1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Literacy which involves the skills of teaching, writing, and learning, is the bedrock of any meaningful development of any country, Nigeria inclusive. No society can develop beyond its literacy level. The human capital resources of a country can function only within the ambit of their literacy level. Illiteracy has been said to be a world problem that can hamper growth and development especially in developing countries Like Nigeria. Otagburuagu (2007) asserted that a UNESCO human development report shows that between 1970 and 2001, 950 million adults in developing countries were described as illiterates not able to read nor write. Portraying the state of literacy in Nigeria, Otagburuagu further noted that out of over 170 million Nigerians, more than 60 million people are illiterates. The high level of illiteracy in Nigeria has been a major source of concern for successive Nigerian government over the years. Former president of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo (2000) was of the opinion that inspite of the government’s efforts of combating illiteracy; over 50% of Nigerians were illiterates. The President also bemoan the wide gender disparity among the literate citizens of Nigeria stating that 62.5% literate Nigerian are males write only 39.5% are females. The awful illiteracy level in Nigeria especially among the women folk could have resulted to the giant stride taken by the president towards the eradication of illiteracy by launching Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 1999. UBE Programme aims at combating illiteracy among children; youths and adults by providing free and compulsory education. There is high level of school enrollment as a result of the introduction of UBE. There has been high level of sensitization among illiterate adults, especially women on the importance of enrolling in adult literacy classes. However, literacy is not acquired for its own sake. It is a means to an end. For adult literacy programme to be meaningful in the lives of the recipients, it has to be functional. According to Offorma (2007), functionality is the ability to transfer knowledge gained from scholarship to solve ones or societal problems. Asiedu and Oyedeji (1985) stated that functional literacy is an intellectual equipment for the individual to enable him/her become not only literate but perform other tasks that are of benefit to him/her and to the society in which he/she lives. Functional literacy is work-oriented, career, or occupation oriented literacy. Women in West African countries are generally impoverished, live in servitude and relegated to the background due to illiteracy. Therefore literacy programme for the women should not be limited to just teaching,reading, writing and computing. Adult literacy programme for the women should be functional, treating the women participants in a group context within an environment or occupation with a view to satisfying their collective and individual needs in order to make them functional members of their society.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Based on this study, the enrolment and completion pattern of female adult learners attending adult literacy programs in Gordon dutse women centre of Kano State and in Nigerian generally, women have been relegated to the background. They are therefore seen as second class citizens which is stigmatization at the highest order. They are seen as a reproduction means only useful for children up-brining. Excluded from neither taking up official appointments nor appearing in public places and functions. The belief was that women are to be seen and not to be heard. Women are denied access to western education as they are believed to be another man’s properties. Nigerian parents out of ignorance paid greater attention to the training and education of their male child; women were victims of all kinds of traditions and beliefs. The eventual result is that they were neglected, illiterates, unexposed and do not contribute to socio-economic and political development. The researcher in this study tries to investigate the literacy education programme that has been in place for the women as to the government in Kano State in particular realized the need for women literacy education in order to empower them. It is also believed that providing women literacy education for women would re-awaken them from mental slavery, create awareness and make them useful to themselves. Literacy education on empowerment of women will enable them become socio-economic buoyant, self-reliant and more actively engaged in their country’s social, political development and yield high dividends. It will serve as a process of eradicating inequalities between women and their male counterparts.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the enrolment and completion pattern of female adult learners attending the adult literacy program in Gordon dutse women centre Kano state. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To determine the benefit of female adult literacy programs.
2. To examine the frequency of female enrolment and completion in adult literacy programs in Nigeria.
3. To determine the factors affecting female enrolment and completion pattern in adult literacy programs.
4. To highlight the need for female education in Nigeria.
5. To recommend ways of improving female enrolment and completion in adult literacy programs across Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the benefits of female adult literacy programs in Nigeria?
2. What is the frequency of female enrolment and completion in adult literacy programs in Nigeria?
3. What are the factors affecting female enrolment and completion pattern in adult literacy programs?
4. What are the ways of improving female enrolment and completion in adult literacy programs across Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: The enrolment and completion of female adult learners does not have an effect on the development of adult education in Nigeria.
H1: The enrolment and completion of female adult learners has an effect on the development of adult education in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would greatly benefit government at all levels especially the Kano state government and other related stakeholders as it would reveal the enrolment and completion pattern of female adult learners attending adult literacy programs. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the enrolment and completion pattern of female adult learners attending adult literacy programs in Gordon dutse women centre,Kano state.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.