

The market for the industrial goods is very competitive, therefore, for the produces of such goods (e.g. petroleum product) to be able to maintain a large market share they need the services of sales people.

The demand for industrial goods is a derived demand which means that the attribute of the product should be sold to the industrial users by the sales people.

          Total marketing Nigeria PLC is the leading company in the petroleum marketing industrial in Nigeria it is the first major marketer that was given the award at quality product (150 – 9002) by standard organization of Nigeria (SON) they make use of personal selling more effectively and personal selling activities take a higher percentage of their promotional budget.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL SELLING IN MARKETING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF TOTAL NIGERIA PLC

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEAM BOILER

CHAPTER ONE

THE STEAM BOILER

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat water or produce steam which can then be used to provide space heating and/ or service water heating to a building. In most commercial heating applications, the heating source in the boiler is a natural gas fired burner. Oil fired burners and electric resistance heaters can be used as well. Steam is preferred over hot water in some applications, including absorption cooling, kitchen, laundries, sterilizers and steam driven equipment. Capehart, B. (2006).

Boiler is multipurpose equipment in all manufacturing industries. Industries like: Nigeria bottling company, textile mail, laundries, breweries, matches company e.t.c. A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion and transfer heat to water until it becomes hot water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then useable for transferring the heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam, it’s volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gun powder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment and should be treated carefully. When liquid is heated up to the gaseous state, it evaporates, this process is known as evaporation.

Any part of the boiler metal that actually contributes to making steam is known as heat surface. Heating surface is any part of the boiler; hot gases for combustion are on one side and water on the other side. Albert Oladele. (2017).

The burner is meant for the combustion generated, while the boiler is meant for building steam. The combination of the boiler and the burner and vertical boilers can be easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers and vertical boilers can be so easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers are bottom supported while the vertical boilers are top supported.  ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL.CODE (BPVC) 2010

Since boiler is a closed metallic vessel, heating water above the atmospheric pressure, steam could be generated at the desired pressure and temperature. To heat the water fuels like: coal, diesel oil, gas etc may be use. The function of a boiler is to evaporate water into steam at constant pressure and to supply the required type of steam.

FIG 1

1.1 Aim

To study the operation, maintenance, and repair of steam boiler. To operate the steam boiler in a low cost avoid any explosion during operation.

To promote the safe operation of electric steam boiler.

1.2 Objectives 

  • To Identify the terms associated with  steam boilers
  • To Identify the components of a steam system
  • Todescribe the role and application the steam system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Identify the components of a feed water system
  • Todescribe the role and application the feed water system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Identify the components of the fuel and air system
  • To describe the roles and application the fuel and air system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Analyze conservation of heat energy by various component to maximize efficiency and minimize cost.
  • To Steam production.
  • To get acquitted with the operation of steam boiler.
  • To Steam boiler regulations.

The steam boiler, aim and objective of studying was due to a very serious boiler explosion occurred in Calcutta in the year 1863 which caused the loss of several lives.

1.3       Background

The main stay technology for generating heating or process energy is the package steam boiler. This type of boiler has proven to be highly efficient and cost effective in generating steam and hot water.

Selecting the right boiler equipment for the process however requires a thorough evaluation according to several criteria.

  • Reviewing boiler types
  • Comparing features and benefit
  • Determining fuel consumption and also boiler efficiency. If these evaluation criteria, a key factor is fuel consumption or boiler efficiency. Thompson 1996
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEAM BOILER

THE EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ON TOP LEVEL EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF ELITE INDUSTRIES NIGERIA LIMITED, IGANMU LAGOS)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Background of the study

1.1     Statement of the problem

1.2     Objectives of the study

1.3     Purpose of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Scope of the study

1.6     Research questions

1.7     Research hypothesis

1.8     Historical background of Elite Textile Industries Nig. Ltd.

1.9     Organization Chart

1.10   Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Review of related literature

2.1     Management development

2.2     Identification of needs for developing employee

2.3     Training method for managerial development

24      Problem faced by developing manager

2.5     The process of management development

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research methodology

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Method and source of data collection

3.3     Sample size

3.4     Research instrument and techniques

3.5     Questionnaire design and assumption

3.6     Validity and reliability of instrument

3.7     Method of data analysis used.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data presentation and analysis

4.1     How questionnaire was distributed the employee of

          each department

42      Distribution of questionnaire by sex

4.3     Distribution of questionnaire by age analysis

4.4     Distribution of questionnaire by status

4.5     Length of service in the establishment years of service

46      Position of the company

4.7     Respondent response result from effect of development

          on their overall production.

4.8     Are management development programme cared

          toward increase in productivity.

4.9     How effective are employees productivity after

          understanding a development programmes.

4.10 How do you asses the skill acquired by employee

          after development programme.

4.11 Presentation of personal interview

4.12 Testing of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and suggestions

          for further studies

3.1     Summary of findings

52      Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

3.4     Suggestion for further studies

          References

ABSTRACT

          The purpose of this study was to concentrate on the effect of management development progammes employee’s production in an organization the Elite Textile Industries Nigeria Limited, Iganmu, Lagos. Various respondents among the department of the organization were selected to respond to the questionnaire.

Utilizing the sire method, the questionnaire was used together information needed and questionnaires were administered to a total number of 23 employees of Elite Textile Industries Nigeria Limited, Iganmu, Lagos. A simple frequency was used for data analysis in other to determine the variable provided. (Thi-square (x2) test was applied to hypothesis testing.

          Furthermore, a through examination was made of literature on the topic of study. The information in the related literature was used in part of formulate the recommended procedures.

          The findings related that training and development are very essential to every business organization for the survival of the business because of the competition rate of the industries. Also business organization will increase their productivity level continuously with a well planned development programmes for their staff and this will go a long way to aid management succession.

          The researcher agrees that the staff development center (S.D.C) of the company deserves some commendation for the development program for their staff and this will go to aid management succession and the management to achieve its objectives.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Management is a unique element that is applicable to any establishment or organization, management has been differently defined by many people. Some look at it as a man made term or a group of people that control the affairs of an establishment.

Management is also referred to as a process demanding the productivity of specific function, here being seen as a profession. However, management is also a process that involves planning, organizing, coordinating, motivating and controlling resources before the stated objective can be admired. For management to achieve its objectives resources must be available, these resources may be material, human and financial and they all to be organized, coordinated and controlled in order to achieved the stated objectives.

According to British Institute of Management, Management can also be seen as the process of getting things done through other people or subordinate.

          A management must have task to be achieved and he cannot achieve things without the assistance of the subordinates, the subordinate will perform the job. Good management looks to the future and prepares it hence, one important way is to develop and train

manager so that they can be able to cope with new demands problems and challenges.

Indeed, organization has the responsibility to provide training and development opportunity for the employees so that they can reach their full potentials, training is concerned with present development and with the future.

However, during the 1905s, firm became aware that management needs special knowledge and skill that can be taught. This motion was conclude surely arrived at when it is discovered that today business organization has certain characteristics is complexity, this has been in the form of broad production line, based on challenging technology, serving international market characterized by many firms.

1.1    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Many companies are today being faced by declining productivity, the reasons may be due to low morale, unconductive environment, poor 1ary package need to be abreast to time to ensures that they are it tuned to ways of handling equipments that can enhance productivity. These must be done in the face of declining economy and company scarce resource & For an organization to achieve its objectives effectively, such organization must introduce or have a kind of training and development for the employees to enhance better productivity.

1.2    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major aim and objective of the study is to examine the effective of management development program on employment productivity in an organization.

This study aim at looking into the following

1. To examine whether management development program eventually increase workers productivity.

2. To discuss the need for management development in the Nigeria industries.

3. To know how management development increase the organization present and future capacity.

4. To proffers suggestion towards solving these problems.

THE EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ON TOP LEVEL EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF ELITE INDUSTRIES NIGERIA LIMITED, IGANMU LAGOS)

EFFECT OF RECENT RECAPITALIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF GUARANTY TRUST BANKING PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction

1.1   Background of the study

1.2   Statement of the problem

1.3   Objective and purpose of the study

1.4   Scope and limitation of the study

1.5   Significant of the study

1.6   Research methodology

1.7   Statement of the hypothesis

1.8   Definition of terms hypothesis

1.9   Organization of the study

Chapter two

  • Literature review

2.1   Bank recapitalization and conceptical issue on bank recapitalization in Nigeria.

2.2   Rationale for the current banking sector recapitalization in Nigeria.

2.3   Strategies for recapitalization adopted by Nigeria bank.

2.4   Objective of the recent banking section.

2.5   Policy framework and then role on banking section recapitalization in Nigeria.

2.6   Challenges of the recent banking recapitalization in Nigeria.

Chapter three

3.0   Research methodology

3.1   Briefly history of united bank form Africa plc.

3.2   Restatement of the research hypothesis

3.3   Source of data collection

3.4   Administration of data collection instrument

3.5   Procedure for processing collected data

3.6   Limitation of the study

Chapter four

4.0   Data analysis and presentation

4.1   Presentation and analysis of result.

4.2   Presentation and analysis of data according to research question.

4.3   Presentation and analysis of data according to test of hypothesis.

Chapter five

5.0   Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

        References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        It is an incomecoercible that the banking system is the engine of growth in any economy its function of financial intermediation through this function, bank facilitate capital formation, lubricate the production engine eurbaries and promote economic growth.

        However, bank ability to enginder economic growth and development deponds on the health, soundness and stability of the sop ean. The need for a strong, reliable and viable banking agssum is underscore by the fact the industry is one of the few sector in which the shareholders fund is only small portion of Liabilities of the enterpsies. It is therefore not supervising that the banking industry is one of the most regulated sector in any economy.

        It is against this background that the control bank of Nigeria in the maiden address of its current government prof charles soludo, outline the first phase of its banking sector design a diversified, strong and reliable banking industry. This research work reviews the reason, strategies and the effect of recent reformation in the banking industry.

        the primary objective of the reforms is to guarantee an efficient and sound financial system the reforms are designed to enable the banking system develop the required resilience to support the economic development of the nation of efficiently performing its function as the fulcrum of financial intermediation (Lemon 2005) This, the reform were to ensure the safety of depositors money, position banks to pla active development roles in the Nigeria economy and become major players in the sub-regional and global financial markets.

        The key elements of the thirteen (13) points reform programme include.

  • Minimum capital base of N25 billion with a deadline date of 31st of December, 2005
  • Recapitalization of banking institution through mergers and acquisition.
  • Phased withdrawal of public sector funds from bank beginning from July 2004.
  • Adoption of a risk focused and ruler based regularly frame work.
  • Zero tolerable for weak curate governences, misconduct and lack of transparency.
  • Accelerated completion of the electronics financial analysis surveillance system.
  • The establishment of an asset management company.
  • Promotion of the enforcement of dominant laws.
  • Revision and updating of relevant laws.
  • Closer collaboration with the EFCC and the establishment of the financial intelligent units.

Two of the above reform elements which have since generate some concern and reactions from various stake holders are requirement that the minimum capitalization of banks should be N25 billion with full compliance by 31st December, 2005.

        Recapitalization of banking institutions through merger and acquisition.

        Since the first phase of the banking sector recapitalization programme had been concluded, the main focus of their research work it to examine implementation of the programme

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        The focus of this study by the researcher is for indentify the effect of the recent capitalization on Nigeria banking industry Hence in the course of the study, efforts has been made to find solution to the following research problems

  1. What is the historical background and conceptual issue on banking sector recapitalization in Nigeria?
  2. What are the rationable for the current banking sector recapitalization in Nigeria.
  3. What are the policy framework for bank recapitalization?
  4. What are the strategies adopted by Nigeria bankers for bank recapitalization.
  5. What are the objective of the banking sector recapitalization in Nigeria.
  6. What are the challenges face by banks in the recent recapitalization.
EFFECT OF RECENT RECAPITALIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF GUARANTY TRUST BANKING PLC)

EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND CONTROL AS AN INDISPENSABLE TOOLS FOR BANK GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA)

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the study

Statement of the study

Research question

Objective of the study

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Definition of key term

Organization and plan of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1       Literature Review

            CHAPTER THREE

3.1       Research Methodology

3.2       sources of Data Collection

3.3       Area of Study

3.4       Population

3.5       Sampling

3.6       Sampling Techniques

3.7       Validity of Instrument

3.8       Description of Research Instrument

3.9       Research Hypothesis

3.10     Procedure for Data Analysis

            CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2       Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.3       Data Interpretation

4.4       Test of Hypothesis

            CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Summary of the Major Finding

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

5.4       Reference

            Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

For any Organization to survive especially in a violate environment like ours. It must of necessity effective planning and control in its culture to realize its desired goal. If an organization fail to practice planning and control as a culture. Its bound to fail similarly, one who does not plans is also planning to fails any perspective we look at in life. It is all about planning and wholly working toward success with the aids of the laid down plant to achieve the desired goals.

            Planning is said to be the first function of manager. It is the formal process of setting objective and determines the needs of accomplishing the predetermined objective.

            Planning requires assessment of the organization of the organization strength and weakness through projections, fire casting about the future condition of the environment where the business operates planning leads to good performance.

            Research has shown that successful firms plan and plan well (kootnz et al- 1986) creating posture and allocating duties and responsibilities among individuals within an organization implies that work decision about how an organization in area is being run control guides the activities towards predetermine goal.

            It measure performance against standard with a view to enable corrective action to be taken to keep the plan on course.

            Through control, the success of meeting the goals in an organization is judges and such goals are not met; corrective steps are taken or possible corrective solution.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

This project stated the problems militating against the effective planning and control as an indispensable tools for Bank Growth and Development.

  1. It led to low productivity line-staff competition in Nigeria banking sectors.
  2. There will are inter-departmental conflict in the banking sector.
  3. It led to the organization and personal goal clash in Nigeria banks.
  4. Through insufficient planning and controlling. It led pressure placed on employee by the demands of the organization and stave holder.
    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research question which relate to the effective planning and control are mapped out:

  1. Do other factor such as remuneration and poor working environment result to poor productivity?
  2. Does the act of not defining responsibilities during the process of the planning and control result in staff competition among surbordinates even among surbordinates to superior.
  3. Could it be that how productivity results from failure on the part of management to identify opportunities and threat before making plans.
  4. Are there clash among per sued values and organization goals that could lead to poor productivity and what ways can this be properly managed so as not to affect the organizational negatively.

1.4       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study “the Effective planning and Control” As an indispensable tool for bank growth and development.

  1. To determine the importance of planning and controlling as an indispensable tool in banks.
  2. To determine the types of strategic needs to adopt in implementing its decision and show how to patronize her customers.
  3. To review the reasons why organization needs to plan so as to achieve its aim and objectives.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work will benefit in the following ways. After it has been able to provide answers to the research questions in relation on how productivity. It will help management to know how best to handle poor productivity. In their organization, it will also act as reference to managers.

            This research work would give a better understanding of the term planning, control and high light their user in any organization. It will serve as reference to future researchers involved in similar issues.

EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND CONTROL AS AN INDISPENSABLE TOOLS FOR BANK GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA)

EFFECT OF MERGER AND ACQUISITION ON BANK PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF INTERCONTINENTAL BANK PLC, UNITY BRANCH, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                     i

CERTIFICATION                                                                             ii

DEDICATION                                                                                   iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                    iv-v

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                    vi-viii

CHAPTER ONE                                                     

  1. Introduction                                                              1-2

1.1 Statement of the problems                                           2-3

1.2 Objective of the study                                                  3-4

1.3 Scope and limitation of the study                               4

1.4 Significance of the study                                              5

1.5 Research methodology                                                 6

1.6 Definition of terms and concepts                                6-8

1.7 Organization and plan of study                                   8-10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review                                                                       11

2.1 Conceptual issue on merger and

acquisition                                                                            11-18

2.2 Motive behind merger and acquisition

in bank industries.                                                               18-21

2.3 Effect of bank consolidation in the banking

industries                                                                                           22-23

2.4 Strategies of post consolidation on

the Nigeria economic.                                                                     23-26

2.5 The effect of post consolidation on

the Nigeria Economic                                                                      27

2.6 Benefit of merger and acquisition

on bank performance                                                                      28-29

2.7 Problem of merger and acquisition

on bank performance                                                                      29-31

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Case study and methodology                                                32

3.1 Brief history of intercontinental bank Plc.                       32-36

3.2 Research design and data collection instrument       37-38

3.3 Characteristics of the study population and sampling 38

3.4 Administration of the data collection instrument      38-39

3.5 Procedure for processing collected data                                39

3.6 Limitation of the study                                                 39-40

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Data presentation and analysis                                   41-60

CHAPTER FIVE    

5.0 Finding base on data analysis                                      61

5.1 Summary                                                                         61-62

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                 62-63

5.3 Recommendation                                                                       63-64

5.4 Suggestion for further study                                        64

5.5 References                                                                                  65-66

Questionnaire                                                                                  

CHAPTER ONE

  1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY

The recent competition by banks to entrance their shares capital was spared by the induced consolidation exercise when may initiated by the governor of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Professor Charles Soludo at te quarter of 2004.

The vision according to Soludo may ensure that, the financial service sector of the nation economic growth in recent time all, most of all the banks are going back to the nation capital to raise fresh fund to enhance their capital to raise fresh fund to enhance their capital base and expand branch network, locally and internationally.

The eagerness to raise more money that is the capital base may pushed than to incorporate merger and acquisition as a component part of their fund raising scheme.

June 1997 merger is the coming together of two or more company to become large company. While acquisition is when a bigger company acquire the smaller one in term of it financial responsibility.

In this case, the performance of bank may improved especially in the area of breach networking and the service they render to the general public modern to meet the demand of their customer, it may also improve the capacity of the banks to finance major project in Nigeria.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research work will show the problem of merger acquisition on bank performance as follows:

  1. What are the problems associated with merger and acquisition on bank performance?
  2. How merger and acquisition affect the banking industries?
  3. What are the effect of merger and acquisition on bank performance?
  4. What are the benefit customer acquire from bank as a result of merger acquisition?
  5. What are the problem associated with merger and acquisition on bank performance?
    1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is on how the establishment on aims of merger and acquisition on bank performance. Therefore, the following lead to the aim and objective of the study.

  1. I study this research to examine the conceptual issue on merger acquisition.
  2. I study this research to find out how merger and acquisition on bank performance
  3. I study this research to determine the effect on merger acquisition on bank performance
  4. I study this research to enumerate the benefit customer acquire as a result of merger acquisition.
  5. I study this research to find out the problem of merger acquisition on bank performance.
EFFECT OF MERGER AND ACQUISITION ON BANK PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF INTERCONTINENTAL BANK PLC, UNITY BRANCH, ILORIN)

EFFECT OF FRAUD AND MALPRACTICE IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY {A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA Plc Ilorin}

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Fraud can be seen as the intentional misrepresentation, concealment, or omission of the truth for the purpose of deception/manipulation to the financial detriment of an individual or an organization (such as a bank) which also includes embezzlement, theft or any attempt to steal or unlawfully obtain, misuse or harm the asset of the bank. (Adeduro, 1998 and, Bostley and Drover 1972).

Fraud and management have been the precipating factor in the distress of banks, and as much as various measures have been taken to minimize the incidence of fraud, it still rises by the day because fraudsters always device tactical ways of committing fraud. This has become a point of great attention in the banking sector as well as every organization in Nigeria. Although this phenomenon is not unique to the banking industry or peculiar to Nigeria alone, the high incidence of fraud within the banking industry has become a problem to which solution must be provided in view of the large sums of money involved and its adverse implications on the economy.

Fraud in its effects reduces the assets and increases the liability of any company. In the case of banks, this may result in the loss of potential customers or crisis of confidence of banking public and in the long runs end up in another failed bank situation.

It is instructive to know that many banking operatives have different reasons for joining various banks. Many have the intention of working for a short time in the banking industry (get whatever they could and find another job that is less demanding), some are in the industry because of their love for banking and all it stands for. While majority are there to enrich themselves by fraudulent means. Due to the upsurge of great viability in the banking sector, its dynamic and fast expanding level of activities, banks are faced with different kinds of challenges, among which is trying to prevent various fraudulent intentions of both staff and customers.

With the aforementioned problems, one cannot help but ask the following questions:

  1.  Are the fraud detection systems in operation in banks adequate and effective in preventing fraud?
  2. Does the recruitment method have a direct link with the rate of fraud in the banking sector?
  3. Can the banks ever operate without an incidence of fraud?

Conceptual Framework

Fraud is one of the numerous enemies of the business world. No company is immune to it. It is in all works of life, in government, the export trade, shipping transactions, banking, insurance and everywhere. Special organizations have been formed to combat it and Interpol (International Police) tries to deal with at the international level, but it has not and cannot be eradicated (Nwankwo, 1991). Fraud is a universal phenomenon which has been in existence for so long. Its magnitude cannot be known for sure, because much of it is undiscovered or undetected and not all that is detected is published. It is known facts that no area of banking system is immune to fraudsters not even the security team designed to prevent it. Its management has become a central point in banking like the management of risk because of the above facts.

The basic idea behind this study is to examine the banking industry in Nigeria. This is with a view to investigating the causes of fraud and malpractices that is usually associated with the banking sectors.

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS

          Fraud and malpractice are usually the two in evil be setting the entire Banking Industry. Frauds and malpractice have to a certain extent become a household expression in the banks owing to numerous cases of fraud and malpractice which occur everyday

          Fraud and malpractice are social issues, they are practice that are socially learnt, determined and socially directed. It is therefore a wrong notion by the generality of the people to say or assume that Nigeria are by nature fraudulent corrupt or dishonest. It is now generally believed that the problem of fraud and malpractice have the highest incidence in Nigeria, compared to all developing countries, for instance, between January and March 1993, Nigeria Deposit Insurance corporation {NDIC} raised on alarm that Bank lost N1 billion to fraudsters.

EFFECT OF FRAUD AND MALPRACTICE IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY {A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA Plc Ilorin}