STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

ABSTRACT

         This report gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Ilorin, Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the studio and studio terminologies.

            Chapter three is about light use in production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and possible solution.      

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION TO SIWE

       The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.

      The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs department of the establishment.

1.1               BACKGROUND OF SIWES

The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.

      The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the educational environment or institution.

       However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country, in accordance with the education policy of the government.      

1.2               OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The objectives of the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:

  •    It improves student’s knowledge about the industrial sector or organization.
  •    It enable the student to practicalised different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
  •    It relates the student to the labor market and how it’s being operated.
  •     It also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
  •     It enable student to know more the technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or involved.
  •     It enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.

 1.3     Description of the establishment of attachment.

The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in 1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.

 Between 1977 and date, the station has undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and clients within and outside the state.

At present, the station has staff strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it transmits 24 hours on weekdays.

Apart from contributing its quota in area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of programs from Lagos via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in 1977.  Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A. Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R. Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.

The present management team of NTA Ilorin includes:

  • Chief T.R. Gyang _________________ General Manager.
  • T.A Olasehinsde __________________ General Manager.
  • Hajia Moriliat T.O Adamu____ Manager. Administration.
  • Yinka Ajayi _______ Manager News and Current. Affairs.
  • Taiye Ogunderin ____________ Manager programmes.
  • Yakubu G. Oladele ___________ Marketing Manager.
  • Samuel Osawu ____________ Chief Technical officer.
  • Engr. J.O Babajide ____Manager-In-Charge, NTA Patigi.
  • Mrs Remi Awolola ____ Manager-In-Charge, Ogbomoso.

1.4 LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF NTA ILORIN

    Although the idea of establishing a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971 by a number of  journalists who are indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.

      The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money already into the project, there could be no going back.

              The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77,  Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of  kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.

STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

AUTOMATED CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS FROM CARITAS UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

Automated clearance system is a research work that will help build an effective information managementfor schools. It is aimed at developing a system for making fee clearance after school. Due to the problems of the manual system which encompasses the loss of vital information by rodents and pests, repeated clearance process and late result computing. The new system will serve as a more reliable and effective means of undertaking students clearance remove all forms of delay and stress and enable you understand the procedure involved as well as how to do your school and departmental clearance. The project made use of data collected from the case study, materials and journals from various authors and software was developed to effectively achieve the aim of this project. In this project, the implementation is carried out with Asp.net and MySQL to handle the database aspect.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

A clearance in schools is a certificate giving permission to disengage from an institution. Final year students who have satisfied the academic requirements to graduate must undergo a clearance process before they disengage from the University. The process of clearing involves the Student’s academic department, Faculty, Bursary, Students Affairs, Library, Hostel, Sport department, Health Centre and Registry (Exams and Records). A student is allowed to collect his/her graduation certificate only after he/she has been cleared for something to be done.

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Caritas University, Amorji Nike Enugu is a private University approved by the federal Government of Nigeria on Dec/ 16/ 2004. It was officially opened on Jan 21, 2005 by the Federal minister for education, Prof. Fabian Osuji.. The school operates the faculty system and presently has four faculties; Engineering, Environmental sciences, Management and social sciences and natural science

    In Universities like Caritas, there is need for automating the method of data keeping, so a greater need for an automated online clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of clearance. Also, the issue of delay in youth service as a result of inability to complete the tedious manual processing of clearance will be curtailed.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The process of clearing students after their graduation entails that the student is been cleared in various departments and information units among which are

  • Departmental dues
  • Library fines and over due or list of library materials from the university
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Security
  • Bursary and all others

For a graduating student to carry out his/her clearance from all these department, it is time wasting and stressful. It also causes delay in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of result. Hence, it becomes necessary for an automated clearance system to eradicate the bottle neck of the manual system in place.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this project includes:

  • To effectively and efficiently process students clearance
  • To ensure fast computing of students result
  • To provide a reliable and transparent system devoid of personal inclinations and interest
  • To provide borderless access
  • To ensure prompt clearance
  • To eliminate travelling and queuing up of students during clearance
  • To serve as reference materials to other researchers.

1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to automated clearance system for graduating students from Caritas University. The software developed will be carried out using Asp.net and MYSQL as the database

1.5LIMITATIONS

Realizing the financial and time factor usually associated with students in project of this kind. There is no research carried out without difficulties. This work is not an exception, the following are the constraint.

Financial constraint: study of this kind is meant to be carried out in a wider field but due to lack of funds, some functions and programs could not be applied.

Time constraint: the time given for this study was short so much was not covered

Non availability of materials: during the course of this research there were some documents and materials that were not available which were classified as confidential

Exit constraint: due to the nature of the school as a private university, permission to go out was not always granted and it posed a big problem in achieving this goal.

AUTOMATED CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS FROM CARITAS UNIVERSITY

APPLICATION OF THE "DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN" IN HOMICIDE TRIALS IN NIGERIA CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research 

The doctrine was stated with much clarity, weight and legal force in the Moses Jua case  thus:

The position as firmly settled, is that if Mr. A was last seen alive with or in company of Mr. B and the next thing that happened, was the disappearance of Mr. A, the irresistible inference is that Mr. A was or had been killed by Mr. B. The onus is on Mr. B. to offer an explanation for the purposes of showing that he was not the one who killed Mr. A.

It would seem that the doctrine thrives in hasty conclusions in the sense that once someone disappears, no effort may be made to prove that he is dead before concluding that someone else had killed him. Nonetheless, the “last seen” doctrine is a mere presumption which, like all presumptions, is rebuttable. It means in effect however, that the law presumes that the person “last seen” with the deceased bears the full responsibility for his death if it turns out that the person last seen with him is dead. 

In Nigeria, the doctrine is firmly settled, established and/or entrenched, but in other common law jurisdictions, it is applied with caution and flexibility so as to guard against a miscarriage of justice. Applying the doctrine to the law of evidence, the Indian Legal writers , maintained that:

The mere fact that the accused and the deceased were together in the field prior to the occurrence does not by itself lead to irresistible inference that the accused must have murdered the deceased…it could not be deemed to be conclusive unless it is further established that during the interval between the time when they were last seen together and the time at which the victim died, every circumstance was inconsistent with the innocence of the accused. The theory of last seen together is extremely a weak piece of evidence.

This seems to be a better view of the doctrine and its application in deserving circumstances. This is so because, presumptions are created to permit orderly civil and criminal trials. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania  and the Supreme Court of Indiana  defined the function and legal significance of presumptions as follows:

…a presumption of law is not evidence nor should it be weighed by the fact finder as though it had evidentiary value. Rather, a presumption is a rule of law enabling the party in whose favour it operates to take his case to the jury without presenting evidence of the fact presumed. It serves as a challenge for proof and indicates the party from whom such proof must be forthcoming. When the opponent of the presumption has met the burden of production thus imposed, however, the office of the presumption has been performed, the presumption is of no further effect and drops from the case. 

The problem here is that presumption is too vague a concept upon which to hang the fate of an accused person in capital offences such as murder. Again, it imposes on the accused person, a “reverse burden” of proof by calling on him to prove his innocence and this is inconsistent with our adversary system of criminal justice which imposes a legal burden on the prosecution to prove its case against the accused beyond reasonable doubt. The adversary system preserves the presumption of innocence embedded in our criminal jurisprudence and this is inconsistent with the presumption associated with the “last seen” doctrine which is an offshoot of circumstantial evidence.

There is also the “time-lag” principle which is deeply associated with the “last seen” doctrine though consistently glossed-over by the Nigerian courts in their application of the “last seen” doctrine. The principle runs thus:

The last seen theory comes into play where the time-gap between the point of time when the accused and the deceased were last seen alive and where the deceased is found dead is so small that the possibility of any person other than the accused being the author of the crime becomes impossible. It would be difficult in some cases to positively establish that the deceased was last seen with the accused when there is a long gap and possibility of other persons coming in between exists. In the absence of any other positive evidence to conclude that the accused and the deceased were last seen together, it would be hazardous to come to a conclusion of guilt in those cases” . 

APPLICATION OF THE “DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN” IN HOMICIDE TRIALS IN NIGERIA CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

AN ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT ANNOUNCERS’ LANGUAGE AT THE MURTALA MUHAMMED AIRPORT, LAGOS

ABSTRACT

Flight announcers are pivotal in making sure that no traveller misses or boards the wrong flight when announcements are made in the airport; thus they must exhibit an excellent command of English in order to communicate effectively.  Therefore, this research is motivated by the concern of how flight announcers in Nigerian airports pronounce their words during announcements.  It is a phonological analysis on the language of flight announcers at the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos.  The main objective was to investigate their pronunciation patterns using three linguistic variables (/ǝ/, /ð/ and /Ө/) in line with the Labovian theory of linguistic variation.  The research instruments employed were a questionnaire (used to elicit respondents’ demographics) and reading tests (comprising of word list, phrase list and sentence list).  Output of the reading tests were recorded using a Remax RP1.8GB.OLED Digital Voice Recorder.  Data was phonetically transcribed with the help of Phonetizer (online software that transcribes and pronounces) and the 17th edition of the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary.  It was then analyzed using descriptive statistics involving simple frequency and percentage.  The result showed that exposure to native speakers, age of respondents and years of working experience in flight announcing as sociolinguistic factors; affect correct pronunciation while educational qualification and ethnic origin do not.  It was also discovered that the retention of the strong forms in words like is, the, to, a in contexts where they ought to have been deleted was the recurrent phonological pattern; as almost all respondents made that mistake while reading the sentence list.  As regards the announcers’ general use of language, the study showed that most respondents approximated the English phonemes with what they have in their mother tongue.  At the same time, some respondents inserted and deleted vowels and consonants in words while some others exhibited cases of dialectically influenced personal speech handicap.  This means that a person’s pronunciation could be attributed to mother tongue interference, variational, environmental and physiological conditions.  Thus, flight announcers do not speak the Received Pronunciation (RP) but use a variety of Nigerian English.  This is not only unintelligible to non-Nigerians but Nigerians too, especially when the flight announcers try to imitate foreign accents.  In the long run, this could cause miscommunication resulting in travellers missing their flights or boarding the wrong flight.  Finally, recommendations were made regarding steps that linguists, government agencies and the flight announcers themselves could do to improve their pronunciation pattern. 

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Language is studied and analyzed at different linguistic levels such sounds (Phonology); the internal structure of words and phrases (Morphology); the structure and rules governing sentences (Syntax); the meaning of words (Semantics); or how meaning relates to the context of people and situations (Pragmatics).  According to Rice-Johnston (2008) “Language is a process or set of processes used to ensure that there is agreement between the sender and receiver for meanings assigned to symbols and the schema for combining them as used for each communication.”  This means that communication is ineffective if it leads to misunderstanding.  With this in mind, this study seeks to carry out a phonological analysis on the language of flight announcers at the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos; in order to ascertain the level of communication in their announcements. 

In the airport, communication takes place at different levels – from the time a traveler arrives to check-in to the time he boards the flight, till he disembarks the aircraft.  Howbeit, the international language of aviation is the English language, so it is not surprising that, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) – Nigeria is a member country – passed a decree that “all Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crew members engaged in or in contact with international flights must be proficient in English Language as a general spoken medium…since January, 2008.   This means that proficiency in the proper pronunciation of words and not written English – as was done earlier – is being tested using ICAO approved tests.  It is therefore expected that pilots, cabin crew members, all air traffic control officers, as well as flight announcers possess the ability to speak right and clearly for one to understand, while on duty. 

In Nigeria, the use of English language for flight announcements is not just limited to international flights but also domestic ones.  The job of a flight announcer is to give information about flight schedules, make boarding calls for travelers, inform the public about an inbound flight, as well as make other overhead announcements.  Thus if an unclear announcement is made, especially if words are not properly pronounced, or the wrong intonation, rhythm or accent is used; such an announcement may cause a miscommunication rather than communication.  This is one of the reasons why some travelers do complain that they miss their outbound flights while sitting in the waiting lounge.

AN ANALYSIS OF FLIGHT ANNOUNCERS’ LANGUAGE AT THE MURTALA MUHAMMED AIRPORT, LAGOS

AUTOMATED ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

Automated online clearance system is a research work that will help build an effective information management for graduating students in higher institutions. It is aimed at developing a system for making fee and other forms of clearance after school. Due to the problems of the manual system which encompasses the loss of vital information, repeated clearance process, errors and late clearance computing. The new system will serve as a more reliable and effective means of undertaking students clearance, remove all forms of delay and stress and enable easy retrieval of students information in order to carryout departmental clearance. The project made use of data collected from the case study, materials and journals from various authors and software was developed to effectively achieve the aim of this project. In this project, the implementation is carried out with PHP, HTML, CSS and SQL to handle the database aspect.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

A clearance in schools is a certificate giving permission to disengage from an institution. Final year students who have satisfied the academic requirements to graduate must undergo a clearance process before they disengage from the University. The process of clearing involves the Student’s academic department, Faculty, Bursary, Students Affairs, Library, Hostel, Sport department, Health Centre and Registry (Exams and Records). A student is allowed to collect his/her graduation certificate only after he/she has been cleared for something to be done. As people of this generation become more dependent on the computer for accuracy, speed and safety, the need for an automated clearance system becomes more apparent. The skills needed to access and comprehend information and communication technology which has been an integral part of academic system since almost four decades is encouraged.

  1. Theoretical Background

In schools, there is need for automated method of keeping data, more so a greater need for an automatic student clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of school student clearance in the institution.

Hence it became imperative for student clearance system to eliminate the shortcomings of the manual system in place.

These days every sector is known with the word-computer. We can find computers at everywhere around us. In fact modern world will be incomplete without computers and their applications. It’s almost impossible to even imagine the modern facilities without the use of computers. For many individuals computer means PC, on which they can see movies, play games, prepare office sheets and manage daily planners. But this is just a page of the book of computers.

On the other hand, computers are also used in conducting simple operations like billing, ticket transactions, record maintenance, security analysis etc. and even Personal Computers (PC) are also used to do home based general activities like office sheet maintenance, day planner, entertainment etc. So computers are involved in every sector of life with different forms and different applications.

In modern word everything around us like GPS, ATM machines, cell phones, petrol pumps, portable play stations and all other modern devices use computer controlling units to conduct their featured operations. It is necessary to implement this new mode of operation in the clearance department so that it enhances students’ records to be efficient and free from error. The whole entire clearance process will be forwarded, along with the required documents to the section of the clearance department for the evaluation, the lecturers and staff committee will have right to decide that which student to graduate.

  1. Statement of the Problem

The process of clearing students after their graduation entails that the student is been cleared in various departments and information units among which are

  • Departmental dues
  • Library fines and overdue or list of library materials from the university
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Security
  • Bursary and all others

For a graduating student to carry out his/her clearance from all these departments, and the after the information is no more to be found is a waste of time and effort. Existing system also causes delay in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of result. Hence, it becomes necessary for an automated clearance system to eradicate the bottle neck of the manual system in the institution.

AUTOMATED ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS

A LEGAL AND JURISPRUDENTIAL ANALYSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND SAME SEX MARRIAGES: SUPPORTING THE NIGERIAN POSITION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                    ii

Approval                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                                         v

Table of Contents                                                                            vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Definition of Homosexuality                                                         1

1.2     Who is a Homosexual?                                                                   16

1.3     What is Marriage?                                                                18

1.4     Forms of Same-Sex Marriages                                             26

1.5     Same-Sex Marriage in Contradistinction with Purpose

          of Marriage in the Ordinary Sense                                               30

CHAPTER TWO: LAW AND MORALITY IN RELATION TO HOMOSEXUALITY AND SAME MARRIAGES

2.1     The Moral Implication of Homosexuality and Same-Sex

          Marriage                                                                                35

2.2     Moral Implication of Homosexuality in Nigeria               47

CHAPTER THREE

3.1     Anti-Homosexuality and Same-Sex Marriage

Legislations in Nigeria                                                                  56

3.2     Attempts by the Nigerian Legislature and People

to Stopping the Scourge                                                        59

CHAPTER FOUR:  OPINION ACROSS THE WORLD

4.1     Social and Legal View Point of Homosexuality

Around the World History                                                  68

4.2     Social and Legal View Point of Homosexuality

in America                                                                                       72

CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Conclusion                                                                            78

5.2     Recommendations                                                              81

Bibliography                                                                                  82

A LEGAL AND JURISPRUDENTIAL ANALYSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND SAME SEX MARRIAGES  SUPPORTING THE NIGERIAN POSITIION

CHAPTER ONE

  1. DEFINITION OF HOMOSEXUALITY

Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is “an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions” to people of the same sex. It “also refers to a person’s sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions.”

Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality, homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. Scientists do not know what determines an individual’s sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences, and do not view it as a choice. They favor biologically-based theories, which point to genetic factors, the early uterine environment, both, or the inclusion of genetic and social factors. Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation, however, are weak, especially for males. There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role with regard to sexual orientation. While some people believe that homosexual activity is unnatural, scientific research has shown that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation in human sexuality and is not in and of itself a source of negative psychological effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.

1.2     WHO IS A HOMOSEXUAL?

According to the Lexicon Webster Dictionary,[1] a homosexual is one who is characterized by a sexual interest in a person of the same sex.  The Oxford Dictionary of Current English[2] defines a homosexual in its adjectival form; as a feeling or involving sexual attraction to people of one’s own sex.

From the above definition, it is clear that a homosexual is a person who prefers and proffers affections, intimately and sexually to persons of the same sex; that is a man who would rather have sexual relations with a man; and a woman who would rather have sexual relations with another woman. It is clear therefore that a homosexual person can either be a man or a woman.  A male homosexual is often referred to as gay, which according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (supra), is a homosexual man.  While a female homosexual; is regarded or known as a lesbian (which originates from Lesbos; a Greek Island and homo of Sappho; who expressed her love for woman in her poetry).[3] The Lexicon Webster Dictionary (supra) defined a lesbian as a female homosexual and lesbianism as homosexual relations between females.

The attitudes of society towards homosexuality has varied from age to age; from society to society and from group to group.  Homosexuality has sometimes been extolled (praised enthusiastically); and at other times, it has been condemned as a heinous crime; a classic example is the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by God in the Bible.[4] Homosexuals vary in personal capabilities and appearances as widely as other groups, many are ordinary men and women (just ordinary people), a few have a made outstanding contributions in artistic and other field.  For example, George Michael (Pop Musician), Sir Elton John (Musician).

1.3     WHAT IS MARRIAGE?

Marriage is a universal institution which is recognized and respected all over the world.  As a social institution, marriage is founded on, and governed by the social and religious norms of society.  Consequently, the sanctity of marriage is a well-accepted principle in the world community. Marriage is the root of the family and of society.

It is universally accepted that marriage, being a union of man and woman, involves two persons of opposite sex.  Consequently, sex constitutes an essential determination of marriage relationship.  In order, therefore, to establish the existence of a valid marriage, it must be proved that the persons involved are man and woman.  Ordinarily, this seems a straightforward question.  However, the issue has been complicated by the existence of hermaphrodites and pseudo-hermaphrodites[5] and advances in medical science which has made sex-change operation feasible.  In the light of this important development, the legal question has arisen as to the sex of persons who had undergone sex-change operations and whether such person can be regarded as “man” or “woman” for the purposes of contracting a valid marriage.  This question has been considered in different jurisdictions.

In the English cases of Corbett v Corbett,[6]the petitioner and the respondent went through a ceremony of marriage in September, 1963.  The petitioner knew that the respondent had been registered at birth as a male and had in 1960 undergone an operation for the removal of the testicles, most of the scrotum and the construction of an artificial vagina.  Since that operation, the respondent had lived as a woman.  In December, 1963, the petitioner filed a petition for a declaration that the marriage was null and void because the respondent was a person of the male sex or alternatively, for a decree of nullity on the ground of either incapacity or willful refusal to consummate.  The respondent in the answer prayed for a decree of nullity on the ground of either the petitioner’s incapacity or his willful refusal to consummate the marriage.  Furthermore, she pleaded that the petitioner was stopped from alleging that the marriage was void. Ormrod, J. held that the respondent had remained at all times a biological male and that, accordingly, the so-called marriage was void.  The learned judge observed.

The New Webster Dictionary on English Language; International Edition.

The Oxford Dictionary of Current English, (3rd Edition).

Garcia-Falgueras A. Swaab DF (2010). “Sexual Hormones and the Brain:  An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation”.  Endocrine Development 17:22-35.

Royal College of Psychiatrists:  Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality.

Simon, LeVay (1996).  Queer Science:  The Use and abuse of Research into Homosexuality.

“Sexual Hormones and the Brain:  An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation”.  Endocrine Development 17:22-35.

A LEGAL AND JURISPRUDENTIAL ANALYSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND SAME SEX MARRIAGES: SUPPORTING THE NIGERIAN POSITION

IMPACT OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON RURAL DWELLERS {A CASE STUDY OF BARUTEEN LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KWARA STATE}

ABSTRACT

This study was under taken to assertion of radio using Baruten as a case study. The study provided background information in the history of radio programming and radio kwara. It also to find out the problems associated with the dissemination of development by the radio to the rural dwellers. The method used is the case for the study employed the use of questionnaire were analyzed and graphically explained with the use of table and simple percentage method. The data analysis revealed that radio programming has had much impact on rural dwellers. The study therefore, recommend that community radio programming should be encourage and spread widely for effective information dissemination in rural areas.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   viii

Table of content                                                       ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1.  Background of the study                                   1
    1.  Statement of the problem                                  7   
    1.  Objectives of the study                                      8  
    1.  Research question                                             9     
    1.  Significance of the study                                    10    
    1.  Scope of the study                                             10    
    1.  Operational definition of terms                          11
    1.  Limitations of the study                                     12                                                                                            

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   Theoretical framework                                     19                              

2.2   Conceptual framework                                     24                                     

2.3   Review of empirical studies

Review of related literature         26                                                               

2.4   Radio as a medium                                          39          

2.5   Functions of radio programming                      41

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1   Research variable                                            46

3.2   Universe of the study                                       46

3.3   Sample size and sampling techniques             47

3.4   Unit of analysis                                                        47                            

3.5   Instrumentations                                             47

3.6   Validity of the instrument                                        48

3.7   Method of administration

Of the instrument                                            48

3.8   Method of data analysis                                   49

3.9   Population of the study                                    49

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.1   Analysis of the performance

Of the research instrument                          50   
4.2   Answers to the research question                    55

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1   Summary                                                         65

5.2   Conclusion                                                      66

5.3   Recommendations                                           68

References                                                       73

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

The medium of communication i.e.; the channel through which information is conveyed to the general public. Such channel includes; radio, television, newspaper e.t.c.

The radio as a medium of communication is one of the most ambitious, the most effective and cheapest means of communication. Apart from its primary response of informing, educating and entertaining the public, it provides opportunity for man to understand both his immediate and distant environment.

Programming on the other hand is the broadcast programming of a radio form or content that is organized for commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting of radio station.

According to Zuma 1 (2011), the radio is a nation builder instrument, It can be a important partner in the drive to make rural area economically and socially viable.

As a means of communication, the radio is unique in both its portability and ability to reach people in urban and rural areas.

It can be used to transmit music, speech and other information to a large audience.

For Daramola 1 (2001: 55), radio reaches every corner of the globe. The rural community most especially relies on it for information because it breaks language barriers and illiteracy. This is why it is an effective tool for dissemination of information to the rural areas for adequate, communicate growth.

As it may be, this study will examine the impact of radio programming on rural dweller using Baruten as the study.

1.1.1 HISTORY OF RADIO PROGRAMMING IN NIGERIA                                                                             

The term “Radio” has its root in the Latin word, “Radius” which means a spoken radius ray. Radio’s etymology become obvious when it is realized that in physical sense, radio is essentially the emission of rays or waves that bear signal called programs the wave which are generated by a transmitter are propagated, an aerial or an antenna that represent the central of a circles for reception by radio set turned to the frequency on which the transmitter is radiating.

According to OLULANDELE et al, radio programming in Nigeria began in 1932, through the establishment of the radio distribution services. It was as a result of the urge a determination of the British colonial authority to link the colonies with the writer country to serve as an instrument of propaganda for the Britain and the whole world. So the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) empire service was introduced.

Radio programming in Nigeria also began as part of the departmental and post and telegraph; which was then Public Relation Services. The post and telegraphs engineers used the station in programming programs through wires connected to loud speakers located at different points in Lagos.

After three years of experiment, the country realized it could operate this system which heralded the establishment of wired broadcasting that was named “Radio Distribution Service” (RDS).

On June 16 1951, the Nigeria Broadcasting Service (NBS) was firmly established by Governor John Stuart McPherson. It was later changed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and began operation in April 1957 by an act of parliament.

However, the glamour for the right of reply by Chief Obafemi Awolowo led to the formation of radio and television station in the western region, Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) responded on October 31, 1959.

In 1975, the Murtala-Obasanjo military regime declared its intention to halt the proliferation of radio station in Nigeria by creating a centralized organization to cater for the whole country. The government enacted the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Decree no 8 of 1978; which gave the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), right over all existing radio station the country with the re-organization, it assumed its new name and four zonal offices were created in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu and the radio skill is in existence today.

More so, many private radio stations have been established as a result of the promulgation of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Decree No. 38 in August 24, 1992. This Decree gave right to the ownership of broadcasting station by private individuals.

For Richard Aspinal, (1971) the use of wireless for popular programming was a consequence of the world war of 1914 – 1918. The fighting services needed improved equipment and large number of wireless signal. It was these near who on their return to civil life held the demand for broadcasting services.

Early radio was very much a novelty for listeners and broadcaster alike. The early receiving software bulky and difficult to tune the loudspeaker had not been invented and listening was limited to headphones.

In the studies there were no mixing panels, no magnetic microphones, no electrical pick-ups and certainly no tape recording. The microphones had to be shaken before use, like a bottle of machine gramophone records were played by gramophones in front of open microphones.

But the radio has gradually metamorphosed into a digital state that rural dwellers can carry every where even in their mobile phones, Ipods and small radio sets.  

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

As Daramola (2001: 104) rightly observed, the radio as a medium of mass communication bridges the gap between the government and the governed. It is a two – way communication that provides companionship through human voice and exhilarating music.

Therefore, it is undoubtedly clear that radio programming can act as a catalyst for rural development because of its versatility of informing hundreds of thousands listeners at different times of the day. However, this can be more effective in the rural community through the use of local dialects. Thus, what impact does radio programming have on the people living in rural community?

How do they perceive information disseminated by the various radio stations?  Through what ways do the media messages mobilize them to participate in the development process of their community and the nation at large? How credible are the content of radio programming?

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This study seek to find out what impact does radio programming has on rural dwellers using Baruteen people as a case study.

This research will further ascertain the reaction of the people living in rural community to radio message, how this message impact their way of life most especially in the area of development and if radio programming as a medium of communication; has been able to bridge its gap between the government and the people of the community.

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will enable the various radio stations to understand and appreciate their strengths and weaknesses in order to know areas to improve for effective information dissemination.

        It will also assist radio owners and managers in describing better policies of enhancing communication programmes in the rural areas.

        More so, it will bring to conscious the relevance of radio programmes to the rural community in order to enable them appreciate it and comprehend message efficiently.

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is to determine the impact of radio message toward the development of rural community.

Using Baruten as case study, this research will further state the impact of the radio programming in rural dwellers obstacle to the impact of programming in information disseminating and solution to ensure good interpretation of radio message by the receivers.

The rural dwellers in this community constitute the target population of the study which includes people of different occupation such as farmers, artisans, traders, students, civil servants e.t.c. 1.7  OPERATIONAL

IMPACT OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON RURAL DWELLERS {A CASE STUDY OF BARUTEEN LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KWARA STATE}

A STUDY ON THE TRENDS IN BUILDING COST IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The dictionary definition of trends simply means “to move or extend in a specific direction” (Long Man Family Dictionary) also trends simply means “a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing” (Advance Learner’s Dictionary).

Leaning on, this definition of “trends” thus the subject matter “trends in building cost in Nigeria” can be described as a way to move or extend in a specific direction of building cost in Nigeria.

This trend in building cost is associated with the cost of erecting a building which includes the physical preparation and developmental cost.

The construction industry is very vital to the socio-economic development of a nation, this is because the affordability or otherwise of construction affect the confidence of the citizen in their existence in any nation.

One of the first and most fundamental aspect of human needs is shelter, therefore, it become necessary that the cost of constructing a given building project should be within the reach of the average citizens, (Dr. A.R Oladele 2007).

Over the years, the discovery of oil in Nigeria alongside with increasing population led to the increase in the demand for building in Nigeria.

Also the unscheduled changes of government in Nigeria lead to the formulation of policics from one government to the other which sometimes do not favour the construction industry.

These trends in building cost are caused by the following factors which include:

Method of construction

Limited number of manufacturers of building materials

Employment of foreign expatriates

Increment of wages

Import tariff

Fuel scarcity

Bribery and corruption

Second tier of foreign exchange

These reasons mentioned above are making a tremendous contribution to the increasing building cost which in turn posing a potential blockage to the chance of the less privileged ones to own a house or building and also went further to make it difficult for them to pay rent charged by the lessor on a house.

Therefore, this project is aimed at highlighting various factors that influence these trends in building cost in Nigeria. And to come up with possible solution to curtail these treads through oral interview and questionnaires with parties involved also to asses the changes within the period of ten years (10 years) (2000-2010).

Previous studies in building sector have indicated thatbuilding materials account for between 50 to 60% of the total construction input (Adedeji, 2012:1; Ogunsemi, 2010:2). Building materials constitute the largest single input in building construction, of which housing is one part. Adedeji (2012:2) revealed that the cost of building materials has been one of the factors prohibiting successful housing delivery. Nega (2008) opine that increase in costs of construction is caused by increase in the cost of building materials, an increase which has a significant impact on overall budgeted cost of construction.Construction cost has been the most significant consideration for the execution of any construction project. Previous studies have determined that delays in housing deliveries have resulted in client and contractor disputes, litigations and project abandonment, and cost and time overrun.  Hence, there is a need to address this increase in the cost of building materials that are impeding the delivery of sustainable affordable housing that in Nigeria.

While excessive costs of building materials has significantly slowed down the housing delivery, nevertheless, the problem of increase in the cost of building materials cannot, be rationally minimised by using non-conventional building materials, without due consideration of the sustainability of these alternative materials, the appropriate initiative and  the cost of processing. The theory of sustainability has called for major attention in the construction industry over recent decades. 

Housing availability is characterized by its method of production as well as life cycle which enhances the economic stability of the inhabitants by taking into consideration – at every stage of construction – the use of land and materials resources (Solanke, 2015:2). Thus, to deliver sustainable housing, it is crucial to consider the implications of cost of materials and the resource availability (sustainability) from the housing design stage to construction stage in order to ensure adequate building materials’ utilisation.  

The cidb (2007) Report indicates that the volatile building materials in the Nigerian construction industry are steel, cement, sand, copper, timber, PVC, bitumen and masonry blocks/bricks, which according to the Engineering News document cited within the cidb report, have increased up to 100% between October 2000 and October 2006.

A STUDY ON THE TRENDS IN BUILDING COST IN NIGERIA

CHALLENGES IN CHORAL CONDUCTING A CASE STUDY IN EXQUISITE CHOIR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT  

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Justification for the Study

1.4       Aims / Objectives

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Methodology

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Structure of Choirs

2.2       Categories of choirs

2.3       The Origin and Role of Choir

2.4       Theoretical Framework

2.5       Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHOIRS IN AFRICA

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Background Account of its Origin

3.3       The Motivation and Benefit Factor

3.4       The Formation of the Choirs

3.5       Conflict of Power/Authority

3.6       Ownership Right

3.7       Some other Reasons for the Breakaway

CHAPTER FOUR: CONTRIBUTIONS AND PERFORMANCE PRACTICE/STYLES OF CHOIRS AFRICA

4.1       Introduction

4.2       SOME COMMON PRACTICES OF THE CHOIRS

4.3       Performance Practice

4.4       Technology (Other musical Equipment)

4.5       The Socio-Economic Impact of Choirs

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusions

5.3       Recommendations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABSTRACT

The primary focus of this study is to examine the challenges in choral conducting including their development and contributions in Africa. The research seeks to attempt an in-depth study at the concept of the choir as an institution which came to the limelight of choral music industry about three decades ago. The acceptance of this choir system due to its economic boom in recent times has gained a maximum popularity as well as provided an avenue for both professional and unprofessional musicians but has not received much scholarly attention.

The purpose of the study is to trace the historical events that necessitated the formation of choirs and delve into their development and contributions to the socio-economic impart with the specific attention on motivation of the formation, conflict management and the performance practices/styles. The research methodology is primary based on fieldwork which includes discussion, interviews, participant observation during rehearsals sessions and performances, library research, journals and recordings of some of the works performed by the choirs.

The study discovered that the community choirs and all others when properly run will create employment to its members and become an asset to the host community and the nation as a whole in several ways. Choir system also provides an avenue to unearth and develop the musical prowess of the youth. It is therefore recommended that every community, institution, government agency and organization should be encouraged to form a choir or sponsor the existing ones since they help to address and solve some of the unemployment issues in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music Fifth Edition (2007) by Kennedy and Kennedy defines a choir or chorus as a mixed voice choir (or chorus) which is one of both women and men. A male voice choir is (usually) of men only, but may be of boys and men. A double  choir is one arranged in two equal and complete bodies, with a view not merely to singing in eight parts but also to responsive effects. Chorus tends to be used for secular bodies; there may be many exceptions (Kennedy and Kennedy 2007: 145). According to Crowley, his article published in 2012 speculates that;

There is a risk that in using choirs for everything from helping fragmented communities to stress relief, we drag them down to the level of the mundane. Choirs have been with us a long time. They have their origins in Greek Tragedy and the Italian Renaissance. Fifty years ago they were commonplace in our schools, workplaces and social organizations, but until recently most of us had come to associate them with Christmas concerts and village halls.

In addition, he explains that, though they are making a spectacular comeback like the growth of book clubs, debating societies and various specialist interest groups, choirs have benefitted from a renewed interest in communal activities. New choirs are popping up around the country. Friends and workmates are getting together, forming their own groups or joining existing choirs in greater numbers. Organizations and institutions are helping ordinary members of the public find their voice for the first time.

Crowley (2015) in his article continues to argue that, choirs have moral dimension, which involves oneself and others in choral and music societies. This is generally seen as a form of self-improvement, and as a means of keeping the lower orders out of the pub and out of political intrigue. No matter how their social function has changed over the last few hundred years, there has always been a spiritual or metaphysical dimension to choirs. Whether it is reaching up to God, the act of making music for its own sake, or simply the immersive, almost magical experience of singing in harmony with others, choral music has the power to lift us up above our individual, everyday lives.

The concept of the choir system as an institution in Africa gained the publicity in the choral music industry about three decades ago and had since met the admiration and approval of the Africaian populace, particularly the youth. The upsurge of these choirs with its dynamics of processes and development in most instances emanate from power and conflicts, construction of individual and group identities, ownership rights, financial and others are some of the challenges that reared their heads in the existing group as a result of members’ interaction and interrelation. These conflicts and confusions which occur within the groups or choirs end up in the breakaway of some members to join or form new groups.

CHALLENGES IN CHORAL CONDUCTING A CASE STUDY IN EXQUISITE CHOIR

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ADICHIE'S THE THINGS AROUND YOUR NECK AND PURPLE HIBISCUS

ABSTRACT

Style is one‟s way of doing a thing. It can be of dressing, speaking, acting, teaching and writing which is influenced by a lot of factors or ideologies such as history, religion and culture. However, the style of a writer albeit creative may pose a challenge to readers. This study attempts a linguistic stylistic analysis of Chimamanda Adichie‟s Purple Hibiscus and Things around the neck with the aim of identifying some of the linguistic features the writer used and to understand the cultural and historical ideology behind the texts, appreciating her style.Halliday‟s functional linguistics approach is adopted as a theoretical framework where particular note is taken of the stylistic functional effects and thematic significance of the linguistic features in literary texts. Leech and Short‟s (2007) analytical checklist is used to breakdown randomly selected stylistic features into three categories, lexical, grammatical and context. Basil Bernstein‟s (1971) perspective on code switching and mixing is used to analyse how the writer‟s culture informs her choice as a form of stylistic expression. The study has been able to highlight the stylistic features in the texts, analyse how these styles were used to reveal Adichie‟s ideas, and highlight the extent to which Adichie‟s cultural and linguistic background affect her style of writing. Halliday‟s systemic functional approach is of the opinion that style is functionally motivated by a writer‟s choice of language in use. Therefore this study outlined the various features (linguistic stylistic) which Adichie has used to creatively present her novels. This research therefore recommends that young writers can use Adichie‟s style of writing since the aim of studying style is to improve the vigour of the writer‟s ability to communicateeffectively

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to theStudy

A lot of similarities exist in the definitions of language. From another angle, there are highly technical usages of the word “language” reflecting the way the term has been applied figuratively to all forms of human behaviour such as language of writing, media, politics, music, law and advertisement. Halliday (1971:332) also succinctly puts the function of language thus:

Language serves for the expression of content. The speaker or writer embodies language, his experiences of the internal world of his Consciousness, his reaction, cognition, and perception and also his Linguistic acts of speaking and understanding.

The major challenge about defining language is that of trying to summarise its contents in single sentences. According to Sapir (1921:8), language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, thoughts and emotions by means of voluntarily produced symbols. This definition presents language as a primarily human characteristic for the purpose of communication. To Chomsky (1957:13), language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length as set of physical patterns that are arbitrarily combined to make the communication process effective. From Chomsky‟s definition, it‟s obvious that language consists of several elements each with a different way of operation but combined together to produce unlimited constructions. Therefore to Chomsky, language is a functional element used by humans for the purpose of communication. From the perspective of the above definition of language by Sapir (1921:8) language communicates ideas, emotions, thoughts, and desires which, when put down in a literary text, is referred to asliterature.

Stylistic analysis which this research focuses on is the end product of two modes of analysis. That is, the literary and linguistic approaches to the analysis of literary texts. While the

role of the literary analyst is to bring out the style that is the literary elements used by the writer to interpret themes, the linguist on his part takes the codes as his domain, and the meaning of the work becomes relevant as far as it illustrates the use of language. Widdowson (1975) explains the function of literary stylistics as the interpretation and evaluation of literary text as works of art, and that the primary concern of the analysis is to explicate the individual message of the writer. Widdowson also clarifies the function of the linguistic stylistic analyst as the decoder of messages and exemplifiers of how the codes are constructed. This study is also aware of the difficulties and limitations of the linguistic stylistic analysis of a literary text such as properly describing the themes and methods developed in linguistics. Therefore, Halliday (1971:25) cautions for examplethat:

Linguistics is not and will never be the whole of literary analysis, and only the literary analysis not the linguistic analysis can  determine the place of linguistics in literary studies. But if a text is to be described at all, then it should be described properly and this means by the themes and methods developed in linguistics. The subject, which precisely shows how languageworks.

Considering the interrelationship between linguistics and language, and specifically the fact that linguistics is an illustration of the use of language and how language works, one can conclude by agreeing with Leech and Short (1981:74) that:

Every analysis of style is an attempt to find the artistic principles underlying a writer‟s choice of language. All writers and for that matter, all texts, have their individual qualities. Therefore the features which recommend themselves to the attention in one text will not be important in another text by the same or different authors.

This makes it possible for us to study the stylistic choices made by Chimamanda Adichie in her texts Purple Hibiscus (2005) and thing around your neck (2009), where she used the novel to explore the aspects of the challenging realities in the Nigerian society and reflections of important events in Nigeria‟s history and culture, especially that of the„ Biafra literature‟.In these texts, Nigeria‟s culture and history are presented with details which illustrate local variations and socio-cultural factors that inspire creativity. According to Nnolim (2001:290), the Nigerian novel is perceived as “the sum total of literary conventions and narrative habits that have been put together to assume what may now be referred to as indigenous ingredients that wear a peculiar Nigerian face in the corpus of the African Novel.”

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ADICHIE’S THE THINGS AROUND YOUR NECK AND PURPLE HIBISCUS

IMPACT OF ICT ON BROADCAST MEDIA {A CASE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF BROADCASTING IN THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT.

                                                  ABSTRACT

     This study was under taken to ascertain the impact of radio using Baruten as a case of the study.

      The study provided background information in the history of radio programming and radio kwara. It also sought to find out the problems associated with the dissemination of development information by the radio to the rural dwellers.

       The method used is the case for the study and the study employed the use of questionnaire in gathering data. A total number of 180 questionnaires were analyzed and graphically explained with the use of table and simple percentage method.

       The data analysis revealed that radio programming has had much impact on rural dwellers.

       The study therefore, recommend that community radio programming should be encourage and spread widely for effective information dissemination in rural areas.

                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITTLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLE

      CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1.  Background of the study                                        1
    1.  Statement of the problem                                       7
    1.  Objectives of the study                                           8
    1.  Research question                                                   9
    1.  Significance of the study                                         7
    1.  Scope of the study                                                  11
    1.  Operational definition of terms                           12
    1.  Limitations of the study                                       13 

       CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK                                19

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK                                      

REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES / REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 32  

RADIO AS A MEDIUM                                                 50

TYPES OF RADIO PROGRAMMING

CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIO

FUNCTIONS OF RADIO PROGRAMMING             55

         CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

REEARCH DESIGN                                                       62

RESEARCH VARIABLE

UNIVERSE OF THE STUDY

SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES     64

UNIT OF ANALYSIS                            

INSTRUMENTATIONS

VALIDITY OF THE INTRUMENT

METHOD OF ADMINITRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

POPULATION OF THE STUDY

        CHAPTER FOUR:

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE RESEARCH     INSTRUMENT

ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION

        CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

     LIST OF TABLES AND ILLUSTRATION

TABLE 1: Sex of the respondent

TABLE 2: Age distribution of the respondents

TABLE 3: Marital status of respondents

TABLE 4: Educational qualification

TABLE 5: Occupational distribution of respondents

TABLE 6: Respondent time of listening to radio

TABLE 7: Radio as a medium that disseminate development

                   Information about the community

TABLE 8: No station accessible to the respondents

TABLE 9: Functions / role of the radio to the respondents

TABLE10: Respondent rating of the radio based on transmission of developmental information.

CHAPTER ONE

         1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

    The media of communication i.e.; the channel through which information is conveyed to the general public. Such channel includes; radio, television, newspaper e.t.c.

    The radio as a medium of communication is one of the most ambitious. The most effective and cheapest means of communication. Apart from its primary response of informing, educating and entertaining the public, it provides opportunity for man to understand both his immediate and distant environment.

    Programming on the other hand is the broadcast programming of a radio formed or content that is organized for commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting of radio station.

     According to Zuma 1 (2011), the radio is a nation builder instrument, it can be a important partner in the drive to make rural area economically and socially viable.

      As a means of communication, the radio is unique in both its portability and ability to reach people in urban and rural areas.

       It can be use to transmit music, speech and other information to a large audience.

        For Daramola 1 (2001: 55), radio reaches every corner of the globe. The rural community most especially relies on it for information because it breaks language barriers and illiteracy. This is why it is an effective tool for disseminating development information to the rural areas for adequate communication growth.

        As it may be, this study will examine the impact of radio programming on rural dweller using Baruten as the study.

       1.1.1 HISTORY OF RADIO PROGRAMMING IN NIGERIA                                                                              

     The term “Radio” has its root in the Latin word, “Radius” which means a spoken radius ray. Radio’s etymology become obvious when it is realized that in physical sense, radio is essentially the emission of ray or wave that bear signal called programs the wave which are generated by a transmitter are propagated, an aerial or an antenna that represent the central of a circles for reception by radio set turned to the frequency on which the transmitter is radiating.

      According to OLULANDELE et al, radio programming in Nigeria began in 1932, through the establishment of the radio distribution services. It was as a result of the urge a determination of the British colonial authority to link the colonies with the writer country to serve as an instrument of propaganda for the Britain and the whole world. So the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) empire service was introduced.

      Radio programming in Nigeria also began as part of the departmental and post and telegraph; which was then Public Relation Services. The post and telegraphs engineers used the station in programming programs through wires connected to loud speakers located at different points in Lagos.

     After three years of experiment, the country realized it could operate this system which heralded the establishment of wired broadcasting that was named “Radio Distribution Service” (RDS).

      On June 16 1951, the Nigeria Broadcasting Service (NBS) was firmly established by Governor John Stuart McPherson. It was later changed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and began operation in April 1957 by an act of parliament.

       However, the glamour for the right of reply Chief Obafemi Awolowo led to the formation of radio and television station in the western region, Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) responded on October 31, 1959.

        In 1975, the Murtala-Obasanjo military regime declared its intention to halt the proliferation of radio station in Nigeria by creating a centralized organization in to cater for the whole country. The government enacted the federal radio corporation of Nigeria Decree no 8 of 1978; which gave the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), right overall existing radio station the country with the re-organization, it assumed its new name and four zonal offices were created in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu and the radio skill is in existence today.

       More so, many private radio station have been established as a result of the promulgation of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Decree No. 38 in August 24, 1992. This Decree gave right to the ownership of broadcasting station by private individuals.

       For Richard Aspinal, (1971) the use of wireless for popular programming was a consequence of the world war of 1914 – 1918. The fighting services needed improved equipment and large number of wireless signal. It was these near who on their return to civil life held the demand for broadcasting services.

       Early radio was very much a novelty for listeners and broadcaster alike. The early receiving software bulky and difficult to tune the loudspeaker had not been invented and listening was limited to headphones

       In the studies there were no mixing panels, no magnetic microphones, no electrical pick-ups and certainly no tape recording. The microphones had to be shaken before use, like a bottle of machine gramophone records were played by gramophones in front of open microphones.

       But the radio has gradually metamorphosed into a digital state that rural dwellers can carry every where even in their mobile phones, Ipods and small radio sets.

IMPACT OF ICT ON BROADCAST MEDIA {A CASE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF BROADCASTING IN THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT.

CHINA’S INCREASING INTEREST IN AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA’S NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

        The most widely accepted approach to the study of why nations relate with one another is the theory of realism (T. Dunne 2009:56). Realism as a theory of international relation is based on the idea that nations only relate with one another for self interest (national interest) and the desire for one nation to dominate the other (hegemony).2 However, another school of thought  sees the essence of international relations in another perspective. This school of thought postulate the desire of nations to relate on the basis of common interest and the need for common development.3 This school of thought is based on the theory of liberalism and idealism.4 This theory stated   there is the need for nations to relate with one another and this kind of relationship is meant to foster national development.5

Additionally, it is expedient to note that nations relate generally for different reasons. There can be diplomatic relations based on politics, economic, social, and military reasons.6  The  more economic viable nations  depend heavily on the  less economic viable nations to suceed.7 It is however sad to note that most developing countries of the world especially countries of Africa are  consuming nations. Although most natural resources of the world lies within this territory, the lack of a technological base and other deplorable state of infrastructure has bedeviled their industrial capacity for manufacturing.8 They  depend highly on importations of products manufactured from more industrialized and developed nations. Likewise, the developed nations of the world depend on the less developed nations for natural resources for their industries. All pointed towards the need for interdependence for attainment of national development. According to the Karen Mingst, national development encompasses the whole structure of nation’s developmental capacity which has economic development as its fulcrum.9

     The most powerful nations that control the world’s military and economic strength are called the great powers. The great powers include the United States, Great Britain, Russia, France,  Germany, Japan and China. These countries are  most influential in the world’s politics and economics of international relations.10 China, with a population of 1.3 billion people as at 2007, is the most populous country in the world.11 It has risen to become second largest economy in the world.  She is a rising power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, with far-reaching ambitions.  In contrast to China, Africa is a continent of 58 countries which are among the world smallest and poorest, and China has relations with many of them.12  This relationship is due to the interest that China has in the countries.

     The quest for political and economic dominance among states occupies the international political system.  For the past decade, the Chinese economy has been expanding with enormous energy resources, hence China has now set its sight on Africa.13  China’s interest in Africa is not new.  In the 1960s and 1970s, Beijing’s interest centered on building ideological solidarity with other underdeveloped nations to advance Chinese-style Communism and to repel western Imperialism.  Following the cold war, Chinese interests evolved into more pragmatic pursuit such as trade, investment, and energy.14

     China’s increasing domestics energy demand, combined with declining domestic petroleum and insufficient coal output, has spurred her to pursue stable overseas energy sources. In 2007, China’s net oil imports amounted to 3.2 million barrels per day or 48% of its total consumption. In  2009, its daily import requirement   reached 10.7 million barrels which was 75% of consumption.15  The oil and natural gas production in Asia is not growing fast enough to meet Chinese demand, and a large portion of Middle East oil and gas production is normally allocated to the US and European markets.16  therefore, China must look elsewhere for a new energy source.

     Currently an estimated 25% of China’s total oil requirements  come from Africa and China has placed high priority on maintaining strong ties with her African energy suppliers through investment, high-level visits and strict policy of non-interference in internal affairs of their suppliers.In January 2006, Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing toured six African nations which are Cape Verde, Senegal, Mali, Liberia, Libya and Nigeria.  The visit was to  strengthening China’s interest in Africa.  After the tour, China’s African Policy was released as an official Chinese government paper aimed at promoting economic and political cooperation as well as joint energy development without interfering in each other’s internal affairs.  Non interference in the internal affairs of other countries is a good posture.

    Consequently, the era of sole dependency on western countries like the USA, Britain, France and Germany by African countries is fast gradually coming to an end. Year after year China’s bilateral and multilateral cooperation with African countries is increasing. China today is the Africa’s second-biggest trading partner after the US. From Nigeria’s railway and oil exploration contracts to Ghana’s billion dollars transport contracts and Angola’s oil deals, China has gradually taken over most economic trade centres of Africa. In Kenya, China is leading as expected in foreign investments with lucrative infrastructures, telecoms and defence contracts. Nearly all areas of the Kenyan economy have  attracted considerable interest from the Chinese investors. As reported, China has taken control of major infrastructure projects with an estimated 60 percent market share. Road construction, airports, water systems, power generation, housing and hospitals are all under the Chinese.19

    Nigeria is one of China’s biggest markets.  In July 2007, the Chinese government signed an 800 million dollars crude oil sales agreement with Nigeria in the following 5 years, china was expected to purchase 30,000 barrels of crude oil daily from Nigeria.  China won licenses to operate four oil blocs in Nigeria as part of incentives to build a hydro power station.  China also launched Nigeria’s first space satellite.19 The satellite launch has further strengthen china’s relationship with Nigeria. The impact of Chinese trade cooperation in Nigeria has  been outstanding. The oil sector, whose exploration over the years has been dominated by the western world, is gradually shifting towards the Chinese market. This was evident in 2009 when Nigeria’s NNPC signed an agreement with Sinopec a Chinese company to develop Oil Mining Lease (OML) 64 and 66, located in the waters of the Niger Delta.20 Another area of the influence of Chinese in the Nigerian economy is the power sector and the transport sector which have been the bane of Nigeria’s economic development.

CHINA’S INCREASING INTEREST IN AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA’S NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CLOUD COMPUTING A BETTER MEANS OF IT OUTSOURCING

ABSTRACT

The use of cloud computing is becoming widespread, but systematic study of its managerial implications is lacking. This paper examines cloud computing in the context of means of Information Technology (IT) sourcing and explores the revolutionary transformations and challenges it brings to IT management. The paper analyzes the IT pendulum of centralization and decentralization and discusses the managerial implications of the major components of cloud computing: hardware (INTEL, IBM chips to support virtualization); services (Google, Amazon.com); applications (SaaS, Software-as-a-Service) and virtualization (VMware), or their combination (Citrix).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiguitions, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.

Although this widely adopted description of what makes a cloud computing solution is very valuable, it is not very tangible or easy to understand. Why is cloud computing different than just visualizing alone which is commonly mistaken to be cloud computing as well.

Cloud computing is composed of five essential characteristics, three deployment models and four service models. The essential characteristics consist of;
A, On-demand self-service;  users are able to position cloud computing resources without requiring human interaction, mostly done through a web –based self-service portal (management console) B, Board network access; cloud computing resources are accessible over the network, supporting heterogeneous client platforms such as mobile devices and workstations.
C, Resource pooling; service multiple customers from the same physical resources, by securely separating the resources on logical level.
D, Rapid elasticity; resources are positioned and released on demand and/or automated based on triggers or parameters. This will make sure your application will have exactly the capacity it needs at any point in time.
E, Measured service; resource usage are monitored, measured and reported (billed) transparently based on utilization.

Therefore cloud computing is much more than just visualization. IT’s really about utilizing technology as a service. Users need little to no knowledge in the details of how a particular service is implemented, on which hardware, on how many cpu’s and so on. All that is important for a user is to have a good understanding of what the service offers and what it does not and how to operate the self-service portal.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

When it comes to outsourcing everyone has a tale of woe. Some software vendor that outsources a new development project could not meet dead line because they were amateur so they switch from one platform to another. But the big question is who reach the platform, did the customer work daily? (NO). Did it have automated status reputing (it did not) Outsourcing is a key part of ever modern IT group. The problem is, we still don’t seem to do it well. Hence many business technology professional fire vendors within a short period of time. Companies using IT outsourcing speak of the importance of managing outsourcing better.
One of the growth of cloud computing and software as a service initiatives.

IT outsourcing is moving up the stack as vendors take over increasingly strategic functions. Nearly six to ten IT shops outsource some critical function. Management, engineering or development, almost one fourth keep executive and management functions in-house but look to outsource everything else as companies relies more on outsiders, a lack of oversight , management and even monitoring can have catastrophic consequences.

Cloud computing blurs the lines between what had been conventional outsourcing and internal operations and it will test IT’s management and control policies. Therefore the research seeks to investigate cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem confronting this research is to investigate cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • To determine the nature and characteristics of cloud computing
  • To determine the nature of IT outsourcing
  • To highlight the role of cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the nature and characteristics of cloud computing?
  2. What is nature of IT outsourcing?
  3. What is the role of cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing?
CLOUD COMPUTING A BETTER MEANS OF IT OUTSOURCING

EFFECT OF OWNERSHIP ON PROFESSIONALISM IN THE MEDIA INDUSTRIES (AN APPRAISAL OF NEWS CONTENT OF GOLD FM ILESHA)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                         i

Certification                                                     ii

Dedication                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                            iv

Table of content                                               v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction                                             1

1.1   Background of the study                          1

1.2   Statement of the problem                        8

1.3   Objectives of the study                             9

1.4   Research question                                   10

1.5   Significant of the study                            10

1.6   Scope and limitation of the study            11

1.7   Definition of term                                     11

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Literature Review                                     13

2.1   Definition of mass media                         13

2.2   Review of related literature                      30

2.3   Historical background                             42

2.4   Effect of ownership on media content      44

2.5   Theoretical framework                             47

CHAPTER THREE  

3.0   Research methodology                             54

3.1   Research design                                       54

3.2   Population of the study                            55

3.3   Sample size and sampling procedure               55

3.4   Research instrument                                       56

3.5   Collection of data                                     56

3.6`  Data analysis procedure                          57

3.7   Restatement of research question            58

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Data analysis and interpretation                     59

4.1   Introduction                                                     59

4.2   Data analysis of respondents                           59

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Summary, recommendation and conclusion   70

5.1   Summary                                                         70

5.2   Recommendation                                             73

5.3   Conclusion                                                      74

References                                                       76

Questionnaire                                                  78

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Head and Sterling (1982) the term media “are those means of communication that use technology to reach large parts of the population almost simultaneously with the kind of news and entertainment that ordinary people can afford to pay” (Laaro, 2004). Invariably, the mass media are an important component of mass communication in disseminating symbolic content to a large interogenous and widely dispersed audience.

The history of journalism in Nigeria can be treated from the 1920s on the independence in 1960. The press became an industry, profession on a social force for libration of the Nigeria people. The multiple dimension of the press attracted the first set of laws by government against it. These laws over time became a fundamental element in the development of the relationship between the media and government in their joint enterprise of forging the countries democratic process.

The role of the modern press pioneers such as the Late Nnamdi Azikwe and the Late Chief Obafemi Awolowo, among others was to push forward and entrench the role of press as “the watch dog” of Nigeria’s nascent interest.

The media is grouped into print and broadcast media. The print media include: Newspaper, magazine, journals, book, pamphlets, etc. while the broadcast media consist of radio and television. The establishment of Iwe Iroyin fun awon egba ati Yoruba” by Reverend Townsend in Abeokuta in 1959 marked the birth of newspaper in Nigeria.

The initiative later gave rise to the establishment of newspaper outfits like that of Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe in 1931; named “West Africa Pilot” Azikwe’s paper pioneered a general protest against attainment of independence in 1960. The new Nigeria’s Newspaper Limited was established by the then government of the Northern region on 23rd October 1966. The first copy of the papers was issued on 1st January 1966. Before the establishment of new Nigeria newspaper, the Northern Nigeria government has established a Hausa Newspaper in Zaria called Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo in 1965. They simultaneously printed newspaper which enhanced the wise spread of newspaper in Kaduna and Lagos. As at today, Nigeria has various Newspapers ranging form the Nigeria tribune established 16th Novembers 1949. The punch, the Vanguard, the sun, this day tceters, at present, Nigeria has a number of different language newspapers ranging from Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Itsekiri and so on.

The radio on the other hand started in Nigeria on 1936 through the distribution of programme emanating from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in London as part of its overseas service to Lagos, Kano and Ibadan under the arrangement referred to as radifussion. Similarly, in 1959, the Western Nigerian Broadcasting Service (WNBS) was established by Chief Obafemi Awolowo as the first Television station in Nigeria in 1962, The Western region government took full control of the WNBS by buying over, all the shares held by the overseas radiffusion Ltd.

Today Nigeria has thirty six states with each aspiring to set up her own television station in 1976; television stations started becoming colour programme.A new chapter opened in the history of T.V broadcasting in Nigeria with the federal government take over all televisions service in 1978. May state government have however, established more television and radio stations since then and have been competing  favorably with the federal government stations.

In a democratic society, the media is referred to as the fourth estate of the realm; this means that after, the executive arm, legislative, judiciary, the media comes next. Edund  Buke made this ascertain at one of the proceeding of the British parliament after he had mentioned the three well known estates of the realm, the lords spiritual, the lords temporal and the common. He pointed to the press gallery and added “and younger sits the fourth estates, more important of them all”. President J.F Kennedy’s remark on the American press that the president reigns for four years but journalist govern forever, also confirmed the fact that the media is a partner in progress with the government and not a tool. The broad function of the  media are to act as watch-dog over the government, safeguarding the rights of the individual and reporting events accurately, objectively and without bias or prejudice.

However, media ownership tends to have influence on their performance as the “fourth estate of the realm” the degree of freedom of the government owned media cannot be compared with those of private-owned media deliberately avoid criticism of government action and play down stories capable of exposing government secret events when the public interest requires that such story be told to the public. The Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) for example will never transmit any report revealing the secrets of the federal government. The private media even through not entirely free from this faults expose bad acts of especially the government.

Government-owned media are purposely set to give maximum publicity to the government activities and any journalist who does not want to lose his/her job must keep to that policy. This policy also operate in Osun State where the Gold Fm must not Criticnce the government of the day when t he interest of the public is at stake. A good example of when government Rauf Aregbesola refused to show up at the commissioning of the state high court where the vice president was present. The government deliberately ignored the event based on some political crisis between the people’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the Action congress of Nigeria (ANC). Gold FM did not criticize the governor for dishonoring the vice-president in their news content. This is one of the reasons that propelled the researcher to embark on this research work to find out influence of ownership on the performance of Gold F M Ilesha, Osun State.

However, it was gathered that the station may love done this deliberately to get favor from the state government of course; they need financial muscle to survive.

EFFECT OF OWNERSHIP ON PROFESSIONALISM IN THE MEDIA INDUSTRIES (AN APPRAISAL OF NEWS CONTENT OF GOLD FM ILESHA)

COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE: (A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION ON THE AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS ON HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

        In this study an attempt was made to examine whether communication have effect on people’s behavioural change especially on the perception on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

        Question were administered among randomly sampled respondents from the study population. The data obtain was analyzed using table some findings was formulated to direct the study were accepted.

        Thus, there is significant of mass media communication do people perception on HIV/AIDS and increasing their knowledge about HIV/AIDS, raising awareness of personal risk factor and also teaches vulnerable individuals the skill need to reduce risky behaviours.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study

1.2   Statement of the problem

1.3   Research Question

1.4   Significance of the study

1.5   Objective of the study,

1.6   Scope of the study

1.7   Definition of the key terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Forms of communication

2.2   Barriers of communication

2.3   Theoretical framework

2.4   Review of Relation Study

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1   Introduction

3.2   Study population and sample size

3.3   Sample techniques

3.4   Collection of instrument

3.5   Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS OF PRESENTATION OF RESULT

4.1   Introduction

4.2   Analysis of the field performance of the questionnaire      

4.3   Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

        Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY     

        Communication is activities of conveying information as by speech, visuals, signals, writing or behavior; it is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more people or a group of people.

        From the creation of the world, there has being endless needs to inform people about one thing or the other and this shows that communication has become an inseparable part of our lives. Communication has variously defined by many communication experts, erudite scholars and educationists with each of them defining it in accordance with his field of studies, area (s) of interest and prejudices. This accounts for why there has not been one singular acceptable definition of what communication presupposes.

        For instance, it has been viewed as an act of sending or conveying understandable information from the sender to the receiver through an appropriate channel, with the speaker hearer responding to such a message in the form of feedback.

        Communication has equally been defined as a mean of establishing commonness with someone which involves the giving of an understandable message from one person to another through a desirable and adequate channel or medium which the sender has considered fit to be suitable to both the sender, the occasion and of course, the purpose.

        Ajibade (1994) maintain, that “Communication is the generation and attribution of meaning”. Generation starts from the speaker who encodes the communication message in the way that the receiver must understand”.

        According to James Platt “Communication is the process through which individuals observes stimuli through the drawing of references with or without observable concomitant physical responses”.

        Dean Barlund maintains that “Communication arises out of the need to reduce uncertainty to act effectively to define or strengthen the ego”. He further state that the aim of communications is to increase the number and consistency of meanings within the limits set by patterns of evaluations that have proven successful in the past.

        Murphy (1977) defines communication as an exchange of meaning by which one mind affect another, according to him communication is information that register somewhere in the mental structure of the receiver.

        The essential of communication are certain fundamental ingredients which are necessary for communication to take. They are not just essential in the communication process, but also inevitable and compulsory. These elements include knowing who is communicating, what he is communicating, or encoding, the person with whom he is communicating, and of course the channel or the medium he is employing in communicating. Communication may not take place or be effective at best until these components are present and interact effectively among themselves.

        Two communication experts, Shannon and Weaver in 1974 identified five basic communication elements or ingredients; these are source, transmitter, signal, receiver and destination. The Shannon Weaver model has been found useful in describing human communication.

        Nigeria faces a high burden of AIDS with more than three million people already infected with HIV. Other than a slight decrease from 5.8% in 2001 to 5.0% in 2003, the country’s HIV sero prevalence rate has increased progressively since the first case was officially disclosed in 1986. The epidemiologic pattern of HIV infection with sexual behavior, used of contaminated skin piecing instruments and mother-to-child transmission as the principal modes of transmission clearly indicates that behavior modification is central to HIV prevention. The current absence of curative immunological, pharmacological, and related medical interventions against HIV/AIDS make behavioral interventions more critical than for many other diseases of public health importance. To ensure maximum impact behavioral interventions must be examined critically and avenues for strengthening them within national programs and community initiative must be continuously sought.

        Evidence from the successful experience of Uganda indicates that appropriate sexual behavior modification can produce a positive impact equivalent to that of a vaccine with an effectiveness of 80% following their view of the decline of (HIV in Tailand, Zambia and the gay community in the United States, stone burner and low. Beer argued that Uganda is not unique and the successful experiences share several basic elements “the continuum of communication, behavior change, and care”. These success stories stimulates interest in ensuring that HIV related communication programs are sound in concept and produce the desired behavior changes that will halt the spread of HIV and eventually reverse its impact at the population level.

        Ever since the first case of AIDS registered in 1982, the epidemic has continued to be on increased. For instance, an estimated 5.1% to 5.4% of the population has been infected with HIV/AIDS by 1999 and by 2006, 6.1 million of 140 million population is living with HIV/AIDS. The situation becomes worrisome as the number of people with the disease is expected to grow significantly by the end of 2010. Despite the pandemic nature of HIV/AIDS, it was not until 2000 that the Nigeria government recognized HIV/AIDS as a major health problem (FRN 2000). Unfortunately, this was not immediately matched with intensified campaign on HIV/AIDS by government at all level. However, the recent happenings indicates government sudden interest  in fighting the scourge government mounted aggressive campaign in media and posted bills boards in cities and high ways, sensitive song on the danger of the disease, modes of transmission and prevention. There are also responses from. Despite several efforts by government and non-government organization to address the problem, it is dishearted to note that the rate of infection is still very high.

 1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        This study is solely concern with examine the effects of behavioral change on people perception of HIV/AIDS awareness campaign.

        HIV/AIDS is a major health problem, in 2006; Nigeria recorded 6.1 million of 140 million populations living with the disease. One is left wondering if people are aware of the disease and if various campaigns on HIV/AIDS have impact on them. HIV/AIDS remains incurable and devastates many communities and nations. Since the first reported case in the united state in 1981, it has spread unremittingly to virtually every country in the world. The number of people living with the virus has raised from 10 million in 1991 to 33 million in 2007.in 2007, they were 2.7 million new infections and 2 million HIV related deaths. Globally, about 45% of new infected occurred among young people (age 5.24).

        Africa remains the most affected region in the world. Sub-saharan Africa, which has just over 10% of the world’s population is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV and three quarter of all AIDs death (1.5 million deaths) in 2007.

        Nigeria was awakened from its state of disbelief about the presence of the virus is the country by the late Olikoye Ransome Kuti. There is therefore a need to check if really communication through awareness campaign induces behavior or change in behavior in the society.

COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE: (A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION ON THE AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS ON HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE PLANNING ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the study

Planning in the context of education entails the process of setting objectives and determining the means to achieving the objectives. It entails deciding in advance what to be taught how, to teach, when to teach, who is be taught, and the evaluation of recipient.

Planning is the beginning of teaching and learning process, before a teacher goes to the class to deliver any lesson, he plans such lessons while education administrators make policy and plan the curriculum for the school to implement them.

Through planning for a lesson makes the teaching-learning encounter valuable and productive impact. Conversely, no planning leads to a wasteful and unproductive lesson. The motion pervades education at all levels and  in all subject areas (Egbe, 2008).

There appears to be widespread agreement not only on the value of planning, but also on the substance and format of plans. The plan that enlisted universal acceptance contains the purposes, experiences and their organization and evaluation.

If a lesson is to be effective, the teacher needs to make decision in these areas before the lesson. He needs to identify the objectives he intends to develop, the knowledge or subject-matter, objectives as well as the process and effective objectives. He needs to select and organize students learning experience that will develop the objective. He needs to make decision about activities to be used, materials to be gathered, amount of time to be spent, and other matters. Finally, he needs to decide what method or instrument to use to determine whether the teaching accomplished the objective of the lesson.

The notion that effective planning will give direction to teaching and result in worthwhile efficient learning has considerable logical validity. It would seem that careful, detailed planning concerning purposes, experiences and evaluation would result in useful and appropriate teacher behavior in the classroom. But is this assumption valid?

Does planning increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning?

It is against this background that the researcher deemed the subject matter.

The impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process worthy of investigation.

1.2     Statement of problem

The state of teaching is fast deteriorating in primary school in Chikun Local Government Area. Consequently, pupils become disenchanted and apathetic toward learning.

As such it becomes imperative to reappraise the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The main pedagogical problems to consider is: Does effective planning have a beneficial effect on teaching and learning?

Hence, the subject matter of this research the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process becomes an empirical problem worthy of investigation.

1.3     Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the beneficial effect of planning on teaching.
  2. To evaluate how planning affect learning.
  3. To identify the problems militating against planning in schools in the area of the study.
  4. To proffer possible solutions to the identified problems affecting effective planning in schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.4     Research Questions

          i.        What are the beneficial effect of planning on teaching?

          ii.       How does planning affects learning?

          iii.      What are the problems militating against planning in schools?

  • What are the possible solutions to this problems?

1.5     Significance of the study

The study will be useful to schools in Chikun Local Government Areas in particular and other schools in Kaduna and indeed Nigeria. Especially as they utilize the findings of this study as a basis for lesson, planning, administrative planning and general planning of school management. The study will be a good reference material for students, scholars and individuals undertaking similar research. It can be used as a spring board to undertake their own research.

1.6     Basic Assumptions

1.       Planning enhances teaching and learning in primary schools in ChikunLocal Government Area.

2.       Planning give direction to teachers in Chikun Local Government Area.

3.       Planning lead to the actualization of the educational objective of Chikun Local Government Area.

4.       Education planning in school is confronted with problems of inadequate data and skilled personnel in ChikunLocal GovernmentArea from twelve selected primary schools with a total population of 211 respondents using the Crusious (2001) sample size technique which advocate for ten percent of the total population as the appropriate  sample size.

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the study

The study covers an examination of the impact of planning on teaching and learning process in twelve selected primary schools from in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. To this end, the study examines the beneficial effect of planning on teaching as well as learning. The study equally identify the problems militating against effective planning in schools in Chikun Local Government Area as well as making recommendation to the barriers to effective planning’s in schools.

Study covers a time from 2011 to 2012 being the timeframe for this study.

1.8     Definition of Terms

  • Planning: The process of setting objectives and the means to attain educational goals.
  • Curriculum: Sequence of teaching and learning in form of plans and intentions.
  • Lesson plan: Setting specific objective in order to effectively teach what is in a scheme of work.
  • Policy: Framework formulated in order to actualized educational attainment in a state.
  • Forcast: Projection  into future goal attainment in school.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

This chapter reviews related literature on impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The chapter highlights experts’ opinion, established concepts theories and factual statements on the subject matter of this study. The chapter is segmented into the following sub-themes:

  • Theoretical framework
  • Concept of effective planning in school
  • The beneficial effect of planning on teaching
  • The effect of planning on learning
  • The problems militating against planning in school
  • Summary of the Chapter

2.2     Theoretical Framework for education policy and planning

The notion of educational planning-making the education sector grow and function more effectively- may implicitly suggest a well  structured field of unambiguous issues, clearly defined objectives, mutually exclusive choices, undisputed causal relationships, predictable rationalities, and rational decision-makers. Accordingly, sector analysis has predominantly focused on the content-the ‘what’ of educational development: issues, polices, strategies, measures, outcomes etc. In contrast of this simplistic vision, educational planning is actually a series of untidy and overlapping episodes in which a variety of people and organizations with diversified perspectives are actively involved-technically and politically. It entails the processes through which issues are analyzed and polices are generated, implemented, assessed and redesigned. Accordingly, an analysis of the education sector implies an understanding of the education policy process itself-the ‘how’ and ‘when’ of educational development. The purpose of this section is to suggest a scheme or series of steps through which sound and workable polices can be formulated, and then, through effective planning, put into effect, evaluated and redesigned.

          Policy definition and Scope

Since the policy process is a crucial element in educational planning, it is essential to clarify the concepts of ‘policy’ and ‘policy making’ before proceeding any further. Understandably, competing definitions of ‘policy’ are numerous and varied. For the purposes of this paper, policy is defined functionally to mean: an explicit or implicit single decision or group of decisions which may set out directives for guiding future decisions, initiate or retard action, or guide implementation of previous decisions. Policy making is the first step in any planning cycle and  planners must appreciate the dynamics of policy formulation before they can design implementation and evaluation procedures effectively.

Polices, however, differ in terms of their scope, complexity, decision environment, range of choices, and decision criteria. This range is schematically depicted. Issue-specific polices are short-term decisions involving day-to-day management or, as the term implies, a particular issue. A programme policy is concerned with the design of a programme in a particular area, while a multi-programme policy decision deals with competing programme areas. Finally, strategic decisions deal with large-scale polices and broad resource allocations. For example:

Strategic: How can we provide basic education at a reasonable cost to meet equity and efficiency objectives?

Multi -programme: Should resources be allocated to primary education or to rural training centers?

Programme: How should training centers be designed and provided across the country?

Issue-specific: Should graduates of rural centres be allowed to go into intermediate schools?

Another example:

Strategic: Should we or do we need to introduce diversified education?

Multi-programme: How should we allocate resources between general education, vocational education, and diversified education?

Programme: How and where should we provide diversified education?

Issue-specific: How should practical subjects been taught in diversified schools?

Obviously, the broader the scope of policy is, the more problematic it becomes. Methodological and political issues become more pronounced such as, definition of the problem in conflictive societies: use of analytical techniques and optimizing: questions of proper theoretical base, measurement, valuation and aggregation, hard objective data vs. soft subjective data; and technical analysis vs. public participation.

THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE PLANNING ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS

BROADCAST MEDIA: TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OYUN VILLAGE ILORIN)

ABSTRACT

The study is a critical examination of the role of broadcast media as tools for effective rural development. The rural means of communication is still the epitome for rural development. These broadcast medium of communication includes the following: radio, television and some modern means of communication such as the internet etc.

However, both primary and secondary data will be used in gathering information for the study. The secondary data will come as a review of documented materials, while the primary data will be obtained with the help of questionnaire and oral interview, and will be administered to the rural dwellers with the help of the researcher, who will help the unlettered ones to fill in the boxes by explaining the questions to them.

A total of 383 questionnaire will be distributed precisely to the Magaji of Oyun Village.

The data collected will be tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The four hypotheses formulated will be tested using chi-square method respectively.

          The findings of the study will show among others that the broadcast media is a tool for an effective rural development.    

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                     vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   Introduction/Background of the study

1.2   Statement of the problem

1.3   Purpose/Objective of the study

1.4   Significance of the study

1.5   Research Question

1.6   Research Hypothesis

1.7   Scope of the study/Determination

1.8   Conceptual and Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

THORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Theoretical framework

2.2   Strength of democratic participant theory

2.3   Research studies review

2.4   Radio as veritable tools for development

2.5   Roles of the development radio

2.6   Radio development, prospect and challenges

2.7   Media ownership of the study

2.8   Factors that militates against the rural communication development.  

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN

3.1   Research methodology

3.2   Research design

3.3   Population of the study

3.4   Sample and sampling techniques

3.5   Instrumentation

3.6   Validity of the instrument

3.7   Method of administration of the instrument

3.8   Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT

4.1   Analysis of the field performance of the instrument

4.2   Testing of research hypothesis

4.3   Disclosure of findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

        References

        Bibliographies

        Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Inspite of the fact that broadcasting historians could not provide the exact date of the beginning of radio, which is the fore runner of television, they agreed that the start of regular broadcasting service was in 1920.

It will be no understatement that it was a fore runner in developing primitive communities via its informing, educating and entertaining that the rural dwellers. Although, one could be wondering that the rate at which the urban areas in early ages and now get influenced by radio rural areas which have restricted access to this modern means of communication.

However, they still get influenced by broadcast media and the garment of influence can only depend on the government welfare in catering for its rural dwellers a they only have limited resources to have access to this mediated information of the broadcast media.

Another issue to be addressed is the perception and mindset of rural dwellers towards broadcast media and their message. Most rural dwellers believe that broadcast message are only meant for the sophisticated and the few of them that believe that the broadcast message is also meant for them had already developed the belief that most broadcast media message. Information are based on nothing but propaganda and even some of them find that broadcast programme and message are the abstract. As a result, they have little or no time to listen to them coming up with the statement that “I have preference in spending more time in the farm than listen to those mendacious stories of the broadcast media which is of little benefit to me”.

Ayo dujile 2005 XIV this is because rural dweller engage in either farming or fishing activities and see no reason to listen to broadcast that is not meant for the rustic people.

How can could the media solve the problem of in accessibility of broadcast media message in the rural setting? And broadcast media via its programme improve on it by inoculating the long built – in attitude of the rural dwellers towards mediated information of the media? It is against this back drop that this study is based and it will be examining the role broadcast media can play in grassroots development. Radio in particular is believed to be the most accessible to the rural dweller given the low cost of buying and of maintenance. In addition, people’s attitude would be measured on the broadcast media and their contents available to them.

The frame work of this project is to critically examine the broadcast media tool for effective rural development – the term broadcasting refer to the totality of the communication and technology process that allows for the transmission of audio. Visual signals to a large heterogeneous mass of people simultaneously. The inclusion of radio and television media under the generic term “MASS MEDIA” is justified because of their ability to reach large part of the population and their message is meant for public reception.

According to Head and Stealing (1982) “mass media are those means of communication that use technology to reach large part of the population almost simultaneously with the kind of news and entertainment ordinary people kind attractive and at a price that ordinary people can afford to pay”.

BROADCAST MEDIA: TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OYUN VILLAGE ILORIN)

THE USE OF SILDENAFIL AMONG MALES IN BENIN CITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Sildenafil citrate is a potent, competitive phosphodiesterase type 5 isoenzyme inhibitor, it was the first in a class of effective oral treatment for erectile dysfunction(ED) of varying etiologies including erectile dysfunction associated with drugs, diabetes, other general medical conditions and spinal cord injury (Giulinao et al). Sildenafil citrate was initially studied for use in hypertension and angina pectoris but since it induced penile erection to patients who took the drug in clinical trials (ABM), Pfizer decided to market it for erectile dysfunction rather than Angina, and was approved for use for erectile dysfunction by the FDA on March 27th 1998.  Sildenafil popularity with young adults has increased over the years (Peterson, 2001). The availability of sildenafil has changed the view of ED management, as well as increased patient access to disease management resources.(Boyce et.al 2001). A significant portion of the literature describing the use of sildenafil in recreational settings comes from Great Britain. The authors of one British review in 2000 reported that the PDE5 inhibitor was supplied via the Internet, as well as from street sources.(Downie et.al 2000) Opioid abusers were seeking the drug to improve sexual performance that might be adversely affected by long-term opiate use. Healthy menwere also seeking the drug in the belief that it would improve their sexual performance. The perceived risks of obtaining sildenafil via such online sources were assessed in 1999. Ten virtual pharmacies that sold sildenafil pursuant to an online prescription issued by an affiliated physician were assessed for their extent of dispensing the drug despite evident patient contraindications.(Eysenbach et.al1999)  Investigators posed as a 69-year-old obese woman with coronary artery disease and hypertension who complained of having “no orgasm.” Concomitant medications that were listed on the patient’s request form were captopril, pravastatin, atenolol, and erythromycin. One pharmacy offered to supply cimetidine tablets to be used in conjunction with sildenafil, with the explanation that concomitant use would lead to a “56% increase in plasma sildenafil concentrations…increased effectiveness would be noted with the same dose of Viagra taken with 800 mg of cimetidine.”(Eysenbachet al 1999) Three companies provided the requested drug, one of which sent an e-mail message advising the patient to discontinue the use of her other medications when taking sildenafil. Of those that failed to ship the product, two cited importation restrictions, three unknown benefits of the drug in women, and one cardiovascular concerns. The mean purchase cost per tablet was approximately twice that of prescription sildenafil obtained from a U.S. community pharmacy.

Erectile dysfunction is defined as the inability to achieve and sustain an erection of adequate rigidity for satisfactory sexual intercourse during sexual activity of humans. Penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis. The process is most often initiated as a result of sexual arousal,when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the penis. The most important organic causes are cardiovascular disease,diabetes , neurological problems(for example,trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiency (hypogonadism) and the drug side effects.

Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feeling (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility;this is somewhat less frequent but can often be helped. Notably in psychological impotence there is a strong response to placebo treatment. Erectile dysfunction can have severe psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and masculine self-image.

Besides treating the underlying causes such as potassium deficiency or arsenic contamination of drinking water, the first line treatment of erectile dysfunction consist of a trial of PDE5 inhibitors drugs(the first of which was sildenafil ) .In some cases treatment involves prostaglandin tablets in the urethra ,injections into the penis ,a penile prosthesis ,a penis pump or vascular  reconstructive surgery.

Erectile dysfunction affects approximately 10% of men and higher percentages of men of advanced age.(Krenzelok et al 2000). In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sildenafil (Viagra®—Pfizer), the first drug in the  phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitor class, for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction (ED). As of 2002, the drug was marketed in more than 110 countries, and more than 100 million prescriptions had been issued for the agent.( Padma-Nathan  et al,2002) The availability of sildenafil has changed the view of ED management, as well as increased patient access to disease management resources.( Boyce  et al 2001) Along with the more recently marketed tadalafil (Cialis®—Lilly ICOS) and vardenafil Levitra®—Bayer HealthCare/ GlaxoSmithKline), sildenafil is now considered a first-line agent for treatment of ED, surpassing the use of intracavernosal or intraurethral prostaglandins, oral androgens, and vacuum devices. When used so widely, safety of medications is a particular concern, as even rare adverse effects affect substantial numbers of patients.

Erectile dysfunction is estimated to affect up to 30million men in the United States (Aytac et.al 1999). The disorder is age associated (Goldstein  et.al 1998) with estimated prevalence rates of 39 percent among men 40 years old and 67 percent among those 70 years old (Data on file  2005) .

 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Sildenafil citrate is widely used as an effective and safe oral treatment for erectile dysfunction of various etiologies (Goldstein et al., 1998; Cheitlin et al., 1999; Benchekroun et al., 2003). It is a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzymes that acts to break down cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) (Boolell et al., 1996). The medication amplifies the effect of sexual stimulation by retarding the degradation of this enzyme. Sildenafil has been found effective in several subpopulations of men with erectile dysfunction, including sufferers from diabetes (Basu and Ryder, 2004), hypertension (Feldman et al., 1999), spinal cord injuries (Hultling et al., 2000; Deforge et al., 2006), multiple sclerosis (Fowler et al., 2005), depression (Seidman et al., 2001; Rosen et al., 2004; Tignol et al., 2004; Fava et al., 2006), PTSD (Orr et al., 2006), and schizophrenia (Aviv et al., 2004; Gopalakrishnan et al., 2006), men after resection of the prostate or radical prostatectomy (Nandipati et al., 2006), after renal transplant (Sharma et al., 2006), men on dialysis (Dachille et al., 2006), and men aged 65 years and older (Wagner et al., 2001; Carson, 2004). 

 Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) patients are excellent candidates for sildenafil citrate therapy due to the intact neurovascular pathway. Nevertheless, the drug has been reported to be effective only in about 78% of patients with psychogenic ED (McMahon et al., 2000). It is likely that performance anxiety and sympathetic overtone are the cause of this unresponsiveness to sildenafil citrate during awakening, though data supporting this assumption are lacking (Rosen, 2001). The drug has been found to be effective and well tolerated in men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction of no clinically identifiable organic cause (Eardley, 2001). 

With the presence of PDE5 in choroidal and retinal vessels sildenafil citrate increase choroidal blood flow and cause vasodilation of the retinal vasculature. The most common symptoms are a blue tinge to vision and an increased sensitivity to light (Kerr and Danesh Meyer, 2009). Adverse effects include headache, visual and retinal disturbances, dizziness and pupil-sparing third nerve palsy (Monastero et al., 2001). There have been reports of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and serous macular detachment in users of PDE5 inhibitors; although a causal relationship has not been conclusively shown. Despite the role of cGMP in the production and drainage of aqueous humor these medications do not appear to alter intraocular pressure and are safe in patients with glaucoma. All PDE5 inhibitors weakly inhibit PDE6 located in rod and cone photoreceptors resulting in mild and transient visual symptoms that correlate with plasma concentrations. Psychophysical tests reveal no effect on visual acuity, visual fields or contrast sensitivity; however, some studies show a mild and reversible impairment of blue-green colour discrimination. PDE5 inhibitors transiently alter retinal function on electroretinogram testing but do not appear to be retinotoxic. Despite the role of cyclic nucleotides in tear production there is no detrimental effect on tear film quality. Based on the available evidence PDE5 inhibitors have a good ocular safety profile (Kerr and Danesh-Meyer, 2009).

THE USE OF SILDENAFIL AMONG MALES IN BENIN CITY

THE ROLE OF EVANGELISM IN CHURCH GROWTH IN ESAN EAST DISTRICT OF ASSEMBLIES OF GOD NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The greatest commandment of the Lord is preaching the gospel all over the world.

It is the duty of all Christians to preach the gospel to the world. If we are negligent about it, we may lose God’s blessings. When we study the way Jesus preached the gospel, we see that He personally met people individually and called them to become His disciples. Those who met Jesus personally became evangelists themselves, proclaimed God’s Word, and expanded the church. Jesus built the church so that it would do His work after He left this earth. Therefore, it is the mission of the church to go out and preach the gospel. To carry out this mission the author’s church held Evangelism Mobilization Day, through which every church member could participate in evangelism and realize the importance of training. With the example of Assemblies of God church members, this project shows the role of evangelism in church growth.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    

The primary task of Christians in the world is to go into the world in order to preach the Goodnews to all creatures, a command which was given by Jesus Christ. (Mark 16: 15-16). In relation to evangelism in Africa and the entire world, it seems likely that many Christians have neglected their roles in the society. It seems that the attention of many Christians is now directed towards fulfilling their own will to the detriment of the Gospel.

There is no denying the fact that by reading the “signs of the times” the Christian Church in Africa and the developing world develops its unique self-understanding in response to the challenges posed by Africa’s Socio-economic, political and cultural context. Whether we construe the character of this response as “message” or as “mission,” the crucial point lies in the fact that the Church’s relevance and credibility depend on how effectively it addresses the prevailing social context in Africa and the entire developing world. The Church in Africa has the option of either preaching a Gospel which responds to the structural challenges of a continent which to many is marginalized or the African Christians will find themselves sinking with the unfulfilled hopes of Africans. If the Church in Africa neglects this African context, certainly she stands the chance of risking the loss of the Church’s relevance and credibility. (Orobabor 2000: 160-168).

In the midst of the present level of development in Africa and the entire world, there is the urgent need for evangelism and re-evangelisation of people with a view to bringing forth a Church that is growing at a reasonable speed. Here, we assert that apart from the non-Christians being brought to the true knowledge of God through Jesus Christ, professed Christians need to be re-focussed to their calling as evangelizers.

In this work therefore, we have examined such issues as the definition of evangelism, Jesus the visible sign of the world, the works of the Apostles, the spread of the Goodnews, Evangelism and the Church, who sends?, the challenges facing evangelisation, and the implication of evangelism on Church growth. It is envisaged that this work will stimulate further research as far as the issue of evangelism and Church growth is concerned.

1.2    Statement of the Problem   

In these days of rapidly changing and highly advanced civilizations, people seem to enjoy affluence and happiness but inwardly they have lots of troubles and are struggling with distress. The explosive population surge has made the earth crowded. It is a tragedy that 75% of the world’s population is non-Christian and people wander around and feel left out even among a crowd. What is more deplorable is that it is not easy to maintain intimate and meaningful relationships with others. Therefore, a sudden encounter with a stranger makes one fear because he might be a threat to his own life and dignity.

This is a problem in personal evangelism. Shunning away from evangelistic conversation can be understood as another aspect of this social phenomenon. However, Jesus and His disciples effectively preached the gospel to the crowds and to individuals with all the problems of their day. Jesus and his disciples placed the same amount of importance both on preaching the gospel to the crowd and preaching the gospel to individuals. We should not neglect any of the methods Jesus and his disciples used in their day. The characteristics and advantages of preaching the gospel to individuals are that evangelists get to meet with the individuals face to face and thus develop a more intimate relationship with them. Preaching the gospel to individuals has been found to be more effective than preaching to the crowds in leading people to the Lord and contributes more to church growth in the long run.

The author has witnessed this phenomenon as a minister in his own church. All sorts of efforts, such as church retreats, door-to-door evangelism, evangelizing the poor by helping them out, and gospel preaching through letters, have been found to be far less efficient ways of church growth than personal evangelism. That is why the author has concluded that personal evangelism (preaching the gospel face to face) is a more effective method for church growth.

“God had only one son and He made that Son a missionary.” 2 Jesus thought highly of personal evangelism and understood it correctly. C. E. Autrey said, “personal evangelism is in the center of the gospel preaching of Christ. By successfully preaching the gospel to his first disciple, Andrew, Jesus showed him how to present the gospel to his brother Simon and bring him to Jesus.

What did Jesus preach to Andrew? He preached the gospel from heaven. What is the gospel from heaven? In Luke 19: 10, Jesus spoke of the purpose of his coming to the earth. “For the Son of Man came to seek and to save what was lost.” (The New International Version is used to quote the Bible passages in the study.) Mark 10:45 also says, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” He was clearly aware of the purpose God had in sending Him to the earth, believed it, and witnessed about it. Jesus clearly declared himself as Messiah to Andrew. Andrew firmly believed that and became the first individual evangelist.

According to the New Testament, Andrew is the first evangelist of those who met Jesus on the earth (John 1:41). Andrew, on the other hand, had heard what John the

Baptist had said before he followed Jesus. It can be found in John 1:29, “The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!'” After Jesus was baptized and went up out of the water, John the Baptist clearly listened to the voice from heaven that said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased” and John saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove on Jesus. After that, Andrew personally met Jesus and accepted him as his Messiah.

What was it that Andrew was eager to do right after he met Jesus? The first thing Andrew did was to find his brother Simon and tell him, “We have found the Messiah.”

He personally preached the gospel to another individual. 4 He brought his brother Peter to Jesus and Peter became one of Jesus’ disciples (John 1 :42). Peter was Jesus’ topnotch disciple, who disowned Jesus three times in the middle of the courtyard while Jesus was being accused before Pilate. Later, on the day of Pentecost, however, Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, addressed the crowd, and led about three thousand to accept his message and get baptized. The number grew to about five thousand and more people were added to their number daily and this greatly helped expand the church of Jerusalem. This is a good example of church growth made possible through personal evangelism. Jesus showed Andrew and then Andrew witnessed to Peter.

This gives us a lesson that personal evangelism may seem like a little yeast or a mustard seed but that it has the potential to greatly expand the Lord’s kingdom. A little yeast works through the whole batch of dough and a mustard seed, though it is the smallest of all the seeds, yet when it grows, is the largest of garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and perch in its branches. These examples might suggest the expansion of God’s kingdom and the church growth through personal evangelism. All these metaphors are used to reveal what Jesus did on the cross. When we believe that Jesus died on the cross to forgive our sin and was resurrected with the work of Holy Spirit, we are saved. This is the gospel. The evangelist should deliver this simple truth to individuals. Since only Christ is our gospel, we need to preach that Jesus Christ, who is the perfect God and perfect man, is the only Savior of mankind. Thus, Calvin said that every fallen human being should seek salvation in Christ the Lord. In Acts 4: 12, the apostle Peter said, “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.” Jesus Christ is our only salvation and gospel.

1.3    Objectives of the Study 

The objectives of this study include:

(i) To determine whether evangelism is needed in every church

(ii) To find out the constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism.
(iii) To highlight the impacts of evangelism in church growth.

1.4    Research Questions  

(i)      Is evangelism needed in every church?

(ii)     What are the constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism?

(iii)    What are the impacts of evangelism in the church?

1.5    Research Hypotheses        

As a guide to achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

1.       HO:    Evangelism is not needed in every church

          HA:    Evangelism is needed in every church

2.       HO:    There is no priority of evangelism, most church ministries are not intentionally evangelistic and laypersons believe that evangelism is what they pay the pastors to do are not constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism.

THE ROLE OF EVANGELISM IN CHURCH GROWTH IN ESAN EAST DISTRICT OF ASSEMBLIES OF GOD NIGERIA

WOMEN AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN IBIBIO LAND (1885-1970)

ABSTRACT

Women and their contributions to the socio-economic development in the society is often rooted in controversies. This may be traced to their changing roles in terms of traditions, cultures, customs and beliefs. This dissertation invites attention to the prime contributions of Use-Offot women to the socio-economic development of Ibibioland. It examined the role of Use-Offot women in the socio-economic development of Ibibio society, from the pre-colonial period and terminates at the early years of post-colonial era (1885-1970). A review of related literature was done and investigation carried out in the course of this study and it was discovered that for any meaningful socio-economic development to occur in the society, there must be changes in discriminatory behviours, attitudes and values against women. It was also discovered that involving women in the socio-economic development programme of a society ensure a rapid development of the society. The finding of this study expose the fact that significant relationship existed between the level of educational attainment of women and women’s contribution to socio-economic development of the society, women’s active participation in politics and their contributions to development. The purpose of the present study is to access the social and economic development process of Ibibioland within the period being studied; to examine the contributions of women in the socio-economic development of Ibibioland; to assess how gender (sex) has affected the contributions of women to the socio-economic development of Ibibioland; to examine how the socio-economic development of Ibibioland has affected the status of women and to assess the socio-economic transformation in Ibibioland, and its impact on women within the period. This study employed the multi-disciplinary approach and recourse was made to other disciplines such as sociology, economics, political science, literary arts, religion, psychology and anthropology in the course of investigation. The crux of this paper is that socio-economic development of any society is centred on humans, and it is devoid of gender exclusivity. It was generally observed that Ibibio women has shown excellent industry in their ability and resolve to contribute to the socio-economic development of the society. It was also observed that the pre-colonial Ibibio women have transformed tremendously as could be seen in their educational attainment, population growth, technological advancement and feminine regime. Based on these findings, recommendations were made for the integration of more women into socio-economic development programmes of Akwa Ibom State.

TABLE OF CONTENT

WOMEN AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN IBIBIOLAND (1885-1970)

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….(i)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………(1)

1.1 Purpose of the study ………………………………………………………(1-3)

Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………..(3-4)

1.2 SCOPE of the Study………………………………………………………..(4-5)

1.3 Methodology…………………………………………………………………(5-6)   

CHAPTER TWO

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN IN PRE-COLONIAL IBIBIOLAND

2.1 Pre-colonial Ibibio Society……………………………………………….(7-12)

2.2 Status of Women in Pre-colonial Ibibioland……………………………..(12-14)

2.2.1 Eka Ekpo Society……………………………………………………….(14-15)

2.2.2 Iban Isong (women of the land)………………………………………..(15-16)

2.2.3 Ebre (Water Yam)……………………………………………………….(16-17)

2.2.4    Idiong Cult………………………………………………………………(17-18)           

2.3  Socio-economic Role of Women in Pre-colonial Ibibioland……………..(18-19)          

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Socio-economic Status of Women in Colonial Ibibioland (1900-1960

3.1       Traditional Role of Women (1900-1960)……………………………(20-26)

3.2       The Socio-Economic Role of Women…………………………………(27-29)  

3.3       Women’s war of 1929 (Ekong Iban)……………………………………(29-30)

CHAPTER FOUR

Socio-economic Status of Ibibio Women in the Post-colonial Era to 1970.

4.1       Status of Ibibio Women in Post-colonial Era (1960-1970)…………….(31-32)

4.2       Socio-economic Role of Ibibio Women in Post-colonial Era……………(32-33)

4.3       Constraints to Ibibio Women’s Participation in Socio Economic Development in Post Colonial era……………………………………………………………….(34-41)

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary…………………………………………………………………………(42)

5.2       Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….(42-44)

PRIMARY SOURCES

ORAL INTERVIEWS ………………………………………………………………….(45-46)

PRIMARY SOURCES: ORAL INTERVIEWS-GROUPS………………………….(47)

ARCHIVAL SOURCES…………………………………………………………………(47)

REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………….(48-52)

B) ARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………(53)

UNPUBLISHED PAPERS AND THESIS …………………………………………….(54)

APPENDIX I………………………………………………………………………………(56)

APPENDIX II………………………………………………………………………………(57)

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Development of any human society could hardly be attainable, without women roles being involved, acknowledged and appreciate. No human society is complete without women folk. This is because women form about half the population of the world in general. She also stated that any society which neglect such a large number of human resources potential cannot achieve any meaningful development. The role of women in the socio-economic development of the country have received adequate attention in recent times, in Nigeria women contribution is highly noticeable and have been effective in time past. People are becoming aware of the need of the women population in contributing to decision making structure and procedures. This reality is also articulated in Amucheazi (1991) when he described African traditional society women as being hardworking and resourceful. Notably, women engages themselves in income generating activities of various forms such as food production example of such involves palm oil processing, garri harvesting, making of soaps and cleaning agents, and also getting involved in sowing, pottery, animal husbandry, food processing and distribution. They do all these not excluding their role of home management.

Nevertheless women feel they have been marginalized or denied of their identity or place in it, not giving them an active voice but are been pushed to the edge of the society and also being pressured, expecting them to act a certain way based in stereotypes held about women. This is a gender conflict that needs to be addressed. This is why in 1946, the united Nation set up a commission on the status of women with the aim of focusing on the promotion if women’s rights in political economy, social and educational fields.

Also, studies have shown that increasing women’s participation in leadership positions decreases corruption as “women are less involved in bribery, and are less likely to condone bribe taking” A study on gender and corruption from 2000 also found that “cross-country data show that corruption is less severe where women hold a larger share of parliamentary seats and senior positions in the government bureaucracy, and comprise a larger share of the labor force” 

Additionally, according to another study, “the degree to which a system successfully includes women can indicate a propensity for the system to include other disenfranchised minorities”. Women and socio-economic development is an inclusive term used to signify a concept whose long-range goal is the well-being of the society, the people which includes the men, women and children.

The Ibibio people are from Southern Nigeria and are related to the Annang and Efik peoples. During the pre-colonial era in Ibibio society ‘polygamy’ was an accepted standard. In this kind of society the Ibibio women were born and groomed and later giving out in marriage. Ibibio women had well define roles not as a person who is a legal property of another but a thing that contributes extra features to another in such a way as to improve or emphasize its quality. This was shown in the help they rendered to men in procreation, socio-economic development and their support in their everyday life, for example in the respect of family. There was interdependence between male and female in the pre-colonial Ibibio society where there was mutual support and the women either married or not involved themselves in trade or other productive activities or occupation from which Agriculture was supplemented this includes hair making, cloth weaving and making, pottery, planting and harvesting food crops and so on.

On the other hand, the men were involved in the clearing of bushes for farming, gathering and burning the waste, hunting, fishing, tilling of the soil which were tagged as men’s job in the society in pre-colonial era. The role of Nigerian women in development revolved mainly around their effort in different sector of economic pattern in which they participated effectively (Talbot 1968:34). It was rare to see a woman totally depend on her husband, but since the advent of the colonial masters which influence the belief that held Ibibio women together started to lose strength and gradually fail. It was the introduction of western civilization, Christianity and a new system of government controlled by men into the Ibibio society that made prominent the separation of the Ibibio women bound which led to the adaptation of the new change.

Having stated the role of women, the socio-economic development of the society and judging from the contribution of rural women in the development of their communities one could be right to imagine that women are embodiment of national development which could be seen in their educational attainment, population growth, technological advancement and feminine regime. 

WOMEN AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN IBIBIO LAND (1885-1970)