This study set out to investigate the relationship between teacher motivation and students’ performance in the Enugu Education Zone of Enugu state, Nigeria. The Enugu Education Zone is one the six Education zones as classified by the State Ministry of Education. The study adopted the survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. To achieve the set objectives, the study applied regression method of data analysis to estimate the effects of teacher motivation on student performance. Findings from the study show that job satisfaction of teachers leads to improved teaching and learning. Motivation of teachers has positive effect on students ‘performance through improved teaching and learning as the log it result shows a coefficient that is greater than]. Also teacher supervision has a great deal of influence on teachers’ commitment to duly. However, only teacher financial motivation is sign Ulcant, while the other variables (experience and teacher training) are statistically in significant. The study recommends that teachers’ salaries and allowances need to be reviewed upwards with prompt payment like other professionals. Professional teachers should be considered more for employment, while teachers should be exposed to regular capacity upgrade programmes as a way of keeping them abreast of developments in their subject areas. The school environment should be made sufficiently stimulating to facilitate learning through the provision of functional school facilities and necessary instructional materials, for education not to witness a bleak future that would have adverse effect on the society. This will make the teachers teach with commitment, demonstrate high morale, productivity and a high sense of professional vista.
- Background of the Study
Every organization has three types of basic resources, which are physical, financial and human. The most critical one is no doubt the human resource of an organization. These are the humans who can accelerate the process of organization development or can demolish the organizational progress. This is another fact that as human resource proves to be nucleus of organizational resources, motivation is central and vital component which is key contributor in job satisfaction of an employee. Motivating employees has become one of the most significant and most demanding activities for the human resource management in any organization. There is no doubt that efficiency suffers if workers are not motivated. Organizations invest in effectual strategies to get motivated workforce to compete in the market. Salary alone does not prove to be a vital motivator for everyone in an organization. Various factors motivate people differently depending upon the nature of an organization and its key contributors in developing learning environment.
Education in Nigeria is an instrument for effecting national development. The country’s educational goals have been set out in the National Policy on Education in terms of their relevant to the needs of the individual and the society (FGN, 2004). Towards this end, the National Policy on Education set up certain aims and objectives which are to facilitate educational development in the country. In fostering these aims and objectives, the school principals have important roles to play. Among this roles include providing effective leadership in secondary schools, thereby enhancing better job performance among teachers. How effective the Principal is in performing these roles has been a matter of concern to many educationists (Aghenta, 2000; Ige, 2001).
In the education sector, teachers are the most important human resource. As the most significant resource in schools, teachers are critical to raise education standards. Improving the efficiency and equity of schooling depends, in large measure, on ensuring that teachers are highly skilled, well resourced, and motivated to perform at their best.
However, the effective monitoring and evaluation of teaching is central to the continuous improvement of the effectiveness of teachers in a school. It is essential to know the strengths of teachers and those aspects of their practice which could be further developed. From this perspective, the institution of teacher evaluation is a vital step in the drive to improve the effectiveness of teachers and learning to raise educational standards.
According to the literature these conditions are responsible for low teacher morale and the difficulty in attracting and retaining quality personnel into the teaching profession. This has not always been the case. A broad consensus is that prior to independence, teaching was considered by almost all sections of society as a highly respected profession. Teachers played key leadership roles in local communities and acted as role models. However, after Independence, when the demand for educated labour grew rapidly, many teachers left the profession to take up jobs elsewhere in the public and private sector. According to Obanya, (1999), this marked the beginning of the teacher motivation crisis in Nigeria, as the public began to look down on those teachers who remained in the classroom as second – string public servants. The growing tendency for school leavers to opt for teaching only if they are unable to find other more lucrative public or private sector employment further compounded this problem of lowered professional status (Lawal, 2000).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is no longer news that every nation strive for economic development. What is important is the approach used to target this development. Worthy of mention is the fact that development thinking has gone beyond economic growth. There is therefore a paradigm shift to sustainable development. Economic growth however facilitates development. Effective resource allocation can lead to development that is self sustaining and perpetuating (Soubbotina, 2004). The relevance of education to development is buttressed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Index (HDI) and most recently the new Human Development Index (NHDI). These two indicators of development (HDI and NHDI) priorities education sector’s in development. In the HDI, adult literacy is key y to development just as access to all levels of education as preached by the NHDI is also very paramount to development. It can therefore be said that any nation that wants to achieve sustainable development should pay attention to education.
Nigeria as a nation still suffers from poor level of education, as attention paid to education is quite low. This is seen in poor budgetary allocation, leading to low investment in education. In the last 10 years, total investments in social services (including health and education) have been below 40% of the capital expenditure. Capital expenditure of Nigeria was 28% of the entire budget in 2010 (CBN, 2011).