CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information
Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS) is a disease spectrum of the human immune system (Markowitz et al; 2006). It is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated blood transfusion, hypodermic needles and from mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding (Markowitz et al; 2006). The prevention of HIV infection is significant given the disease has neither cure nor a vaccine (Ateka et al; 2006). The prevention practices involves the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs), prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), safe sex practices, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) inorder to reduce new HIV infections (Stirrat et al; 2006, Medley et al; 2004, Reece et al; 2010, Melonie et al; 2013, Martin et al; 2013, Anglemyer et al; 2011).
HIV and AIDS portray both physical and economic impacts to the society (Kallings et al; 2008). It is still a taboo for some communities to discuss HIV status, which place them at a higher risk of acquiring the disease (Kalichman et al; 2014). Disclosure is an important public health goals to prevent new HIV transmission as it motivate sexual partners to seek testing, change behaviour and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV (Carla et al; 2011, Endalew et al;
2013). It also provides opportunity for social support, improved access to necessary medical care (Atuyambe et al; 2014). The disclosure practice enables patients to overcome blame, abandonment, physical and emotional abuse, discrimination, loss of economic support, and disruption of family relationships with the spouse (Kalings et al; 2008, Galletly et al; 2009, Garumma et al; 2012).