Table of Contents
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 3
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – – 4
Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 4
Research Questions – – – – – – – – 5
Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Rationale for the Motivation of Agricultural Science teachers – 6
What is motivation? – – – – – – – – 7
Deficiency Needs of Agricultural Science teachers – – – 16
Growth Need of Agricultural Science teachers — – – – 17
Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction – – – – – 18
Incentives – – – – – – – – – – 20
Summary – – – – – – – – – – 27
Problem of Learning – – – – – – – – – 28
Motivating the Agricultural Science teachers — – – 29
Summary of Review Of Related Literature – – – – 33
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design – – – – – – – – 34
Area of the Study – – – – – – – – 34
Population – – – – – – – – – – 34
Sample – – – – – – – – – – 34
Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 35
Validation of the Instrument – – – – – – – 36
Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – – 36
Data collection – – – – – – – – 36
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 37
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Restatement of the Problems – – – – – – 41
Summary – – – – – – – – 41
Major Findings – – – – – – – – – 42
Discussion of Finding – – – – – – – – 43
Implication of the Study – – – – – – – 45
Recommendation – – – – – – – 45
Suggestion for further study – – – – – – – 46
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 46
References – – – – – – – – – – 48
The study sought to identify the motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Secondary Schools in Kaduna North LGA of Kaduna State.. Among the specific purpose of the study were: The study identified the deficiencies, growth needs and problems of Agricultural Science teachers in carrying out their duties, literature was reviewed pertinent to the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The study covered agricultural science teachers in some selected secondary schools in the LGA. The population of the study is 85 Agricultural Science teachers. There was no sampling since the population is not so large. Well structured questionnaire was used which was made up of the three sections. The cronbach alpha method was used and the data obtained was analyzed using mean statistic. The findings revealed that housing transportation and medical facilities were some of the deficiencies needs of the respondents while promotion, in –service training , office accommodation w ere some of the growth need of the respondents and some of the problems agricultural science teachers faced, where lack of classrooms and laboratories. The implication of this finding was that lack of motivation the agricultural science teachers will result in poor performances of students. Some of the recommendations made were, agricultural science teachers, parents and the whole community, should be involved in decision making concerning the students and in-services course made compulsory.
Background of the Study
From a global perspective civilization began with agriculture, when our nomadic ancestors began to settle and grow their own food, human society was forever changed (Nova, 1996). Not only did villages, towns and cities begin to flourish, but so did knowledge, the arts and the technological sciences. Agriculture has an immense impact to humanity in terms of global food supplies, hunger alleviation, economic development and provision of employment (Nova, 1996). Therefore agriculture can be considered to be a pillar for human survival and hence the importance of agriculture being taught at all levels of education. In the U.S.A, formal programs in agricultural education are conducted at secondary schools, community colleges and universities. As a vocational educational program, agricultural education focuses on three major components – formal classroom instruction, career experience programmes and leadership development. These components are delivered through a competency based curriculum in the context of agriculture in the USA (Lloyd and Osborne, 1988). Beyond the secondary agriculture program, community colleges and universities provide excellent opportunities for students to specialize and gain skills and knowledge in agriculture (Williams and Dollisso, 1998).
Agriculture is the traditional foundation of Chinese society and China is facing a great challenge in restructuring its system to meet the needs of the market economy. The country’s economic system is shifting from a centrally planned to a market–driven system (State Council, 1999). In particular agricultural education is playing an important role in preparing people for a new phase of rural development. According to Xiarong and Thomas (2002) China‟s economic reform movement proposed Agriculture curriculum and strategies to meet the needs of the new economic realities in Chinese agricultural education. In sub-Saharan Africa, the agricultural sector is still the dominant provider of employment, and it remains crucial for economic growth. Moreover in most parts of Africa food security is still a critical issue and therefore food production will continue to be a major focus of agricultural education and training institutions (Vandenbosch, 2006). In some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture has been introduced in general school curricula at secondary education levels as a compulsory or as an optional subject. The rationale for offering agriculture to secondary school students counter the apparent negative attitude to farming by many secondary school students, whose occupational choices are often limited, and thus exposing them to the knowledge and skills that they would require in agricultural production, should they choose to become farmers (Abalu, 2001).
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for Nigerian and therefore teaching the subject in secondary schools effectively is very important (Mwangi and Mwai, 2002).
In Nigeria, learners are taught agriculture at secondary school level to develop self reliance in agriculture, to demonstrate that farming is a dignified and profitable occupation and to enhance skills needed in carrying out agricultural practices. This is to develop occupational outlook in agriculture and to enable schools to take an active part in National development through agricultural activities (Vandenbosch, 2006). The objectives of the secondary school education are aimed at preparing students to make a positive contribution to the development of society and to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the development of the self and the nation (Mwiria, 2002). The educational objectives of teaching agriculture as a subject in secondary school in Nigeria are spelt out in the syllabus as follows; promote an interest in agriculture as an industry and create awareness of opportunities existing in agriculture and related sectors, enhance skills needed in carrying out agricultural practices, provide background for further studies in agriculture, develop self-reliance, resourcefulness and problem solving abilities in agriculture, enable schools to take an active part in national development through agricultural activities and promote agricultural activities which enhance environmental conservation (Ministry of Education, 1998). Education in all its forms has the potential to empower people, by increasing their self confidence, their capacity to improve their livelihoods and their participation in wider process of social and economic change.
The most important element in an organization is human resources or labour. Employee motivation is the greatest impacts that spur the labour to high productivity leading to growth in modern organization. For an organization to successfully motivate its employees, it has to cater for the needs of its staff. In the act of teaching there are two parties, the Agricultural Science teachers and the learners who work together in source program designed to modify the learner’s behavior and experiences in some ways. It is necessary to begin with observation about the teacher and his needs.
Maslow, (1954) posited a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Maslow said all human beings take all the needs to organizational settings. Thus, the principal who wishes to elicit the best helping the Agricultural Science teachers achieved these needs. These needs are physiological, safety, belonginess and love, esteem and self actualization needs. What is required of a teacher is to be capable of sharing work program with students deigned to modify their behavior and experience. This means making relevant experience available to the students at the right time. The teacher can do all these if his needs are met or provided for.
Statistics from ministry of education (2001) has shown that Kaduna State has 149,751 male students 54,355 female students. 283 post – primary schools, out of which only 25 are boarding schools. The number of Agricultural Science teachers are 4,272 male and 2,037 female Agricultural Science teachers. The Agricultural Science teachers are responsible for assessing, to do all these jobs well, their needs must be provided for.
Irowi, (1999) observed that a teacher who is poorly trained or by the virtue of his low job satisfaction due to poor condition of service and other related welfare is that the product job at teaching, the result is that the product from such a teacher would be low quality. As a result of inadequate motivation, Agricultural Science teachers are demoralized in undertaking their duties.
Although many Agricultural Science teachers are dedicated but due to the lack of the training programs to keep them up to date in the new innovation in teaching methods, it set a limitation to their performance and student achievement. For Agricultural Science teachers to be effective they need to be motivated, trained, supplied with the necessary teaching and learning materials. Due to the enormous importance of the Agricultural Science teachers in any educational system, there is the need to find how to improve upon the quality of the Agricultural Science teachers and areas where improvement is needed to enhance their performance so as to raise the quality of education in schools.
Statement of the Problem
Since Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the majority of Nigerian who live in rural areas, teaching and learning the subject in secondary schools effectively is very important (Mwangi and Mwai, 2002). Agriculture as a subject has been taught before and after independence with the overall purpose being the development of basic agricultural skills relevant to Nigeria and the learners‟ home environment (Nigeria Secondary School syllabus, 2002). Mwiria (2002) considers the aims of teaching agriculture in accordance to Nigeria secondary school syllabus as reinforcing interest and awareness for opportunities existing in Agriculture and demonstrating that farming is a dignified and profitable occupation; to expand the students knowledge on basic principles and practices in Agriculture, develop students‟ understanding of the value of Agriculture to the family and community with a view of promoting self reliance, resourcefulness, poverty reduction, improved food security, problem solving abilities, an occupation outlook in Agriculture and promote agricultural activities which enhance environmental conservation.
Despite the importance of Agriculture, there is evidence that the morale of Agricultural Science teachers teaching the subject is not encouraging.
Agricultural science needs to be viewed as important as other subjects in the secondary schools. For this to happen the Agricultural Science teachers must be adequately motivated because the effectiveness and feasibility of the teaching of the subject must be proper and various aspects of the instructional materials must be used.
FAO (1983 indicated that since 1960, the total school enrolment had grown faster in Africa than in any other developing region. Since the greatest challenge at present is to generate adequate food production to sustain the increasing population, agricultural education plays an important role. It is concluded that there is a need to encourage and motivate Agricultural Science teachers teaching agricultural science in secondary schools in kaduna north local government area of kaduna state and the country at large. Therefore the need for this present study.
The background had shown that motivation is an aspect of workers life that boost their morals to be more committed and dedicated to work.
Due to this low motivation in Kaduna State, it has affected performance of student in Secondary Schools examination in the past five years which is 35.98%. (Education resources center 2010).
From this it is imperative that a study should be carried out from Agricultural Science teachers of Secondary Schools, their present or current views regarding their motivational needs.
Purpose of the Study
This study will identify motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Kaduna State, especially, the study will identify;
· Motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State
· Growth needs of teacher in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State
· The problems Agricultural Science teachers face in carrying out their duties
Significance of the Study
When motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers are identified, educational administrators may adopt and integrate such needs in planning adequate programmes and developing and using human potentials, the findings of this study could be of help to ministry of education to understand their roles and participate effectively in training their Agricultural Science teachers.
· What are the motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Kaduna State
· What are the growth needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Kaduna State
· What are the problems Agricultural Science teachers face in carrying out their duties
Scope of the Study
The study is to identify motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers in Kaduna State with the aim of improving and encouraging Agricultural Science teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna State. This study is delimited to motivational needs of Agricultural Science teachers.