A SURVEY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

        This study was carried out to survey the knowledge of primary school pupils on communicable diseases in Kwara State. Two hundred respondents got through the use of purposive random sampling technique were selected from four schools that formed the research population. The instrument used to obtain information for the research was structured questionnaire, while frequency and percentage were used in the analysis.

          Results showed that pupils knew hat communicable diseases were and the causes but many didn’t know the control measures of these diseases.

          Among the recommendations given was that more efforts should be made at this background level of education to bring awareness to pupils on ways to control these diseases.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

        The fundamental care that a child requires is the same in all countries of the world. Every child requires to be born all nurtured in a clean and healthy environment as the child subsequently feeds and carries out other activities. The home should provide warmth, love and protection from injury, with every opportunity to learn and grow in a clean and healthy environment. According to Mcseer (2000), the rights of every child should be respected according to the widely accepted convention including the rights to protection from injury and prevention and treatment of illnesses.

        In less developed countries like Nigeria, the basic care is important, in that it may well be the only health care the child will ever receive in a country with scarce resources. Under these circumstances the rearing skills of the mother are of primary importance. Her ability to be the principal primary health-care provider requires knowledge of what is good health and able to learn and provide appropriate health care for the child. Obviously a mother’s health and education are of vital importance to a child’s well-being in any country of the world, but under conditions of poverty, they may mean the difference between life and death for the child.

        It is a disturbing fact that the death of a child is not regarded as being of the same importance as the death of an adult. In a way, this is strange because the child’s life holds such importance, perhaps he or she may become a genius Doctor, or even a head of state. At least he has years of productivity before him. Children are said to be a nation’s greatest asset, though the potential is still in the future. At the moment, the child is just another mouth to feed, a nuisance to be worried over.

        And so all down the ages, while often paying lip-service to the needs of children, society has infact relegated them to the lowest place.

        Every human being at sometime in life suffers illness caused by infection. Infections which can be passed from person to person are referred to as communicable diseases. Children in primary school in underdeveloped countries are exposed to unhygienic environment and as such are highly exposed to infectious diseases. This makes it worthwhile to study communicable diseases. Whenever any part of the body suffers, every other part of the body will be affected. When it happens this way, the pupils concerned will be hindered from attending school and if they do, they might not be able to concentrate in their studies. Hence the statement is true that it is a sound body that harbours a sound mind.

Statement of the Problem  

        Communicable diseases among the primary school children are worthy of knowledge considering the environmental hazards that they are exposed to both in their various homes and schools. Ill health is one major barrier that hinders the pupils from attending schools regularly or having full concentration on their studies. Whenever any part of the body suffers, the whole system of the body will be affected including the intellect. Therefore in the case of the primary school pupils the teaching-learning process will breakdown whenever a child is unsound in health. It is for this reason that all concerned parties must put hands on deck to ensure that as much as possible, school children are in sound health always and in particular free from communicable diseases.

Purpose of the Study

        The main purpose of the study is to survey the primary school pupils’ knowledge of communicable diseases in Kwara State. According to Anne (1980), most primary school pupils have environmental problems. These problems include, poor water supply, poor method of sewage disposal, inadequate health services and poor personal hygiene of the pupils both at home and in the school. The children play together, eat and drink together with the same utensils. They also breathe the same air in crowded and poorly ventilated classroom, and sleep in the same room in most cases. All these can be attributed as the basis for communicable diseases.

        The researcher therefore intends to find out whether the children have knowledge about communicable diseases as well as the symptoms of some common ones.

General Questions

  • What is the place of good health in education?
  • Should health education be made compulsory in the primary school?
  • What are communicable diseases?
  • What role should the Government play in the treatment and control of communicable diseases?
A SURVEY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN KWARA STATE

INFLUENCE OF CULTISM ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

        This study investigated into the Influence of Cultism on Students’ Academic Performance in Ilorin Metropolis.

Two hundred respondents participated in the study. Four research hypotheses were generated for the study and t-test statistical method was used to analyse the data gathered with the Influence of Cultism on students’ academic performance questionnaire. The study showed that significant relationship existed between non-funding of University library and students performance.

Also significant relationship existed between non-qualified staff and students’ performance, significant relationship existed between inadequate relevant resources and students’ performance and significant relationship exist between staff motivation and students performance.

        It was therefore recommended that qualified library staff must be well equipped with relevant equipment, the library should be well equipped while there should be opportunity for future development of the library.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS                                                          PAGE

TITLE PAGE                                                             i      

CERTIFICATION                                                       ii     

DEDICATION                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                          iv    

ABSTRACT                                                               vi    

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                             vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                      ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                 1

Statement of the Problem                                        6

Purpose of the Study                                                       7

General Questions                                                   8

Research Questions                                                 8

Research Hypotheses                                               9     

Significance of the Study                                                 9

Delimitation and Scope of the Study                               10   

Definition of Terms (Operational Definitions)           10   

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Concept of Secret Cult                                             12

Meaning of Cultism                                                 16

History of Cultism in Nigeria                                    20

Reasons Why People Join Cults                                       23

Existence of Cult Group on Campuses                    26

Effect of Cult Activities                                             30

Suggested Method of Curbing Cultism                     38

Summary of the Reviewed of Related Literature       43   

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                      44   

Population of the Study                                           44

Sample and Sampling Techniques                           45

Instrumentation                                                       45   

Validity of the Instrument                                        46   

Reliability of the Instrument                                    46

Administration of the Instrument                            47   

Method Data Analysis                                              47

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results                                                                    48

Hypotheses Testing                                                  50

Discussion of Findings                                            54   

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                                         57   

Conclusion                                                              58

Implications of the Study                                                 59

Recommendations                                                   59

Limitations of the Study                                          60

Suggestions for Further Study                                         60

REFERENCES                                                         61

APPENDIX                                                               63

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:    Distribution of Respondents by Sex         48

Table 2:    Distribution of Respondents by Age         48

Table 3:    Distribution of Respondents by Religion 49

Table 4:    Distribution of Respondents by Parents Education                                                        49

Table 5:    t-test analysis comparing participants by sex            50   

Table 6:    t-test analysis comparing respondents by Age group                                                 51

Table 7:    t-test analysis comparing participants by religion           52

Table 8:    t-test analysis participants by parents’ Education             53

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        Cultism is a secret organization formed by students while in the school, most especially in the tertiary institution.

        Molagun (2003) defined cultism as a religious group often based on immediate emotional experience rather than on a throughout ideology of most world religions Beth (1982). Advanced Oxford Dictionary defines cultism as a term coined out of the word cult, and that cultism is an extreme religious group that is not part of an established religions.

        Cultism has become one of the major problems confronting most of our tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It is not an over statement to say that Nigeria’s educational system is on the verge of collapse if nothing is done by the government, school authorities, students and the society in general to stop cultism in our tertiary institutions.

        Cultism have been known to have caused many havocs in our tertiary institutions as members engage themselves in brutal killing of other fellow students, harassing of lecturers, raping, destruction of school properties and causing violence in the school campuses thus, making the school environment unconducive for learning.

        The effects of secret cults in schools are numerous. Such cult had newer dimension to the educational problems we already have. The rate at which cults are causing disruptions in the smooth running of various institutions of learning is assuming an alarming proportion. For example, in the wake of the 90’s, there has been a great rise in the dastardly activities of the 90’s, there has been a great rise in the dastardly activities of the cults in as recorded on the pages of various national dailies. To help us appreciate the negative effects of cults in our institutions, we examine a well documented newspaper report and other eye witness accounts as recorded in Olaoye (1996), five occult members were shot dead by members of rival secret cult at the university of Benin, one was shot dead while thirty got drowned in an attempt to escape arrest at the University of Calabar. More so, four were shot dead at the University of Ibadan. A science laboratory was set ablaze by cult members at University of Jos. About twelve cult students among whom were two female students from tertiary institutions in Kwara State were in police custody for being in possession of dangerous weapons. One was murdered while another was shot at the Federal Polytechnic Offa. Occult members struck at the Yaba College of Technology leaving four dead in 1994, nine students of Baptist High School Abeokuta, were caught performing initiation rites for members of their cult in the midnight. A similar incident was reported at a secondary school in Abia State where a principal caught thirteen students with guns. Moreover, nine students of Federal Government College, Indoani in Ondo State were expelled for belonging to secret cults. Occults members also struck at the College of Education in Ila-Orangun leading to destructions of properties. Bulus, (2003). The moral decadence in our tertiary institutions can be traced to the family, which is an institution that permits safe guarding of the child during the period of biological immaturity and also provide for the child’s primary socialization and initial education. Parenthood is rapidly becoming a highly self conscious vocation Mitchell, (1996) and it is in the realm of inter-personal relationships and social interactions that the self conscious operates.   

        Musgrave (1996) has emphasized that the claims which schools make concerning their impact upon children characters are probably both extravagant and unfounded that they are in general of negligible influence. The real prime and lasting influence is in home and if there is a deprivation here (i.e. materially, mentally or spiritually there will be some form of deprivation in the personality of the child Bowlby (1995) described that observation of several deprived children demonstrated that their conscience and potentialities were not developed. The family moulds the personality of a child throughout his school life. The question now arises, what are the factors responsible for the causes of cultism in our tertiary institutions and how has cultism influence the students in our tertiary institutions?

        People differ in their opinions some blame the cause on the parents while some blame the cause on school authorities while others are of the views that the students themselves and even the government are not helping matters as regards the issue of cultism in our tertiary institutions.

        Our assumption in this study therefore are many factors, on why students join cultism such as students socio-economics background, search for self-image or self-esteem and student desire to belong. It is also assumed that inferiority complex on the part of the students has a lot to do with cultism in tertiary institutions. It is assumed also that the influence of home environment, peer group pressures and many other factors are all contributory factors that cause cultism in our tertiary institutions, now that the research is out to find out the influence of cultism on students academic performance in Ilorin Metropolis. It is assumed that at the end, the result of this study will bring awareness not only to the school authorities and the parent but to the population at large, thereby giving enlightenment on how influence of cultism on students’ academic performance in Ilorin Metropolis can be curbed in our tertiary institution. 

Statement of the Problem

INFLUENCE OF CULTISM ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

INFLUENCE OF CHILD LABOUR ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN ILA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                        i

Approval                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv

Table of Contents                                                                                           vi

List of Tables                                                                                                  ix

Abstract                                                                                                          x

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                               1

Statement of the Problem                                                                               17

Purpose of the Study                                                                                      18

Research Questions                                                                                         18

Research Hypothesis                                                                                       19

Significance of the Study                                                                               19

Scope of the Study                                                                                         20

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                     20

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Preamble                                                                                                         22

Influence of Domestic Labour on Secondary School Students Performance            22

Influence of Absenteeism on Secondary School Students Performance       25

Influence of Commercial Child Labour on Secondary School Students

Performance                                                                                                    26

Influence of Household Poverty on Secondary School Students

Performance                                                                                                    27

Influence of Social Roles in Child Labour on Secondary School Students

Performance                                                                                                    30

Theoretical Framework                                                                                   32

Conceptual Framework                                                                                   33

Summary of the Review of Related Literature                                              34

CHAPTER THREE:                        METHODOLOGY

Preamble                                                                                                         36

Research Design                                                                                             36

Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques                                               37

Instrumentation                                                                                               37

Validity                                                                                                           38

Reliability                                                                                                        38

Procedure for Data Administration and Collection                                        39

Data Analysis Techniques                                                                               39

CHAPTER FOUR:              RESULTS

Preamble                                                                                                         40

Demographic Data                                                                                          40

Hypotheses Testing                                                                                         43

Summary of Findings                                                                                47

CHAPTER FIVE:    DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

Preamble                                                                                                         49

Discussion                                                                                                       49

Conclusion                                                                                                      51

Recommendations                                                                                          51

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                     52

Reference                                                                                                        53

Appendix                                                                                                        58

LIST OF TABLES

Table1:            Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Gender, School

Type, Class taught and Teaching Experience.                        40

Table 2:           Mean and Rank order of respondents on the influence of

child labour on academic performance on secondary school

students.                                                                                  42

Table 3:           Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of Respondents

on the influence of child labour on students performance on

the basis of genders                                                                44

Table 4:           Mean, standard deviation and t-test of Respondents on

influence of child labour on students’ academic

performance on the basis of school type.                                44

Table 5:           Mean, Standard Decision and t-value of Respondents on

the influence of child labour on students academic

performance on the basis of class taught.                               45

Table 6:           ANOVA of Respondents on the influence of child labour

on student’s academic performance on the basis of teaching

experience.                                                                              46

Table 7:           Duncan Multiple Range Test on Teacher’s Teaching

Experience.                                                                             47

ABSTRACT

Child Labour is a working child who is under the age of 18 years specified by law. Any child who is involved in gainful employment, feed self and augments family income at the experience of learning for the purpose of school examination success is being subjected to child labour. Influence is the power to make other people agree with your opinions or do what you want. Agents this background, the study examined the influence of child labour on academic performance of secondary school students as perceived by teachers in Ila Local Government.

Data collected were from Ten (10) Secondary Schools in Ila Local Government. Two Hundred (200) respondents were engaged in the study. The percentages t-test and ANOVA statistical method were used for analysis of data collected. The result derived from the analysis revealed that child labour influence academic performance of students as perceived by teachers in Ila Local Government among others. In the hypothesis for influence of child labour on students’ academic performance on the basis of gender, there was no significant different.

In hypothesis for influence child labour on academic performance of students on the basis school types, there was no significant difference. In the hypothesis for influence of child labour on academic performance of students on the basis of class taught, there was no significant difference. In the hypothesis for influence of child labour on academic performance of students on the basis of teaching experience, there was no significant difference.

Based on this findings, it was recommended that parent should be sensitized by the teachers on the importance of their student academics so as to understand their role and involvement in their children’s academic performance. This will make them minimize the child labour at home and make them concentrate in their school work. It was also recommended that, there should be enforcement of law by the Ministry of Education and other education stakeholder to guide the children against child labour that affect their academic performance.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

According to Pinzo and Hofferth (2008), child labour is a far reaching and complex problem in developing countries. It has existed in various forms (force labour, trafficking and street trading) in different parts of the world since ancient time. The types of child labour vary according to the country’s culture, and family culture, rural or urban residency, socio-economic condition and existing level of development among other factors.

 A survey by Global March (2008) stated that child labour emerged as an issue during the industrial revolution when children were forced to work in dangerous conditions for well up to 12 hours in a day. In 1860, 50% of children in England between the ages of 5 and 15 were said to be working. However, 1919 saw the world systematically begin to address the issue of child labour and the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted standards to eliminate it. Throughout the 20th century, a number of legally binding agreements and international conventions were adopted but despite all this, child labour continues to this day. The highest number of child labourers are said to be in the Asia-pacific region, but the largest percentage of children,  as proportion of the child population, is evidently found in sub-Saharan Africa with Nigeria (Ila Local Government, Osun  State) having a fair share.

The word child labour is any form of physical, psychological, social, emotional and sexual maltreatment of a child whereby the survival, safety, self-esteem, growth and development of the child are endangered. Herrenkohl (2005) and Psachropoulo (2007), viewed child labour as a disinvestment of social and human capital, a compromising of the development of the individual, and a hindering of the development of skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to make significant contribution to society, Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC, (2002) described child labour as paid and unpaid work that occurs in any sector, including domestic, and agricultural sectors, that are harmful to children’s mental, physical, social or moral development of the child in the modern society; any work that deprives children opportunity to attend school, obliges them to leave school permanently or requires them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work is categorized as child labour.

The Article I of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child, defines a child as any one below the age of 18. Child labour does not only exist in the impoverished areas of developing countries, but also flourish in other developed nations. Though, it is a complex problem in developing countries.

Child labour remains a major source of concern in Nigeria, in spite of legislative measure taken by the government at various levels. In 1998, a report from the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that 24.6% of children between the ages 10-14 in Nigeria were working (World Development Indicator 2000). Earlier before that time in 1994, the United Nations children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) reported that approximately 24 percent (12 million) of all children under the age of 15 worked (UNICEF, 2005). It is a ridiculous sight in most big cities, as well as rural villages today to see children of school age, trading food on the street, herding animals, tanning and drying raw leather product, fetching water for commercial purpose, washing dishes at restaurants, serving as domestic hands, selling wares at kiosks, collecting fire wood for business, harvesting crops in family farm or commercial plantation amongst other activities (Thomberry 2013), agreement with the labour abuse (child labour) trend, the International Labour Organization (2002) in it other report issued, states that the global figure of child labourers was put at appropriately 250 million. The report adds that the ages of the children range between 4-14 years with 120 million of them working full time.

According to Robinson (2009) the phenomenon of child labour is arguably the tallest challenges that impacts directly on school enrolment, attendance, academic performance, completion rates as well as health rest, leisure and the general psychological disposition of children. As stated earlier, child labour takes various forms such as street trading, gardening, child caring, handicrafts, house chores, prostitutions and trafficking etc., there all have implication on the learners level of commitment.

            Obinaju (2005) also viewed child work in a more detailed way, in the perspective of culture. To the author, child labour covers tasks and activities that are undertaken by children to assist their parents or guardians. In particular, such jobs as cooking, washing dishes, planting, harvesting crops, fetching water and firewood, herding cattle, and babysitting. In this case child labour simply aims at tasks and activities which are geared towards the socialization process, if education must be wholesome.

However, the International Labour Organization (ILO), in it condemnation, said, child labour is as stipulated hereunder: children prematurely leading adult lives, normally working long hours for low wages under conditions damaging to their health and to their physical and mental development, sometimes separated from their families, frequently deprived of meaningful educational training opportunities that could open for them a better future. International Labour Organization (2001), in a study entitled” focusing on the worst forms of child labour in Tanzanian says child labour refers to work carried out to the detriment and endangerment of the child, mentally, physically, socially and morally.

Child labour is generally interpreted as “all cases in which children are exposed to harm at work whether or not children are less than 14 years old or less” (UNICEF, 2005).

The meanings and implications of child labour have been highly dependent on it social, cultural and economic context as well as missions, strategies, and objectives of each organization. Two of the major international organizations traditionally working on behalf of child labour issues, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and United Nations Education and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) had utilized quite different child labour concepts and categorization until at least the early 1990s. Trade unions and ILO often used “child labour” and child laborer” instead of “working children” implying that children should be kept away from the labour force at least until they reach a minimum working age on the basis of the fact that this organizations historically tended to protect and secure adult labour market.

Scanlon (2002) conversely, referred to “child labour” according to articles 32 of the conventions on the rights of the child, in which child labour includes any economic activities impeding or hindering the child’s full development or education. UNICEF described child labour as work that violates children’s human rights (Post, 2001).

The International Labour Organization categorized child labour as follows.

  1. Agricultural labourers.
  2. Domestic labourers.
  3. Street laboureres and
  4. Factory labourers with wages.

Golden and Prather (2009) claimed that “child labour” is exploitative, as the latter potentially impairs the health and development of the children. By contrast, James and James (2008) although agencies such as ILO, and UNICEF working on child labour issues originally had different concepts on child labour, following the establishment of the worst form of labour convention 182 in 1999 as well as inter-agency research cooperation such as understanding children’s work in 2000, a growing consensus has emerged that child labour refers to unacceptable forms of child work.

According to UNICEF (2005), the current official definitions of child labour involves as follows:

INFLUENCE OF CHILD LABOUR ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN ILA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

INFLUENCE OF THE LIBRARY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

        This study investigated into the Influence of the Uses of library on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin Metropolis.

        Two hundred respondents participated in the study. Four research hypotheses were generated for the study and t-test statistical method was used to analyses the data gathered with the questionnaire. The study showed that significant relationship existed between non-funding of university library and students performance.

        Also significant relationship existed between non-qualified staff and students’ performance, significant relationship existed between inadequate relevant resources and students’ performance and significant relationship exist between staff motivation and students performance. It was therefore recommended that qualified library staff must be well equipped with relevant equipment, the library should be well equipped while there should be opportunity for future development of the library.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS                                                          PAGE

TITLE PAGE                                                             i      

CERTIFICATION                                                       ii     

DEDICATION                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                          iv    

ABSTRACT                                                               vi    

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                             vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                      x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                 1

Statement of the Problem                                        7

Purpose of the Study                                                       8

General Questions                                                   9

Research Questions                                                 9

Research Hypotheses                                               11   

Significance of the Study                                                 12

Delimitation and Scope of the Study                               12   

Definition of Terms (Operational Definitions)           13   

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Library Administration                                             14

Library Personnel Administration                            18

Manpower and Education                                        22

Personnel Problem in Academic Library                   27

Concept of Library Resource                                    31

Availability of Library Resources                              36

Summary of Review of Related Literature Review     38   

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                      40   

Population                                                               41   

Sample and Sampling Techniques                           41

Instrumentation                                                       42   

Validity of the Instrument                                        42   

Reliability of the Instrument                                    43

Administration of the Instrument                            43   

Data Analysis                                                           44

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results                                                                    45

Discussion of Findings                                            49   

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                                         53   

Conclusion                                                              54

Implication of the Study                                          55

Recommendations                                                   55

Limitations of the Study                                          56

Suggestions for Further Study                                         56

REFERENCES                                                         57

APPENDIX                                                               59

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:    t-test analysis comparing participants by Sex            45

Table 2:    t-test comparing participants by type of schools                46

Table 3:    t-test analysis comparing participants by discipline       47

Table 4:    t-test analysis on comparing participants by size             48

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        Efficient services acquisition within an academic institution is linked with the academic development and activity of the institution. The effective use of resources depends on the library with committees and towards concerned with forward planning. Library development strategies are linked to institutional areas and this enables the librarian to create core collections, provide for new courses and options and support selected research areas within agreed budgetary limitation.

        This measure of supports alone carries with it elements of planned insufficiency for areas less in need of supports such as these in declining teaching areas on these adequately covered in other local institutions or through systems of inter library  cooperation. On the face, such a system appears sensible and operationally sounds, but experience suggests that a clear understanding of academic priorities and objectives has not always been a strong feature of academic institution planning.

        It is possible therefore to fund the library operating in something of a vacuum, on the one hand being deprived of the guidance crisping from effective forward planning but on the other hand having no luck of rather desperate subjective advice from individuals and department. In such content, a well planned strategy for provision of resources has been extremely difficult to achieve.

        It is also the case that the majority of academic institutions have to content with number of organizational and administrative features, which have considerable input on librarianship. There is first the multi-site problem, which invariably splits the stocks between a number of libraries and course difficulties over duplication and proper administration and exploitation of materials. Secondly academic institution in recent offer new commences. Many of which are multi-disciplinary in nature, and this makes it difficult for the library to create collections along classic subject lines.

        Ayandibu (2000) stressed that the multi-site academic institutions such as polytechnic create demand for multiple provision of resources. Means have to be found to curtail spending on duplicate materials and these have included critical appraisal of all requests for additional of inter-site current awareness services designed to keep the academic user (students, lecturers) informed of contents pages even though resources themselves may be located else where.

        Ogunmilade (1995) also stressed that on issue of major importance in recent times to the librarians in Nigerian higher institutions of learning has been and continue to be question of how to effectively manage the library resources particularly in a period of socio-economic stress. This issue had been so critical that it continue to re-echo at the periodic meeting of committee of librarians of schools of education, polytechnic and universities. Moreover, the issue has been attracting prominent attention at National Conference on Researches Management in Nigerian Institution of Learning.

        The unique place of library in Nigerian Education System cannot be over-emphasized. Library is simply described as a special designated building stocked with prints and non-prints which are readily made available to the library users such as teachers, students, researchers, and the public at large through convenient booking, cataloguing and delivery system. This also described by Odetoyinbo (1993) as material on instructional and self-development centre which operates as an integral part of school environment. Today there has been a phenomenal increase in the number of library users in Nigerian Institution of Learning.

        The increase in the number of library users can be attributed to a number of factors which include prohibitive cost of textbooks in the market, non availability of some periodicals and reference materials in the markets and the inevitable need for other library services such as photocopying, binding of books and research report word processing of materials on computers, viewing motion pictures, film strips on other audio-visual materials, studying teaching machines, audio-visual tape of disc recordings.

        Library resources depreciate quickly as they are being subjected to daily use by numerous users. Funds for new materials and equipment are glossily inadequate to meet the escalating prices of these materials, and such no library can afford to replace its collection every few years. It is therefore expedient to find effective ways of managing the library resources so that they will last through many years of use.

        In Nigeria institution of learning, students depend greatly on the library to pursue different kinds of activities which include finding materials for writing reports, book reviews, debates or research papers, seeking information, finding answers to questions that may arise from the teaching process or for personal curiosity, recreational reading browsing through current magazines newspapers and learning to use the library car catalogue, bibliographies, reference books and periodical.

        It is therefore no superfluous remark that if the library is to successfully accomplish its lofty goals of servicing as information centre, a teaching and learning laboratory and to stimulate reading interest, reading habit recreational reading, reading for pleasure, concerted effort must be geared towards effective management of the library resources.

Statement of the Problem

INFLUENCE OF THE LIBRARY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOMES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

        This study is focused on the influence of broken homes on the performance of students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. A total of 200 respondents were used form ten secondary school in the local government. A questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to gather data in the study. The simple percentage techniques was used to analyse the data  collected and the reliability co-efficient is 70%. From the study it is revealed that broken homes affect students performance in different ways and achievement in life. It was recommended that parents should desist from what can jeopardize their children’s future. It is also recommended that seminars be organized to advice both parents and the society on negative influence of a broken home.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                     vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study                                         1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                        4
  3. Purpose of the Study                                       6
  4. Research Question                                           6
  5. Significance of the Study                                         8
  6. Scope of the Study                                           9
  7. Limitation of the Study                                    10
  8. Definition of Terms                                          10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction                                                     11
  • Meaning of a Family                                        12
  • Type of Family                                                 14
  • Making of Divorce and Broken Home               15
  • Causes of Broken Homes                                 17

2.6   Influence of Broken Home on the Ex-Spouses 20

2.7   Influence of Broken Homes on child’s Social

Relationship                                                    23

  • Influence of Broken Home on the child’s Education    28
  • Appraisal of literature Reviewed                       32

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction                                                     33
  • Research Design                                              33
  • Sample Population                                          34
  • Sample and Sampling Technique                    34

3.5   Method of Data Collection                               36

3.6   Validity of the Instrument                                36

  • Reliability of the Instrument                            37
  • Procedure for Data Collection                          37
  • Method of Data Analysis                                  38

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND

                             ANALYSIS                 

4.1   Introduction                                                     39

  • Discussion on Findings                                   51

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

   RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary                                                                 55

5.2   Conclusion                                                      58

5.3   Recommendations                                           59

5.4   Implication for the Study                                 66

5.5   Suggestion for further Study                            67

        References                                                       68

        Appendix                                                         71

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In every society in the world, broken homes are gradually becoming a common phenomenon. The family unit was enjoined by God to bring up their children.

In the way they should behave, adding that they would not depart from it. It is therefore intend that a man and his wife should co-habit till. However, this has not always been the case, God also institude death which can cause separation.

Separation can also come about through divorce which is the legal separation of marriage. A marriage is said to be legal when it is contracted according to the customary or English law.

Therefore a separation occurs to such a marriage the home is regard as a broken home. Usually the family must have had children before the home becomes broken. In actual fact children of such are either left to the care of the woman or the man depending on the custom, tradition or common understanding. Such situation usually has more serious implication when such children are in the school age.

Children look up to both parents for guidance as they start the journey of life. They need the encouragement of parents in the first attempts to learn and they need the discipline of parents to deter them from breaking the rules and norms of school and society.

Indeed the whole content of the child needs the parental backing in order to develop normally and in line with the goals and values of society.

But in this age of trail marriages and single parent mothers, many children are being denied these essential foundation of life. No day passes without one hearing of divorce suits in our law courts while the children of such marriages are left as pawns in a game of chess. Where the home is broken. The tendency is that the child lacks the co-operative care of both parents. He has a lot of idle time and like an idle brain is the devils workshop, the child finds pleasure in all the forms of misdemanour and the became delinquent. Invariably these delinquent behaviours are carried to the school system and are copied by other students. They become a source of bad influence to every secondary school because of the powerful influences of peer group and these in turn go round the schools. Children from separation homes are problems to their parents, teachers and to themselves. Their basic problem is one of social adjustment. Since they have never learnt to establish good relationship with other people.

They are often describe as maladjusted children. They may be uncontrolled in class and have delinquent tendencies. Others may have excessive desire for attention, or withdrawal and must have a difficulty in establishing normal friendly relationship with others. The effect of broken home and it’s attendant result is a serious state of affairs that calls the attention of any right thinking citizen and a responsible government as well. Hence the United Nations created the international year of the child for a solution.

Statement of the Problem

INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOMES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN KWARA STATE

ATTITUDES OF PARENTS TOWARD SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii    

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of contents                                                     viii

Abstract                                                                   x

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the study                                 1
  2. Statement of the problem                                2
  3. Objective of the study                                      3
  4. Significance of the study                                  4
  5. Research hypothesis                                                5
  6. Significance of the study                                  6
  7. The study area                                                 7
  8. Definition of terms                                           8

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction                                                     10
  • Explaining the concept of education                        10
  • Types of education                                           13
  • Education informal organization                     13
  • The aim of secondary school in Nigeria            14
  • Attitude of parents at Home and school

Performances                                                   17

  • Appraisal of the Reviewed Literature                25

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research Design                                              27
  • Population of the study                                    28
  • Sample and sampling techniques                    28
  • Research Instrument                                       29
  • Reliability and validity of the instrument                 29
  • Data Collection and Administration method    30
  • Evaluation of Analysis of data                         31

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION OF RESULT/HYPOHESIS TESTING

  • Introduction                                                     33
  • Analysis of data                                               36
  • Test of hypothesis                                            39
  • Summary of Finding                                        41

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMNDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

  • Summary                                                         45
  • Explanation and Finding                                         45
  •  Conclusion                                                     46
  • Recommendations                                           48

References                                                       50

Appendix                                                                 52

ABSTRACT

        This project work investigates the attitudes of parents toward secondary school education in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. The researcher use questionnaire to get her information. About 100 questionnaire where given to various people in Ilorin West Local Government and analysed using simple percentage.

        The result shows that unemployment after graduation from secondary school make parent not to have interest in secondary education. The researcher then recommended that government should try as much as possible to provide employment for school leavers in order to encourage them and their parent.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Ilorin West Local Government is one of the most populous local governments in Kwara State with stipulated population of over one hundred thousand inhabitants who are predominantly Muslims.

Headquarter is situated at Oja Oba very close to Emirs palace at the Central Area of Ilorin Emirate.

The introduction of Islamic education before the advent of western education creates a lot of set back to secondary education in Ilorin West Local Government Area. Also parents inculcate Quranic education into their children right from childhood in which its cope sharply disagreed with that of western education as a whole and no only secondary education alone.

The pre-independence era and a decade after few parents send their ward to primary school only the few of them allow their children to go to secondary schools existing by then and other school were owned by Christian missionaries. They disallowed them to go to missionaries schools to prevent their children from being covered to Christianity from early 80s till date the attitude is gradually changing from negative to positive as those who did not allow heir ward to go school before independence are now allowing them to go after realizing the importance of western education.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

ATTITUDES OF PARENTS TOWARD SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE

A SURVEY ON NIGERIA POLITICS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

ABSTRACT

        The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree of youth’s participation in the police activity of the country. Among the crucial roles by the youths of Nigeria is that they help to commission (NEC) by serving as poll clerk, poll assistant and presiding officer. They also help to mobilize the masses to turn out in mass in order to register for election also they assist the law enforcement agents to monitor and supervised each and their respective constituency or delimitation.

        Not just only that equally serve as a watch dog by monitoring both the collection and counting and also announcing the election result. The method adopted in research methodology is through primary source i.e. I consulted journal; magazine, new use of. I also prepare the questionnaire in other to sample the opinion of the people concerning the level of participation of youth in Nigeria.

        I finally recommend that youth should be empowered, by providing quality educations, self employed methods and by introducing poverty alleviation programme in order to boost the morale and the living standard of the youth so as to enhance their participation in political activities of Nigeria since they can be refer to as the “Leader of Tomorrow”.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The aim of the politician is to gain and used power over his fellow men. The art of political power is one of the most difficult of political power to the arts. No matter wise and experienced we may be, it is often difficult to decide what is the best thing to do as in other arts, to becomes really successful, we needs natural gifts by studying where they failed, and try to find out the reason why. This is often called politics.

The desire that Nigeria should be a free just and democratic society, a land full of opportunity for all its citizens, able to generate dynamic, economic, economy and growing in to a united, strong and self-reliant nation. It is to discover the general principle on which government can be carried on successful, it is politics. Politics designed from a Latin word.

POLITICS: – which in turn is derived the Greek. Polis or community. Politics stems form associated desire and purposes. It is a group phenomenon because men who have similar desire and purpose can decide to form a group where two or more such group exist in a society conflict its inevitable especially when it comes to pursuing a similar goal. The conflict may not resolve within the frame work of government machinery, politics also regarded as an society. They role of ingrain youth in politics since 1993 to were not encouraged.

        However, youths in a human community are peoples in age brackets (81 – 45 years old) they are adolescents who are peeping in to kingdom of adulthood. Youth are expected to live by example for the adolescent to learn positively from the while at the same time they have to show the readiness to learn form the elders without bias.

        Nigerian youths can be separated from the children and adults when one consider the gain and losses of the nation in any political dispensation in the country. A happy country is a reflection of happy families in the country. The roles youth plays in Nigeria politics since 1993 to date may be mush but not all negative.

        First and foremost, the ambition of the youths trying to become rich overnight and get to the top of the leader within a very short time. The youths are in great haste to become rich overnight. Some of the youth either because of joblessness or eagerness to get rich quickly have drifted into politics showing youthful exuberance, impatience, intolerance and incompetence to manage the affairs of man. Youths derive pleasure from good adventure and misadventure.

        Furthermore, youth are being used as thugs, murderer, arsonist and all short by the money bags and powers that be.

        Unfortunately pathetically, some of them lost their lives in the causes of carrying out this dastard acts. While their pay master children are abroad. Nigeria youth must resist being used by these heartless but also participants in the politics of the country.

        The world service as a positive role for youths, now find joy in killing manning one another. All these and more have made people lost confident in the youth becoming leaders of tomorrow, where in lies their role at their prime age, they have nuisance, miscreants and all sorts. However, we must hasten to say that only paucity of youths indulge in these acts there exist decent ones among them but the saying that if one finger brought it solid others, makes the decent ones unknown. Except through divine intervention, their role stand to be doubtful, however, with tones unknown. Except through divine intervention, their role stand to be doubtful, however, with tones of prayers, all hope is not lost. The role play by youth in Nigeria politics since 1993 to date would be incomplete without giving a positive part of it.

        The agitation for democracy since 1993 to date led the formulation of strong union called Nigeria youths in politics “the aims and objective were, to preserve Nigeria culture and tradition in politics to liberate its people from the yolk of military regime. These and many more were what the union (Nigeria youth in politics) stood for.

        The effects of these budding and ebullient youth coupled democratic government struggle did not go notice. It really yielded fruitfully results as Nigeria got democratic government. Therefore, politics as a game that must be played according to its rules should be seen by youth as a way forward for the country.  As promising future leaders, their roles in Nigeria politics would go along way with responses and confidence in them their opinion could server as guide in Nigeria politics.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In an independent nation like Nigeria, the role of youths in politics since 1993 to date is very low and not encouraging when compared with that is happing in other parts of the world. Youth have not giving more chance to prove their worth. The following problems have been constituted by the researchers.

  • The poor financial strength of the part youth’s has contributed to their low performance in politics.
  • That there is low level of political awareness among the youths.
  • That lack of encouragement makes youths have low perception in involvement in politics.
  • In availability of adequate resource personnel which are specifically designed to develop the interest of the youths in political settings.
A SURVEY ON NIGERIA POLITICS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

          This study investigated the attitude of parents and teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. The independent variables were gender, age place of residence, education status, family type and religion.

          Two hundred respondents (eighty responded among the parents in their places of work while one hundred and twenty respondents among the teachers in the various schools respectively) were randomly selected through  attitude of parents and teachers toward sex education questionnaire (APTTSEQ). Data collected were analysed using frequency count, percentage and t-test.

          The research works revealed that students have high knowledge of sex education. On the comparison, there were no significant differences in the attitudes of teachers and parents toward the teaching of sex education on the basis of sex, age group, education status, family type and religion. However significant difference observed on the basis of location.

          It was recommended that emphasis should be placed on creating awareness on sex education stemming the flood of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. This requires joint effort of parents, teachers, curriculum planners and even government.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS                                                           PAGE

TITLE PAGE                                                                            i

CERTIFICATION                                                                    ii

DEDICATION                                                                         iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                       iv

ABSTRACT                                                                              vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                 vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                    ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                      1

Statement of the Problem                                                      5

Purpose of the Study                                                             8

Research Questions                                                               9

Research Hypotheses                                                             10

Significance of the Study                                                       11

Delimitation of the Study                                                       13

Definition of Terms (Operational Definition)                        14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Consequence of Sexual Activities among Adolescents        17

History of Sex Education                                                       32

Concept and Attitude of Sex Education                               35

Attitude towards Sex Education                                           39

Attitude of Parents towards Sex Education                         39

Attitude of Teachers towards Sex Education                       42

Need for Sex Education                                                         44

Appraisal of the Reviewed Literature                                    52

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                                     54

Population                                                                              55

Sample and Sampling Technique                                          55

Research Instrument                                                             57

Validity of the Instrument                                                      58

Reliability of the Instrument                                        58

Administration of the Instrument                                         59

Method of Data Analysis                                                       60

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Presentation of Results                                                          61

Hypotheses Testing                                                                65

Discussion of the Findings                                                    70

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

   RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                                                73

Conclusion                                                                             75

Implications of the Study                                                      77

Recommendations                                                                 78

Limitations to the Study                                                        80

Suggestion for Further Studies                                             80

REFERENCES                                                                        81

APPENDIX                                                                             84

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:      Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Gender                                                                62

Table 2:      Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Age                                                                   62

Table 3:      Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Residence                                                            63

Table 4:      Distribution of Respondents on the basis

of Educational Status                                         63

Table 5:      Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Family Type                                                     64

Table 6:      Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Religion                                                            65

Table 7:      means, standard deviation and t-test value

of teachers attitude towards the teaching

of sex education on the basis of gender            68

Table 8:      Analysis of variance on the attitude of

teachers towards sex education on the basis of age                           66

Table 9:      Means, standard deviation and the t-test value of the parents towards teaching of sex education on the basis of place of residence                                                             67

Table 10:    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of teachers’ attitude towards the teaching of sex education on the basis of educational status                68

Table 11:    Mean, standard deviation, calculated t-value on the attitude of parents towards sex education on the basis of family type         69

Table 12:    Mean, standard deviation and t-value on attitude of parent towards sex education on the basis of Religion                                      69

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Sex Education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse reproductive heat, emotional relationship and so on. Sex Education may also be described as “sexuality education referring to all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning reproduction (fertilization conception and development of embryo and fetus through child birth).

          Sex education, which is sometimes called sexuality education, is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex. Sex education is about developing young people’s skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, feel confidents and competent about acting on informed choices.

          However, it is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education. This is because it is a means by which they help to protect themselves against abuse, exploitation unintended pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD and HIV). It also argued that providing sex education helps to meet young peoples right to information about matter that affect them.

          With regards to the attitude of parents towards teaching of sex education to their adolescent girls, the issue still remains one that is approached as sacred sex is probably one area  of our lives about which we know so little and whatever little we happen to know are in bits and pieces through sources like friends, acquaintance etc.  As important as sex is in our life’s, parents, elders and teachers in Kwara State and especially in Ilorin Metropolis hardly play any significant role in providing vital knowledge.

          Since talking about sex is more or less a taboo in the Ilorin society the adolescents cannot freely approach his/her parents for guidance. Also, those who seek guidance from parents are not satisfied because they later try to evade discussion or are not able to give satisfactory answers. A few of them try to gather information through books, films not have access to such information. Many times, the ado1lescent receives wrong information and these myths and misconceptions are carried through out their life time.

          Similarly, the rural mothers and the urban mothers feel hesitant towards providing sex knowledge to their children. According to them, the girls can get information through their friends and elder sister. To them sex education should be imparted to girls only on the verge of getting married. The attitude of teachers towards sex education in Ilorin Metropolis can still be described Luke warm goal of sexuality education is the promotion of sexual health by providing learners with opportunities to develop a positive and factual view of sexuality and indeed sexual health. This on the long run contributes in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.

          However, adolescence is a period when young people experience changes in their bodies among which is the development of new sexual feeling, which they may not understand. This is also the period when most of them are in secondary schools or higher institutions they therefore need information about assurance about what is happening to them. Children and teenagers are exposed to a barrage of information related to sexuality which will require guidance from families and schools for health, sexual development and responsible behaviours.

          Besides due to impact of western civilization, there is need to supplement the training of people in the art of family life by their parents and family members with a school based sexuality education programme. This prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1999 through the National Council on Education to Incorporate Sexuality Education into the National School Curriculum. This has generated heated debates especially among parents. There is also the likelihood that even teachers might not perceive sexuality, education in the light of reducing sexual promiscuity and it attendant complication like sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS.

          Despite the perceived benefits, the feared risk of exposure to early sex ranked high among the teachers with the attendant sexual promiscuity as the risk of teaching sexuality education in secondary schools. (Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Trainers Resource Manual Action Health Incorporated 2003: 4- 5), Teachers Attitude to Sexuality Education is varied and was found to be related to some variables such as age and level of education. According to Gordon Dickman (1977), sex education role. New York, public affairs committee stated that age affected the willingness of the teachers to teach sexuality education though not significantly.

          The older teachers may have adolescent children and may be willing to train and impact sexuality knowledge to students as this will help them in teaching their children at home. However, exposure to higher levels of education especially University Education, improves teachers knowledge and attitude towards sexuality education. This was brought to the fore in this study as there was significant relationship obtaining higher professional qualifications and willingness to teach sexuality education.

Statement of the Problem

ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS SEXUAL ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

        The study investigated the attitude of adolescents towards sexual activities in selected secondary schools in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State.

Data were collected from 200 randomly selected students using survey questionnaire on “Attitude of Adolescents toward Sexual Activities Questionnaire.(AASAQ).” Data collected were analysis using frequency counts, percentage and t-test.

        The results indicated that students were influenced by factors such as parents, socio-economic status, age, location and social peer group. The comparison shown that there were significant differences in the factors influencing the premarital sexual activities of students on the basis of age, parents’ occupation and education. But no significant difference was found on the basis of sex.

        On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that parents should conduct themselves in a way to serve as models to their children. They should also create time to guide their children.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS                                                              PAGE

TITLE PAGE                                                             i      

CERTIFICATION                                                       ii

DEDICATION                                                           iii    

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                          iv

ABSTRACT                                                               vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                             vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                      x     

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Problem                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                        8

Purpose of the Study                                               9

General Questions                                                   10

Research Questions                                                 11

Research Hypotheses                                               12

Significance of the Study                                                 12

Delimitation and Scope of the Study                               14

Definition of Terms (Operational Definitions)           14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Moral Issues and Sexual Behaviour                         16

Sexual Activity                                                                 21

Factor Affecting Sexual Activities                             25

Appraisal of the Related Literature                           26

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Type                                                         28

Population                                                               28

Sample and Sampling Procedure                             29

Instrumentation                                                       29

Validity of Instrument                                              30

Reliability of the Instrument                                    31

Administration of the Instrument                            31

Method of Data Analysis                                          31   

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Results                                                                    32

Hypotheses Testing                                                  34

Discussion of the Findings                                      38   

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

  RECOMMENDATION

Summary                                                                 42

Conclusion                                                              43

Implications of the Study                                         44

Recommendations                                                   45

Limitations to the Study                                          46

Suggestion for further studies                                  46

REFERENCES                                                         48

APPENDIX                                                              

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:    Distribution of Respondents by Sex         32

Table 2:    Distribution of Respondents by Age         33

Table 3:    Distribution of Respondents by Parents Occupation      33

Table 4:    Distribution of Respondents by Parental Educational      34

Table 5:    Result of t-test comparing students Responses by Sex   34

Table 6:    Result of t-test Comparing Students Responses by Age         35

Table 7:    Result of t-test Comparing Students Responses by Parental Occupation          36

Table 8:    Result of t-test comparing Students Responses by Parental Education            37

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        “Sexual permssiveness” or what Oshunrinde (1992) called “the growing rate of sexual irresponsibility’s especially among youths” seem to be on the increase. In her own opinion, Adelaya (1986) asserted that modern day Nigerians have made sex one of the most discussed subjects. She also noted that our forefathers pretended as if sex does not exist by placing some taboos on it, whereas modern Nigerians pretend that nothing else exists other than sex.

        Increasing rate of teenage sexual activity can be substantiated by numerous reports of unintended pregnancies, illegal abortion and dumping of unwanted babies (Owuamanam, 1984). According to him, there is also visible evidence of different forms of sexual aberrations among Nigerian youths as demonstrated by cases of prostitution, illegitimacy and sexual exploitation including rape. Owuamanam (1984) explained that the present time can be described as a period of “sex exposition” and “sex permissiveness” Sofola (1990), discussing on the sexual sex as no more sanctity and it is no more a big deal. This is why it happens anywhere, on the lawn, under a tree, in the boot of a car or in the classroom.

        The tragedy of youth sexuality is that young people engage in sexual activities with limited knowledge of what is involved. Providing authentic sex information through counselling and sex education is an aspect of sexuality that ought to engage society’s attention rather than youth’s participation in the activities.

        In the pursuit of education, students leave their home for school and are no longer under the strict supervision of their parents. Most of them get exposed to western life styles more than ever and thus get engaged in premarital sexual affairs which they regard as due marks of civilization. Nigeria youths, according to Elimian (1985), are rarely exposed to sex through pomography in imported films, books, magazine, T.V. without a proper sense of responsibility. One has the feelings that since the advent of various contraceptives, there has been an increasing pressure on female youths to be more casual about sexual relationship.

        According to the result of an intense in-depth survey carried out, premarital and extramarital intercourse is relatively common among Yoruba men and women, with the men reporting consistently more sexual partners and more frequent intercourse than women (Orubuloye, Caldwell and Caldwell, 1991). The investigator commented that this level of sexual networking is so high that the society is dangerously exposed to sexual transmitted diseases.

        The sexual behaviour of youths have been of particular interest and the conception has been that adolescence is a period of intense sexual drive and experimentation (Owuamanam, 1982). However, although Soyinka (1979) was of the view that the “importance of purity” before marriage is fast dying out in Nigeria, Owuamanam (1982) stated that the issue of sexual revolution among Nigerian adolescents is a matter of speculation as a relatively few empirical studies have been carried out on Nigerian adolescents’ sexual behaviours.

        Although, sexuality can be explained within a biological and developmental framework, it is equally important to search for cultural and social correlates. It may therefore be erroneous to view adolescence across cultural and social boundaries and expect to find similar sexual behaviour (Owuamanam, 1982). In fact, as Grinder (1973) rightly pointed out, the meaning of sex for various people depends upon the social context in which it develops. Also, related to this is time or period of studies. The behaviour of an individual one year ago may be different from his behaviour this year. Research evident abounds, indicating that adolescents are changing in their attitudes to sexual behaviour (Coleman, 1980). Essentially, if comparisons are drawn between the attitudes of adolescence today and those of adolescents twenty or thirty years ago, there will be important differences.

        Adolescent of today seem to value sexual activities more than their counterparts in the yesteryears. Conger (1983) observed:

        Of all the developmental events of adolescence, the most dramatic is the increase in sexual drive and the new and often mysterious feelings and thought that accompany integration of sexuality with other aspects of the emerging sense of self without having to undergo too much conflict and anxiety in contemporary society with its changing sex roles and peculiar mixture of permissiveness and prudery. This is not an easy task to master.

        Many adults, according to Kaplan (1983), view adolescent sexuality as behaviour comparable to using illegal drugs. To them (i.e. to the adults), these behaviours are morally wrong, dangerous to the persons involved and are signs of the young person’s rebellion against adults. Adolescents on other hand, see sex as a behaving like adults and exercising their right to explore and understand their own bodies. Adolescent sexuality thus represents another source of conflict with the adults’ society (Owuamanam, 1984). Adolescents find adult sanction against their sexuality difficult to acceptance adults themselves are engaging in the same acts and in fact most often find their sexuality difficult to handle responsibly. The adults too often go against the codes of responsible adults’ sexuality by engaging in extra-marital sexual behaviour.

        As it has been repeatedly stated in this proposal sexual activities among youths appear to be more prevalent today than ever. An increase in liberal attitudes and sexual awareness among teenagers has resulted in the association of our correct teenage population with a “sexual revolution” (Owuamanam 1982). Pregnancy, abortion, contraception and venereal diseases (V.D), and even AIDS/HIV infection are issues in this “revolution”.

        While two declares age, teenagers were reaching reproductive maturity at the age of 17 to 18, which was about the time they were also becoming intellectually mature, today these two events are completely dissociated (Short, 1974). Now, sexual maturity and inset of sexual interests now precede the intellectual maturity.

        Other influential factors that enhance “sexual revolution”, according to Serderowitz and Paxman (1985) Are earlier initiation of sexual activity; social change and modernization including educational opportunities; a lengthening of the socially defined period of adolescence; increase in the percentages of sexually active females particularly unmarried adolescents; delayed age at married; and relaxation of the traditional family’s constraints on sexuality.

Statement of the Problem

ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS SEXUAL ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE

A SURVEY OF THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

        The study surveyed the influence of on the child abuse on academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected students.

A questionnaire was the major instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation.

The results indicated that the respondents were abused by their different parents; no significant relationship was found between child abuse and student’s academic performance when correlated. There is also no significant influence of child abuse on the academic performance of students.

It was recommended that public enlightenment campaign should be carried out on the danger of child abuse.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Nigerian children are faced with many problems. Many of them suffer abuse in various forms such as neglect, abandonment and starvation. Some of them are victims of broken homes and conflict laden families. As a result of this, many of them are brought up in either single parent homes to by guardians.

Nigerians have positive attitudes to having and rearing the children (Oyebanre, 1991). This is because, they are considered as continuation of the family generation. Thus, according to Oyebanre (1991), is the reason why the extended family system serves to safeguard the welfare of its members.

Another reason for having children was to complement the family labour force. Garuba (1998) stated that Africans and Nigerians in particular have many children in order to use them for farming. She pointed out that in olden days, the larger your family members, the larger your extra hands to work in the farm and the healthy the individual would be in. thus, children in traditional society are taken to the farm at very tender age to cultivate the land.

It is also part of the child-rearing pattern to see children in the family as part of economic aspect. This was related by Oyebanre (1991) in two categories.

The first category is an aspect of socialization, she explained this method is a way of socializing children into the commercial activities. Thus, children are sent out to hawk commodities like cigarette, Kola, Water, groundnuts, etc. This is meant to teach the child how to count money, giving and collecting change.

The second category as noted by Oyebanre (1991) are the parents affected by economic recession in order to find alternative source of income, they engage their children to hawk commodities so that they (the children) could raise money to support the family. Others send them out as householders or as a child labourer called errand child (omo onise). In whatever form, the purpose is to work in order to raise money for the family sustenance.

In all enumerated practices, the children could be exposed to abuse, neglect and danger which could have adverse effect on the development of the children. Nwaomu (1990) asserted that many parents in Bendel State engaged their children in child labour and refuse to send them to school. This, according to her was because of the monetary gains which might not be used for the child’s benefit.

Many of these children that were engaged in this form of labour experienced different form of abuse, some were physically abused. Example of this form of abuse was a house mistress who poured kerosene on a house girl was beaten to the extent of being unconscious for alleged neglect of a baby put under her care.

        Daroven (1995) reported that many children had been exposed to work harzard of various forms, children who are sent to engage in street trading have been found to meet with one form of accident or the other. He explained that some of them have been attack by thieves, beaten and money realized from hawking stolen away. Others, particularly girls, have been exposed to danger of sexual abuse leading to unwanted pregnancies and unclaimed child.

        One of the growing concerns in the society seems to be the contribution of child abuse on the behavioural, emotional and living problems of children. All these, according to Gill (1999) are not without adverse effect of child’s development. These include juvenile delinquency, hooliganism, drug abuse, theft, teenage pregnancies, drop out and mass failure in school examinations.

        Adegbite (1991) reported that poor academic performance of children could be attributed to the child’s background. This refers to the home in which the child is raised. He reported studies which found children of professionals, executives and clerics who receive parental support to be as advantage and academically performed better than children who are abused by their parents.

        Personal experience has also shown that children who are abused could find it difficult to adjust to school situation. He could, therefore, found to be habitual late comers, to be always sleeping in the class while others are learning, to always be in short supply of needed school materials and to be among the backward students in the class. It is also the researcher’s opinion that children in this category need assistance in coping with their situations. This is the area of concern for the study.

Statement of the Problem

        Child abuse as one of the social problems plaguing the society could have far reaching effect and constitute block to children’s development. This is because the forms in which most of these children have been abused have prevented them from pursuing normal developmental trends as their colleagues. Thus they face the problem of under development in many areas. (Mustapha, 2002).

        Many secondary school children who were abused face many problems including insufficient time for schooling, destruction from the normal academic programme, insufficient time for rest and denial of opportunity of enjoy as other children. All these could have negative effect on the school going and academic performance of secondary school  students. This is why, these researchers deem it fit to investigate the effects of child abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students.

Purpose of the Study

        The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of child abuse on students academic performance in Ilorin. I also sought to compare differences between academic performance of students on the basis of sex, age, family type and parental education.

General Questions

        What is the influence of child abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin.

Research Hypotheses

        The following hypotheses will be tested in the study:

H01: There is no significant relationship between the influence of child-abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students.

A SURVEY OF THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN KWARA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of Contents                                                     vii

Abstract                                                                   x

CHAPTER ONE

The Historical Background of Local Government in Nigeria   

The Historical Background of Ilorin South

Local Government                                            5

  1.  Purpose of the study                                       5
  2. Statement of the problem                                        6
  3. Significant of the study                                    7
  4. Limitation of the study                                     7
  5. Definition of Terms                                          7

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIW

  • Motivation and consideration of fund and

Revenue Generation in Ilorin South Local

Government                                                     10

  • Method of fund and Revenue Generation        11
  • Objective of fund and Revenue Generation      16
  • Sources of Local Government Revenue            20
  • Strategies for Improvement Revenue

Generation                                                       24

  • Novel and Specific sources value Added Tax    31
  • Application of fund and Revenue Generation 33
  • Problems of Collecting Revenue axes and rate 35

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOD

  • Research Design                                              37
  • Population                                                       37
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques                   38
  • Reliability of the Instrument                            39
  • Validity of the Instrument                                        40
  • Procedure of data analysis                               40

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • Hypothesis One                                               41
    • Hypothesis Two                                                       43
    • Hypothesis Three                                             46

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Finding                                        48
  • Conclusion                                                      49
  • Recommendation                                             50

References                                                       52

Appendix                                                         53

ABSTRACT

        This study focused on critical analysis of local government revenue generation and management in Kwara State. Samples are drawn from the staff of revenue department in Ilorin South Local Government. In this area, variable measured through the administered questionnaire was computed. Using percentage to show the pattern at responses obtained. It was revealed that fund are generated from various sources and used a different things these source and application of fund and revenue generation in Ilorin South Local Government specifically show that the local government generate a lot of fund and revenue from internal sources and spent most of it on the management setup. Based on this conclusion drawn, it was recommended that since the major problem facing local government is inadequate of fund souring. The federal government assistance should be more sought to increase the grant to the local government for them to boadle to embark more capital project this serving as another source of revenue to the government. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA

        Local Government in Nigeria is the third tier of government in Nigeria.

        The aim and objectives of local government are contained in the local government edits No.8 of 1976 of Kwara State of Nigeria gazette extraordinary “No 33” volume 10.

        The edit empower the local government council among other thing to have control over local affairs as well as the staff and institutional and financial power; also to initiate and direct the provision of services to determined and implement project so as to complete the activities of the state and federal government area.

        The responsibilities of local government include the provision of basic needs primary education for their communities and so on all these art leveled in them. Apart from the above stated functions these are others that had been established already.

Function of Local Government

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN KWARA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT

          The study examines the comparative study of students academic performance in economics and commercial in selected Senior Secondary Schools in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State.

          Five research hypotheses were raised and addressed in the study. The research population consists of twelve secondary school in Asa Local Government Area out of five schools were chosen as sampled. SSCE Result for the year 2004, 2005 and Questionnaire was only instrument used for the study. Data collected were analysed using T-Test to find out the differences.

          The results show that lack of interest, non-challant attitudes of students and parents, shortage of teachers as well as un-conducive environment contributed to the factors that hindered the performance of students in both economics and commerce.

          Based on the findings, it was recommended that the recruitment and retention of qualified teachers in commerce and economics must be given priority attention. Also, the government and school authorities should provide enough classroom with learning materials to avoid congestion as well as motivates the teachers by improving on their condition of service.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                           i

Approval Page                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                             vii

Table of Contents                                                                               viii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                       1

Background to the Study                                                                    1

Purpose of the Study                                                                          3

Statement of the Problem                                                                   4

Significance of the Study                                                                    4

Research Questions                                                                           6

Limitation of the Study                                                                       6

Definition of Terms                                                                             7

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature                                                               9

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design Adopted                                                                   19

Population                                                                                          18

Sample Selection                                                                                18

Validity of the Instrument                                                                   18

Data Collection                                                                                   19

Data Analysis                                                                                     19

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussion                                                                       20

Discussion of Findings                                                                        30

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary                                                                                           32

Conclusion                                                                                         33

Recommendation                                                                               33

References                                                                                         36

Questionnaire                                                                                    38

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          In the community, people are engaged in a number of activities from which they earn some income. Professionals such as Lawyers, Accountants and Teachers, while other professional activities and some in the factories which produced goods and services such as matches, shoes and clothes. These activities are often referred to as Economics activities, every economic activity which involved uncertain element such as human effort, choices of alternatives or other use of what may be termed material resource and a system of exchange.

What is Economics?

          In consideration of the element inherent in Economics activities which economists have come up with various definition of Economics, for instance.

          Daven, H.J. in (2001) says that economics is a subject that treats phenomenal from the stand point of price.

          This definition emphases on exchange and seeks to explain that economic deal with things that have a price value, which implies that for any commodity or services to be impart of an economic they may have a price attached to its generally speaking which means that economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

What is Commerce?

          Commerce ban be defined according to Adeyeye, I.A. (2001) as an inter-disciplinary field of knowledge which help us to understand some other topics in accounting and mathematics to mention but few.

          Commerce theory is just as a school discipline. That is being constantly resorted by the frequent change characterize with the purpose of contents, over the year such as body of knowledge require distinct and specific methods or strategies of importing into learners.

          Commerce is a practical subject, but it has a close connection with the theory of economics and it knowledge of fundamental concepts of this subject is necessary for an understanding of the subject.

          Commerce can also be seen as an exchange of items of value between persons or companies. At exchange of money for a produce, services of information is considered a deal of commerce.

          Lastly, commerce was generally aspects of the exchange of production, distribution, buying and selling of goods and service from one place to another.

Purpose of Study

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED (‘OZAKI’)

ABSTRACT

This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean (i.e. ‘Ozaki’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction / leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1.      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy, 1994).

According to Rajagopal   et al.   (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of  engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu   is found  mainly  in  the  South-East  of  Nigeria  and  is  not  an  exception.  This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable.Fossil  fuels are not  only costly in terms  of price but are also  costly to  the  environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result.   Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth inspecific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.

Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand. Demand, however, by the food industry alone is not secure for many developing countries like Ghana that depend on imports of vegetable oil and fossil fuels. In order to meet the required amounts needed by all industries, these fats and oils must be available in large quantities locally with an effective extraction process at an affordable cost. The ability of a particular oilseed to fit into the growing industries depends on its utilization potential, rate of production, availability and ease of the processing technology. Thus while some oilseeds are being largely
utilized in the oil processing industries, quite a number of oilseeds are under-exploited.

Generally, oils and fats from seeds and nuts constitute an essential part of man’s diet. Fats and oils, together with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, are the main nutrients required by the human body. Fats and oils are rich sources of energy, containing two and a half times the calories of carbohydrates (per unit weight). In addition to being a source of vitamins A, D, E and K, fats and oils also contain essential fatty acids. These essential fatty acids are not manufactured by the body and must be obtained from diets, with linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids as examples of unsaturated fatty acids (NRI, 1995).

Modern  processing  of  vegetable  oils  yields  valuable  products  such  as  oleo chemicals. Oleo chemicals are now largely being used in the manufacture of many industrial products, namely building auxiliaries, candles, detergents and cleaning agents, cosmetics, fire-extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food emulsifiers, insecticides, lubricants, paints, paper, medicine and chemicals. The meal or cake is used in the formulation and preparation of livestock feeds and food additives.

The production of oil plants takes third place in the world production in terms of value, after starchy plants and fruits, and ahead of beverages and stimulants. Edible seeds and nuts noted for their oil contents include palm nut, coconut, soya bean, olive, groundnut, sunflower seed, and cottonseed, while non-edible seeds and nuts include  jatropha  seed,  neem  seed,  and  castor  bean.  Moreover,  bean  oil  has strengthened its dominant role among fats and oils produced based on its quality and nutritional grade.   Bean oil contains linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids that are found  in  many  plant  oils.  Shortage  of  these  fatty  acids  leads  to  deficiency symptoms especially in growing children and animals. Bean oil has the highest
content of lecithin  (1.1-3.2%) which is a surface-active compound used as an emulsifier in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and other industries (Sigmund and Gustav, 1991).

Among the industries that use oils and fats from oilseeds, apart from the food industry,   are   the   beauty,   pharmaceuticals,   aromatherapies,  building   and construction, and the petroleum industry.

1.2. Problem Statement

Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.

Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to meet  the  demands  of  our  local  consumer  industries;  therefore,  it  becomes necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to

a.  Find the percentage composition of oil in the bean seed

b. To determine the effect of particle size on the yield of the oil.

1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Exploitation of fruits and seeds as a source of oil can help to reduce oil costs by diversifying the sources for this commodity. Data generated from this study will benefit industries for production of oils for various purposes.

In addition the content and composition of fatty acids of plant seed oils can serve as plants taxonomic markers.

1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH

Some factors and benefits of bean (“Ozaki, Ijiliji or Azamu”) oil make the research worthwhile;

1      The bean is readily available.

2       Oil from this particular bean is medicinal and applicable in pharmaceutical

industries.

3        Small scale industries coming up as a result of oil extraction can reduce

unemployment.

4      It can attract foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria.

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED (‘OZAKI’)

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS IN SOME SELECTED CEREALS

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and proximate composition of different cereals (maize, millet and rice).Two different samples each sold in two different markets (Ogbete and Gariki) in Enugu, were used for this work, using atomic, absorption spectrophotometer. The heavy metal screening of the cereal samples showed the presence of arsenic in the range of 0.456ppm-0.955ppm but was not detected in sample E and f which are the two different rice I purchased from Ogbete market, then mercury in the range of 0.024ppm-0.124ppm, lead in the range of  0.554ppm-1.083ppm, cadmium in the range of 0.087ppm-0.565ppm, copper in the range of 0.050ppm-0.245ppm and zinc in the range of 1.448ppm-66.954ppm which is the highest and is discussed. The result of proximate composition analysis indicated ash: 1.0%-19.0%, moisture: 8.6%-12.6%, fat: 0.2%-20.0%.

                CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0          BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cereals are enriched with niacin, iron, riboflavin and thiamine, and most cereals have abundant fiber content, especially barley, oat, and wheat. Cereals also have soluble bran that aid in lowering blood cholesterol level and keeping heart diseases at bay. Cereals consumption also means an intake of high amounts of protein; breakfast cereals are often eaten with milk that makes for a protein-rich meal. For infants, iron-fortified cereals are said to be the premium solid food.

A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crop.

In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing nations, grains in form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily substance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The growth of civilizations, or development in the human diet patterns, the cultivation of cereal grains has played a significant role. The word ‘cereal’ is derived from ‘ceres’- the name of the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest. It is said that almost 12,000 years ago, ancient farming communities dwelling in the Fertile Crescent area of southwest Asia cultivated the first cereal grains. The first Neolithic founder crops that actually initiated the development of Agriculture include einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barley. Cereals are the important sources of many essential or beneficial components to the human diet. For example, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK showed that cereal products contributed 29/30% of the total daily energy intake of adult males/females, 22/21% of the intake of protein  and 39/37% of the intake of non starch polysaccharides (the major components of dietary fiber, DF) (NDNS, 2011).

Cereals are probably the greatest source of energy for humans. Providing almost 30% of total calories in a regular diet, cereals are probably the most widely consumed caloric food in America. This percentage rises in places like rural Africa, Asia and India where cereals are reported to supply almost 70 to 80% of energy requirements (since people in these regions cannot afford to eat other food product like fruits, vegetables, meat, or milk products. Cereals are inexpensive and a widely available source of energy; this is probably the prime reason why people from all budgets prefer cereals as the major energy provider in their diet. Cereal intake tends to be quite high almost poor income families as they attain good amount of energy through mineral expenditure.

In cereal, around 95% of minerals are the sulphates and phosphates of magnesium, potassium and calcium. A good amount of phosphorous in cereals is present, called phytin. The phylates present in the cereals considerably reduce the activity of iron absorption. The unrefined cereals have more phytates as compared to refined cereals.  After the cereals germinate, phytates diminish due to the breakdown of enzymes, and then the iron content is enhanced. This is the reason why molted flours of cereals are said to have more nutritional value than raw flour. Zinc, copper and manganese are also present in cereals in very small quantities. Cereals hardly have and calcium and iron, but ragi is an exception to this. Amongst cereals, rice is the poorest source of calcium and iron. Ragi, millets, jowar and bajra have high amounts of minerals and fiber.

Whole wheat products reduce the chances of breast cancer. Cereals are rich in phytosterols or plant based steroids plant estrogen that stimulates hormone estrogen. Phytosterols binds to estrogen receptors present in the tissues of the breast and blocks human oestrogen that promotes the growth of breast cancer. many studies have shown that colon cancers can be avoided by consuming whole wheat products or any fiber-rich cereals. Phytosterols increase the stool movement through the intestines, thereby constricting the re-absorption time of the estrogen into the blood through the colon wall.

Cereals have both soluble and insoluble fibers like cellulose, pectin, and hemicellulose. These fibers are present in the bran and pericarp, which often gets demolished while processing, thus it is advisable to consume whole cereals to cure extreme constipation troubles. Cereals also effectively improve peristalsis in the intestine and increase the bulk of the stools, thus keeping your internal system clean. Ragi is high in cellulose and has excellent laxative properties that relieve constipation. Brown rice is also helpful for treating this disorder.

The fiber content in cereals decreases the speed of glucose secretion from food, thereby maintaining sugar levels in the blood.

Proteins are present in every tissue of the cereal grain. the concentrated protein-rich areas are scutellum, embryo and alleurone layer and moderate amount can be found in the endosperm, pericarp and testa. The concentration of proteins becomes denser in the endosperm from the center to the borderline. The cereal protein are of different types; like albumins, prolamines gliadins, globulins and glutelins. These type of proteins are called ‘’gluten’’ protein. This gluten has extraordinary elasticity and mobile properties mainly present in wheat grain, but also in some other types of cereals. Cereals usually have 6-12% protein but lack in lysine. The protein content varies in each type of cereals. For instance, rice contains less protein in comparison to other cereals. In fact, the protein percentage even varieties with different varieties of the same cereals. Although less in amount, the quality of rice protein is better than the protein of other cereals. When you consume cereals with pulses, the protein quality automatically improves, owing to the mutual supplementation. Pulses have high lysine content and are deficient in methionine; on the other hand cereals have an abundance of methionine.

Recent research suggests that greater consumption of vegetable, whole grain products and fruits may lower the risk of multimorbidity. If you are suffering from a deficiency in the vitamin B complex, add whole grain cereal to your diet. Most of the vitamins of cereals are present in the outer bran, but the refining process usually reduces the vitamin B content, and thus it is advisable to consume whole grain cereals. Cereals are usually devoid of either vitamin A or vitamin C; only maize has small amounts of carotene. The cereal grains are processed to extract oils that are rich in vitamin E. Rice bran oil has more concentrated amounts of vitamin E than other oils available on the market. Cereals grains are rich in enzymes, particularly protease, amylase, lipases and oxido-reductases. After the seed germinates, amylase actively increases. The germ encloses the protease enzymes. Cereals are undoubtedly full of nutrition, but unfortunately, the refining process degrades their quality. The degree of milling, polishing and refining to some extent decides the nutrition content of cereals. Some nutrients are lost during food preparation, especially vigorous washing, soaking and cooking methods, which results in the depletion of the nutrients on the skin of the grains. Heavy metal of cereals cannot be underestimated as these foodstuffs are important component of human diet. However, heavy metal contamination of food items is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance (Marsshall, 2004; Radwan and Salama 2006; and Khan et al., 2008).

Though heavy metals are naturally present in soil, geology and anthropogenic activities increase the concentration to a harmful mount (chibuike and obiora, 2014). In many ways living plants can be compared to solar driven pumps which can extract and concentrate several elements from their environment. From the soil, all plants have the ability to accumulate heavy metals which are essential for their growth and development like magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum and nickel (Langille and Maclean, 1976) certain plant also have the ability to accumulate heavy metals which have no biological function. These include cadmium, chromium, silver, selenium, and mercury (Hanna and Grant, 1962: Baker and Brooks, 1989). it is also well known that the growth and economic yield of plants is significantly depressed when they are raised on soils contaminated with heavy metals (Foy et al., 1978; Lepp, 1981; Woolhouse,1983).

The prolonged consumption of unsafe concentrations of heavy metals through foodstuffs may lead to the chronic accumulation of heavy metals in the kidney and liver of humans causing disruption of numerous biochemical processes, leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases (WHO,1992 and Jarup, 2003).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Metals have important and wide ranging role in biochemistry, being both essential and toxic (Guengerich 2009). Deficiency of micronutrient in soils and plant is a global nutritional problem as the major food staples are highly susceptible to such deficits (Imtiaz et al. 2010) for example, essentiality of Zn in the diet and its deficiency in humans was recognized in 1963 (Prasad 2012). However among all the environmental stresses, the effect of the metal accumulation has been considered one of the most disturbing factors arising in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies (Azevedo et al. 2012) in addition to their essentiality for plant growth and human nutrition, some micronutrients may also be toxic to animals, including humans, at high concentrations (Wang et al 2008). For example, Cu or Zn. An important component of seed quality is its chemical composition, including the concentration of micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, and Cu (Waters and Sankaran 2011). Clearly, plants are the first step of a metal’s pathway from the soil to heterotrophic organisms such as animals and humans, so the micronutrient content in their edible parts makes a major contribution to human intake. Zhao and McGrath (2009) suggested that micronutrient in humans and environmental contamination with heavy metals or metalloids are both global and challenging problems that require concerted efforts from researchers in multiple disciplines, including plant biology, plant breeding as well as biotechnology, nutrition and environmental sciences, such as soil fertility and chemistry.

In this review, can we continue with the intake of cereals? Or is it still possible to provide an overview of data regarding micronutrients concentration in the grain of some important cereals published in the last two decades, as well as the prevailing opinions on their plant-driven entry into the food chain.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

The aim of this study is to characterize some cereals for their level of some extracted heavy metal contamination.

 The specific objectives:

  • To check for the level of extracted heavy metals in the selected cereals
  • To determine the proximate composition of the cereals
  • To compare the levels of heavy metals in different selected cereals
  • LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The study is limited to availability of very dried cereals in the market due to rain because is rainy season at the time of the research

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS IN SOME SELECTED CEREALS

SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTS OF SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA ON COUPLES, CAUSES AND PREVENTION. (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTS OF SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA ON COUPLES, CAUS

ABSTRACT

A survey design was carried out in Enugu-South Local Government Area of Enugu State to find out the Secondary School students perception of the Effects of Sickle Cell anaemia on married couples causes and prevention.

The questionnaire was the instrument used in obtaining data for answering the research questions from nine hundred students who were the subjects.

The cluster percents were used to analyze and answer the research questions.

This findings revealed that:-

The students have high perception of the existence of sickle cell anaemia but with low perceptions on:-

Ø   The acquisition of sickle cell anaemia,

Ø   The management of sickle cell anaemia

Ø   The implication of Sickle Cell anaemia on married couples

Based on the findings, it was recommended that:-

Ø   Principals of Secondary Schools through their Biology teachers and Guidance and Counselling Unit of their schools should teach the students more on the Genetic unit of Biology.

Ø   Government should give public lectures on Sickle Cell anaemia through the National Orientation Agency (NOA).

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction

Lonergan, Cline, Abbondazo (2001) defined sickle cell anaemia as a chronic, genetic and hemolytic disease peculiar to the negro race due to homozygous inheritance of an abnormal haemoglobin and resulting in a variation in the structure of the globins. According to Claster and Vichinsky (2003), “Sickle Cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affect the red blood cells”. People with sickle cell disease have red blood cells that contain mostly haemoglobin ‘S’, which is an abnormal type of haemoglobin. Sometimes, these red blood cells become sickle-shaped (crescent shaped) and have difficulty passing through small blood vessels.

Umeh (1996) explained further that when, sickle-shaped cells block small blood vessels, less blood can reach that part of the body. Tissue that does not receive a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged because; the function of the normal red blood cell is to transport oxygen with the help o f haemoglobin. Claster (2004) disclosed that sickle cell trait (AS) is an inherited

condition in which both haemoglobin A and S are produced in the red blood cells, always more of A than S sickle cell trait is not a type of sickle cell disease, people with sickle cell trait are generally healthy.

As stated in Sarojini (1998), the sickle haemoglobin is inherited according to Mendelian laws as autosomal recessive character. The homozygous individual for sickle cell haemoglobin are designated as “SS” while the heterozygous individuals are designated as “AS” and are said to have the sickle cell trait or are carriers. Homozygous individual for normal haemoglobin are designated as “AA”.

According to Mendelian laws as cited in vermar (2004), if carriers (AS), marries each other they will probably produce a sickler (SS) in line with the Mendelian ratio 1(SS): 2(AS): 1(AA). In Umeh (2004), “for a person to become a sickler, he must inherit the gene for the sickle cell in a double recessive condition”. A person who inherits the recessive gene from both parents suffers from sickle cell anaemia. In this disease condition, the red blood cells contains less haemoglobin and therefore carry less volume of oxygen to the living cells and hence the loss of energy in the sufferers. The distorted shape of the red blood cells hiders free flow of blood in the vessels resulting in severe pain experienced by sufferers. Mak and Davies (2003), explained that the sickled cells are rapidly destroyed, the patient becomes anaemic, the bone marrow becomes over active in an attempt to build new red blood cells. This causes severe pains on the bones, severe anaemia causes the weakness of the heart; this could lead to heart failure. Umeh (1996), decleared that generally, there is a poor, physical development and the individual is usually very weak, life is miserable and where there is no proper medical attention the patient dies in his youthful age. According to styles and Wright (2005), the sickle cells also block the flow of blood through vessels resulting in lungs tissue damage (acute chest syndrome), pain episodes (arms, legs, chest and abdomen). It also causes damage to most organs including the spleen kidneys and liver. Damage to the spleen makes sickle cell disease patients especially young children easily overwhelmed by certain bacterial infections.

So far there seems to be no known cure for sickle cell anaemia this disease can only be prevented by giving the individual who wish to marry, genetic counselling. Blood tests are usually carried out to determine the genotype of couples wishing to marry. Such tests are usually done in hospitals. A carrier of the gene “SS” can protect his children by marrying an “AA” individual. In this case, their children are either AA or AS all of whom are healthy. Umeh (2004).

In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, Hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusion in adult patient with sickle cell disease. Droxia, the prescription form of hydroxyurea was approval by the FDA in 1998 and is now available for adult patient with sickle cell anaemia. Studies will now be conducted to determine the proper dosage for children. Taylor, Carter. Poulose (2004).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In some secondary schools, students believe that sickle cell anaemia is a curse, which some children inherited from their parents. Some explained that this disease could be caused due to the existence of witches and wizards (Ogbanje) in the societies. Some students also said/explained further, that the sins of the forefathers are the causes of sickle cells anaemia, that any child who suffers from such disease has to be avoided so as to infect them with the disease. This study has the problem of ascertaining the perception of the secondary school students of sickle cell anaemia and awareness of the implication of sickle cell anaemia on married couples.

        PURPOSE OF STUDY

The general aim of this study is to establish the level of perception of sickle cell anaemia and the effect on couple among the secondary school in Enugu south Local Government Area of Enugu State. Specifically, the study will;

a)   Access how far the students know of the existence of sickle cell anaemia.

b)   Access, how much the students know on the disease as regards, what the disorders are, how it is acquired and how it is prevented or cured.

c)   Determine how far the students know their genotype and whether it would affect marital relationship and birth of children with the diseases.

d)   Access the awareness of the students about the implications of sickle cell anaemia on married couples.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

There are benefits obtainable from this study if the result of the study is properly utilized because this research work will educate the societies on the checking of genotype among individual to prevent sickle cell anaemia in the society. The study will also help in the reduction of the number of divorces by creating awareness of checking of genotype before marriage. This will also help in reduction of pre-mature death of children as a result of sickle cell disease and also help in the choice of life partners.

These research work will educate the secondary school students on the disease, by creating awareness on how the disease called sickle cell anaemia came about, how it can prevent and exposing them on checking their genotype and also this will make them to know if they are carrier or not.  

SCOPE

These stretches out to investigate on all the secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State. A total number of 5 (five) schools will be investigated on their perception of the effects of sickle cell anaemia on couples.

RESEARCH QUESTION

The following guided the study

v   To what extent are the students aware of the existence of sickle cell anaemia?

v   To what extent do student know how sickle cell is acquired?

v   To what extent has the student know about the management of the disorder?

v   To what extent are the students aware of the implication of sickle cell anaemia to married couples?

SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTS OF SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA ON COUPLES, CAUSES AND PREVENTION. (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTS OF SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA ON COUPLES, CAUS

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF PERSEA AMERICANA AVOCADO PEAR PEEL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Medicinal plants are plants which contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. The medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. Medicinal plant have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective methods of using plants’ parts(e.g. seeds, stems, leaves, roots, peel, bark etc) for the treatment of many diseases affecting humans. Many important drugs used in medicine today are directly or indirectly derived from plants due to its bioactive constituents such as; alkaloids, steroids, tannins e.t.c. (Hill, 1952).

In recent years, secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as sources of medicinal agents. Thus is anticipated that photochemical with adequate antimicrobial efficacy will be use for treatment of bacterial infections.

The avocado (PerseaAmericana) belongs to the Lauraceaefamily of tropical and Mediterranean trees and shrubs; other members of this family include: laurel, cinnamon, safaris and green-heart (a timber of the Guiana’s). The avocado is thought to have originated from Mexico and Central  South America; for thousands of years and till today, it has been a popular food in those places. In the mid 17th Century, they were introduced to West Africa, Mauritius and India.

The world is facing explosive increase in resistant strains of microorganisms. It poses a serious challenge to primary health care in un developing countries, with negative consequences on the economy. Antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin which used to have a high efficacy against bacteria species and strains, have become less effective, due to the increased resistance of many bacteria.

Previous and recent studies have shown that the leaf, back and seed extract of avocado pear (P. americana) are rich sources of photochemical such as saponins, steroids, alkaloids, as such a source of  (Idriset al 2010. and Ilozueet al, 2014). However information on antimicrobial effect of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu is scanty. Therefore this works aims to determine and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu.

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF PERSEA AMERICANA AVOCADO PEAR PEEL

DETERMINATION OF OCCURENCE OF NITRIFYING BACTERIA IN A FRESHWATER FISHPOND OF CIRCULATORY AQUAPONICS SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia into nitrite, followed by the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate by small groups of autotrophic bacteria and Achaea. NH3 removal is beneficial to the plant system as build up is dangerous. Presence and activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in freshwater fishpond of a circulating aquaponics system was examined in respect to random points in the aquaponics system (the fish tank, the bio-filter, and the line supplying water to the plants). The samples FT4, FT6, BF5, BF6, BF1, LN1, LN2, and LN3 were all rod-like in shape, when viewed with 40 objective light compound microscope.While samples BF7 and FT7 were both circular in shape. samples FT4, FT6, FT7, BF5, BF6, BF1, LN1, LN2 and LN3 retained their primary dye ( blueblack colouration). Sample BF7 retained its secondary colour (pink colouration). , samples FT4, FT5, LN2, LN3, LN1 were all in chains. Samples FT6, BF6, and BF1 were spaced. Samples BF7 FT7 were clustered together. From the statistical analysis, it was deduced that nitrifying bacteria can be isolated from any point in the aquaponics unit. Most nitrifying bacteria were discovered to have good yield of plasmid DNA. The potential

nitrification activities and oxidation rates were shown to be linear and activity of ammonia-oxidizingand nitriteoxidizing bacteria was highest in samples from the bio-filter.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Most of the nitrogen available to the biosphere exists as N2 in the atmosphere, and is not useful to most organisms until it is “fixed” either biologically or abiotically (by lightning or aurorae, or industrially). Once it is fixed into NH3, usually it is either assimilated and transformed into organic N or nitrified into NO3-. (NASA-Amens 1996). Nitrification is the process by which ammonia is converted to nitrites (NO2-) and then nitrate (NO3-). This process naturally  occurs in the environment, where it is carried out by specialized bacteria (Remay, 2000). The bacteria that carry out nitrification are called “Nitrifying bacteria” (AOBs and NOBs).

In the environments with high inputs of a nutrient such as freshwater fish ponds, mineralization of organic substances as a result of over-feeding and excretion increases the ammonia concentration which is harmful to fish and shrimp (Goldman et al., 1985). Since microbial processes affect water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium, nitrite, nitrate etc. (Moriarty, 1996), hence bacteria in ponds play important role in maintaining the water column chemistry (Vibha, 2011).

Aquaponics is the integration of a hydroponic plant  production system with a recirculating aquaculture system. In a simple aquaponic system, nutrient-rich effluent from the fish tank flows through filters (for solids removal and biofiltration) and then into the plant production unit before returning to the fish tank (Christopher, 2015).

Ammonia becomes toxic to plants at certain concentration. This toxicity ranges from causing stunted growth in the plant to inhibiting germination of the seedling (Brain, 2014).

The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of nitrifying bacteria (Ammonia oxidizing bacteria [AOB] and Nitrite oxidizing bacteria [NOB]), in relation to the plants ability to utilize the ammonia produced from fresh-water fishpond in an aquaponic system in National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA) Abuja.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In large urban areas, conventional agriculture is almost impossible, and this is as a result of lack of space for establishment of agricultural field. And it has consequently resulted to unsustainable supply of fresh, local, organic produce.

    Aquaponics system which should have provided a reliable answer to the problem also has a little challenge on its own. Ammonia is produced by the fish’s respiratory system and is discharged through their gills. Buildup of ammonia in the fish tank eventually kill them (dead fishes will also produce ammonia). Also buildup of ammonia concentration in the system becomes toxic to the plant, such as causing stunted growth (Brain, 2014). Introduction of Nitrifying bacteria can help shorten the lag phase in starting up aquaponics system, which usually pose loss of resources and frustration on beginners.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The general objective of the study is to determine if there are ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria NOB in Fresh water pond of Aquaponics system in NABDA Abuja. The specific objectives include;

  1. Isolation of bacteria from the fresh water fishpond of aquaponics system in NABDA.
  2. To identify ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)  associated with aquaponics system .
  3. To identify specific locations of these bacteria in the culture system.
  4. To identify and characterize these bacteria.

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDIES

Under the auspices of this study, microbial work was carried out in the aspect of isolation of the organisms from the fishpond and gram-identification of the isolates.

Also a biochemical test will be carried out to evaluate the nitrifying potential of the isolates.

Molecular work will be also done by isolating plasmids from the bacteria.

Then a Nano technique will be used to quantify the concentration of the plasmids per isolate, using a Nano-drop spectrophotometer.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research work will provide information on the presence and types of bacteria or a bacteria culture in the Aquaponics or hydroponics system. Also the work will explore the plasmids available in the bacteria for future use in recombinant DNA technology for cloning and possibly in bio-remediation.

DETERMINATION OF OCCURENCE OF NITRIFYING BACTERIA IN A FRESHWATER FISHPOND OF CIRCULATORY AQUAPONICS SYSTEM

PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT OWNER CORPORATIONS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Management is said, to be the heart and engine of any organization.

Campbell and Gregg (1957) defined Management as a “distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling the work of others performed to determine and accomplish objectives”.  It is pertinent to state that no worthwhile organization can grow beyond the managerial competencies of the said organization.

        Nigeria, being one of the developing countries in the world is yet to provide enough social amenities to her citizenry inspite of the abundant human and material resources at her disposal.  Specifically, all the efforts of government towards the provision of water to all the nooks and crannies in the country have not yielded any good fruit principally because of lack of ineptitude, law technological progress, low labour productivity, lack of unity of purpose and under funding in our public corporations.  The most worrisome of all these is that the management cadre which is a sine qua non for any organizational success is lacking in Nigeria.

        The 1999 constitution on the Federal Republic of Nigeria Stated that,

        The State shall control the national economy in such manner as to secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every citizen on the basis of social justice and equality of status and opportunity.

        A cursory look at this citation from the constitution reveals that the government owes it as a duty to provide functional social amenities to its citizens.  A situation whereby a good number of Nigerians live without safe water is an aberration and shear mockery of an ideal democratic government.  Water is essential to human progress, happiness, industry and soon.  The efforts of our dear Enugu State Water Corporation leaves much to be desired when it comes to the issue of quantity and quality distribution of water to the corporation needs to sit up and face the challenges with dispatch.

        The corporation should as a matter of public urgency understand and work towards the popular Maxim which says that water is life and life is water.  Life without Safe Water is misery.

        It is against this background that the research intends to investigate the perennial management problems in Enugu State Water Corporation with a view to finding lasting solutions to them.

1.1   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ENUGU

STATE WATER CORPRATION

Just like any public corporation globally, Enugu State Water Corporation was established to render essential services to the people.  It is charged principally with the responsibility of generating and supplying water to all the inhabitants of Enugu State.  The Corporation was established to serve the water needs of the populace.  Its major target was never profit making.

        Historically, Enugu State Water Corporation was established by Edict No. 16 of 1978 with the following zones:  Onitsha, Abakaliki, Awka, Nsukka, Udi, Aguata, Nnewi, Ihiala and the headquarter – Enugu, Enugu state Water Corporation has its root in the Olde Anambra State from which Enugu State was later carved out in August 27th, 1991.

The corporation should aim at:

(a)         provision of pipe –borne water to all the pants of Enugu State:

(b)        provision of materials necessary for its operation;

(c)        generation of revenue for the government and for the up keep of its plant and staff.

(d)        Installation of pipe-born water system to deserving customers;

(e)         Maintenance and service of burst pipes and the like.

However, for the corporation to achieve the above stated loft objectives it requires efficient and prudent management so as to be able to utilize effectively all the  available human and material resources.  The importance of a well articulated managerial machinery in any given organization cannot be underestimated.  Management in the corporation includes staff personnel administration, piscal policies, plant management, recruitment, discipline, retention, promotion and placement of staff.  Consequently, Ojo (1990) defined administration as a process of directing, planning, organizing, co-ordinating and supervising the activities of members of an organization such as the water corporation so that the aims and objectives of the organization will be achieved. Absence of administration in any social group invites anarchy and disaster.

The Enugu State Water Corporation has its headquarters at No. 3 constitution Road, G.R.A Enugu.  It receives monthly subvention from the Enugu State Government.  Some of the statutory organs of the corporation include:  commercial Department, Finance and Supplies, Engineering, Administration, maintenance, public relations.

Though, the corporation is  not geared towards profit

Maximization, it is expected that at least, it breaks even government spends substantial amount of money in the day to day running of the organization.  By so doing, employment opportunities are ensured and the economy is indigenized.  All these ventures are designed to improve the living standards of the populace of Enugu State.

PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT OWNER CORPORATIONS

AN ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTERISED SYSTEM AS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR FRAUD MINIMIZATION IN NIGERIAN BANKS

ABSTRACT

 Banks play a very significant role and are a key infrastructure of the financial sector of any economy. The efficiency of the banking sector in a way determines the reliability of the economy.

The banking business is replete with lots of risks. Of all the risks faced by banks, fraud risks are the most pervasive and most destabilizing to banks. Fraud results in the largest source of losses to banks in Nigeria and also the largest single cause of bank failures.

Because of the magnitude of these losses and the level of their impact on banking operations is the only main reason for this research study. Recently, the incidence of frauds has got the attention of all and sundry and has been the focus of the government’s attention. Therefore, the study aimed at examining how computers can be used for detecting fraud in the banks operations especially towards enhancing fraud minimization in Nigeria using UBA Plc. as a case study.

Together, the data for this study, both interviews and questionnaire methods were used. And the data collected was analyzed using simple statistic techniques of percentages, averages, etc. the information generated was used in formulating recommendations that are intended to help banks appreciate the use of computers in their banking operations as deliberate effective measures towards minimizing or preventing fraud in bank operations in the banking industry in Nigeria.

It is hope that when such measures are implemented will

enhance banks stability survival and more profitability in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY

Fraud can be described as a conscious premeditated action of a person or a group of persons with the intention of altering the truth and or fact for selfish personal monetary gain. It involves the use of deceit and trick and sometimes highly intelligent cunning and known-how. The action usually takes the form of forgery, falsification of documents and authorizing signatures of employees’ as well as customers engaging in fraudulent practices in the banking sector. The existence of frauds in our banks is not uncommon or unexpected phenomenon, because of all the problems confronting the Nigerian banking industry.

The level of frauds in the banking industry of the Nigerian economy has assumed epidemic dimensions causing devastating effects. Which leads to loss of assets and denting of image.

Thus losses resulting from frauds will reduce the resources of the bank thereby reduce level of resources crippling the operations of the bank affected and in some cases the bank may be forced to close down its banking operation for lack of adequate funds. When such asituation arises, it will led to loss of confidence in the affected and also reduced customers patronage.

Therefore, if banks are to be well protected, they must build basic defense, pattern into their everyday operations, through the computerization of its activities or operations.

Also, banking distress occurs when a bank or some banks in the system experience ililiquidility or insolvency resulting in a situation where depositors fear the loss of their deposits and a consequent break down of contractual obligations. While a bank is said to be illiquid when it could no longer meet its liabilities as they mature for payment, it is said to be insolvent when the value of its realizable assets is less than the total value of its liabilities (a case of “Negative net worth”). These could lead to bank runs as depositors lose confidence in the system and seek to avoid capital loss. The uncertainty generated as a result of distress in banking institutions, if left unchecked, often raises real interest rates, creates higher costs of transactions and disrupts the payment mechanism with the attendant economic consequence.

Those factors examined here lead some banks into financial distress character by poor asset quality, uliquidity, under capitalization and insolvency. For example on July 6th 2004 the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Governor Professor Charles Soludo announced the re-capitalization reforms that included among other provisions that existing banks must have N25 billion capital asset by

December 31, 2005. this reform will make some banks either to be acquired by bigger and stronger banks or fold up its activities.

In summary, computerization as an effective strategy can be used for minimization of fraudulent activities in the Nigerian Banking Sector.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Nigerian Banking Industry seemed to be one of the most profitable within the Nigerian Economy. However, the banks in the course of proving their banking services face the risks of loosing their money through fraudulent practices thereby destabilizing its operation. Therefore, fraudulent practices is one of the largest source of losing money by banks in Nigeria and it is also the largest single causes of bank failure because of its magnitude of impact on banks operation.

AN ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTERISED SYSTEM AS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR FRAUD MINIMIZATION IN NIGERIAN BANKS