THE CONTRIBUTION OF MICRO-FINANCE BANKS TO THE ECONOMIC WELL BEING OF RURAL DWELLER
The purpose of this study is to identify the contribution of microfinance bank to the economic wellbeing of rural dweller using Alheri Microfinance Bank Limited as a case study. The establishment of the Micro-finance bank with their peculiar characteristics that enables their customers to make the savings and to obtain loan with little or no collateral is a booster to the scarcity of funds for investment among the poor, especially in the rural area. In strict sense, the micro-finance banks are not banks at all, since their operations are abbreviations to what is obtained in convectional banks, as regards rules and regulations guiding banks, their duties in general and their profit orientation altitude. The role of micro-finance banks in Nigeria to the rural dwellers is nothing to write home about and those who intend to set up micro-finance banking business in future. In addition, the findings from this research study shows that microfinance banks have not identified themselves adequately with rural dwellers, cooperative societies and export financing to transform in the Nigeria economy into meaningful development this area should not be neglected to commercial banks and traditional money lenders in terms of financing and investments.
1.1 Background to the Study
The federal government of Nigeria in the 1990 budget speech decided to establish micro-finance in order to stretch its programme of grass-roots economic development. The aim of this study is to make a research on the contribution of microfinance banks to the economic well being of rural dwellers in Nigeria.
The micro-finance bank scheme which has started years ago received recognition as social economic venture designed to address poverty and aimed at motivating and encouraging the rural dwellers to improve their standard of living through proper use and management of resources generated in their communities.
Alheri microfinance bank was the first micro–finance bank in Kaduna State. The project took off in the country with a mandate from the presidency to improve the lost of people through credit facilities devoid of conventional banking bottle necks and its operating capital boss supplied by unfired community.
This community provides the building for the operation and the management staff a well ass the board and the trustee. The idea is that when such collective money is given out as loans, there won’t be much difficult in recovering it back as at when due.
Micro finance bank has evolved as an economic development approach intended to benefit low income women and men in the rural areas. The term refers to the provision of financial services to low – income earners, including the self – employed. Financial services generally include savings and credit; however, some microfinance organizations also provide insurance and payment service.
Microfinance banking is not simply banking, it is a development tool.
Micro finance activities usually involve:
– Small loans, typically for working capital.
– Informal appraisal of borrowers and investments.
– Collateral substitutes, such as group guarantees or compulsory savings.
– Access to repeat and longer loans, based on repayment performance
– Streamlined loan disbursement and monitoring
– Secure savings products
Although some Microfinance banks provide enterprise development services, such as skills training and health care, these are not generally included in the definition of micro finance.
Microfinance banks can be non governmental organizations savings and loan cooperation’s, credit unions, government banks, commercial banks, or non bank financial institutions. Micro finance bank clients are typically self employed low income entrepreneurs in both urban and rural areas. Clients are often traders, street vendors, small farmers, service providers (hairdressers, rickshaw drivers) and artisans and small procedures, such as blacksmiths and seamstress. Usually their activities provide a stable source of income (often from more than one activity). Although they are poor, they are generally not considered to be the poorest of the poor.
Money lenders and relating savings and credit associations are informal microfinance providers and important sources of financial intermediation.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to determine the contribution of microfinance bank to the economic wellbeing of rural dwellers:
i. To reveal the contribution of micro-finance banks on rural dwellers and benefit of Alheri microfinance Bank Limited, Kaduna to the people of Kaduna and its entire environment.