1.1 Background to the Study
The issue of education is as old as man himself, for it has to do with the transmission of the cultural values and norms of a given society from one generation to another. But as far as modern education is concerned today, it derives it raison d‟etre and legality from the universal declaration of human rights. This declaration asserted that everyone has a right to education without any form of discrimination as it has become today. It is therefore worthy to note that the importance of education to any nation cannot be over-emphasized. Also, it is in recognition of this importance that the international community and governments all over the world have made commitments for her citizens to have access to education. The provisions of the Nigerian Constitution concurred with the various international conventions and protocols aimed at evolving a new prosperous and peaceful world over which Nigeria is a signatory to.
Among such international human rights instruments that supported education as a fundamental human rights include Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Rights (1981) respectively. Indeed, the 1980s saw more backward than forward movement in most countries of the world. It was at that point that the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) was held in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990 for the purpose of forging a global consensus and commitment to provide basic education for all. At the end of the conference, a document was produced entitled “World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to meet the citizens basic needs”. It added in her communiqué that every person should benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic needs.
This declaration was reaffirmed at the World summit for children also held in 1990, stating that all children shall have access to basic education by the year 2000. These documents became the blue print for all countries of the world, including Nigeria to step up education activities to achieve Education for All (EFA). EFA in Nigeria could be traced back to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in the 1950‟s in two of the then regions of the country and at national level in 1976. Owing to this fact, especially in the general outcry of falling standard of education at all levels, Universal Basic Education (UBE) was introduced in 1999 by the Olusegun Obasanjo‟s administration at the elementary level to address the hitherto need for reforms.
ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION (NCE) TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN THE ATTAINMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA