1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Water is one of the most abundant and essential resources of man, and occupies about 70% of earth‟s surface. About 97% of this volume of earth‟s surface water is contained in the oceans, 21% in polar ice and glaciers, 0.3-0.8% underground, 0.009% in inland freshwaters such as lakes, while 0.00009% is contained in rivers (Eja, 2002). According to Botkin and Keller (1998), more than 97% of earth‟s water is in the oceans and ice caps, and glaciers account for another 2%. Also, the ocean comprises 97%, while 3% of the earth‟s water is fresh (Kulshneshtha, 1998). Water in its pure state is acclaimed key to health and the general contention is that water is more basic than all other essential things to life (Edungbola and Asaolu, 1984). Man requires a regular and accessible supply of water which forms a major component of the protoplasm and provides an essential requirement for vital physiological and biochemical processes. Man can go without food for twenty eight days, but only three days without water, and two third of a person‟s water consumption per day is through food while one third is obtained through drinking (Muyi, 2007).
Surface waters in streams or pools and stored waters in lakes and large ponds vary considerably in microbial content. (frazier 1978) water is broadly divided into three types viz., surface water which include: streams, rivers, lakes sear, and oceans Kelman et al (1957). The generality of bacteria are mostly commonly found ordinarily in fresh water some of which include: pseudomonas, Archacbacter, and vibrio these are gram negative, the gram-positive bacterial which are found in water include: micrococcus Archacbacter and actinomycentes. Gebharal (1975) Tap water, as one of the water sources is mostly used domestically, it is observed that tap change sometime the water tap will be clear this calls for load, in order to be sure of its portability. Bonde (1977). The increase in drinking water from different sources especially in Enugu state has made necessary to investigate the microbial content of water. Water is a potential carrier of pathogenic organisms that can endanger human life. Most of drinking water sources are often contaminated with different pollutants like faces, animal and plant wastes, making such water unfit for drinking if not treated. The pollution of water with pathogenic organisms and other pollutants can only be detected by carrying out microbiological assessment of such water. Most human disease such as typhoid paratyphoid cholera, emboebiasis, Trichinosis, gastroenteritis, sanonall shigellosis, diphtheria, giadia, dracunculus etc are know to be water borne disease. Ewington et al (1971).
Water borne diseases are those disease which have water as their vehicle of transmission these disease are capable of destroying a whole community if not checked. Therefore, the quickest ways to prevent out break of these disease and to determine the portability of such water sources is to determine the microbial load or content if the microbial content is nor within acceptable limit, such water sources should be condemned immediately, Fair et al (1970).
Water plays essential roles in supporting human life. It also has if contaminated great potential for transmitting a wide variety of diseases and illness. In the developed world, water related diseases are rare, due essentially to the presence of efficient water supply and waste water disposal systems. However, in the developing world perhaps a lot of people are without safe water supply and adequate sanitation (Tebbut, 1983). As a result, the toll of water-related diseases in these areas is frightening in its extent. In the developed world, there is a concern about the possible long term health hazards which may arise from the presence of trace concentration of impurities in drinking water, particularly attention being paid to potentially carcinogenic compounds. There are also several contaminants which may be naturally occurring or man-made, having known effects on the health of consumers. It is therefore important that the relationship between water quality and health be fully appreciated by the engineers and scientist, concerned with water quality control (Tebbut, 1983).