1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
THE NEED FOR A DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTRE
Disaster means a progressive or sudden, widespread or localised, natural or human caused occurrence which causes or threatens to cause; Death, injury or disease, Damage to property, infrastructure or the environment, Disruption of the life of a community; and is of the magnitude that exceeds the ability of those affected by the disaster to cope with its effect using only their own resources. A disaster management centre is needed to:
- To implement an integrated and coordinate disaster management policy that focuses on preventing or reducing the risk disasters,mitigating the severity of disasters, emergency preparedness, rapid and effective response to disasters and post disaster recovery.
- Topreparethe document that will identify risks, assess risks, risk response development and risk response control.
- Thepurposeof centre is to outline policy and procedures for both proactive disaster prevention and the re-active disaster response and mitigation phases.
The disaster management centre functions are as follows:
- Mustspecialise in issues concerning disasters within Rivers State.
- Actas a repository and conduit for information concerning disasters.
- Mustperformit functions and exercise powers as stipulated section 44 of the Disaster Management Act, 57 of 2002.
- Mustliaise and coordinate its activities with those of National, State Management centres.
1.2 STATEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEMS
Architecture is an abstraction from nature and intuition with possibilities of aesthetic accompaniments for overall ambient satisfaction
(Fashuyi, 2004). Nevertheless, this ideological perception must graft with sensitive issues bordering on culture, economy before Architecture
can become acceptable in its right values. However, Architectural Education in Nigeria as presently structured is not responsive to her socioeconomic environment. In fact, it is more suited to problems of urban environment of prosperous economies having nothing in common with.the cultural and economic features of the country (Adesina, 1987). Architectural Education in Nigeria was inherited from the Beaux-Art
concept of Western educational philosophy through the colonial mentors. This tendency is to provide aesthetically satisfying buildings,irrespective of function.
The design of the Disaster Management Centre will take into cognisance proper functional relationship between each section of the
building to another; the site is located at an area that can be easily accessible from various parts of the state, helicopters are also available to
ease rescue in parts of the states that cannot be easily assessable by land, the structure is responsive to the socio-economic environment in the
state, the structure is aesthetically satisfying, the structure conforms to the building codes and zoning.
Therefore architectural problems of the Disaster Management Centre Are as follows:
- Theintegration of architectural purpose, site, suitable spaces, technical systems and materials.
- Inadequate ventilation and natural lightening
- Primary and secondary circulation in and around the site
Disaster Management is an enormous task. Disasters are not confined to any particular location; neither do they disappear as quickly as they appear. Therefore, it is imperative that there is proper management to optimize efficiency of planning and response. Due to limited resources, collaborative efforts at the governmental, private and community levels are necessary. This level of collaboration requires a coordinated and organized effort to mitigate against, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and their effects in the shortest possible time.
The motivation of this project steams from:
- Theabsolute necessity for such a project: Over the years, lives have been lost in natural and man-made disaster primarily due to absence of a disaster management centre or slow response of rescue team.
- Thewealth of knowledge, which the project adds to existing information on architectural building types.
- The sense of comfort and security inspired by the project, being from the riverine area in the Niger Delta region where the terrain is difficult and inter city transport is mostly done by boat, the potential for boat mishaps is rather high.
- Toreduce subsequent insurance claims and compensation on government and insurance companies.
- The passion to create an avenue that will aid for relief to all disaster victims.
- To create awareness for the need of disaster management.
- Toprovidea facility that will improve response to disasters for an initial period after which other sources would assist.
- Toreduce confusion on the part of all personnel concern in disasters.
- Toenhance the role of rapid deployment of its personnel in response to emergency
- Preventingor reducing the risk of disasters and mitigating the severity or consequences of disasters
- Arapid and effective response to disasters and post- disaster recovery and rehabilitation.
- Toensurethe survival of the maximum possible number of victims, keeping them in the best possible health in the circumstances.
- Tore-establish self-sufficiency and essential services as quickly as possible for all population groups, with special attention to those whose needs are greatest: the most vulnerable and underprivileged.
- Torepairor replace damaged infrastructure and regenerate viable economic activities. To do this in a manner that contributes to long-term
development goals and reduces vulnerability to any future recurrence of potentially damaging hazards.
- Incasesinvolving population displacements (due to any type of disaster) the aim is to find durable solutions as quickly as possible, while ensuring protection and assistance as necessary in the meantime.
- Tocreatea building for imparting training in disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, relief and rehabilitation and also to undertake
research studies, documentation and development of database.
- Organizestate and regional level conferences/workshops in disaster management and related subjects.
- Todevelop and encourage NGO’s network in the state to manage disasters in the state
- toreduceor avoid the human, physical, and economic losses suffered by individuals, by the society, and by the country at large
- Toreduce personal suffering and to speed recovery.
1.10 SCOPE OF PROJECT:
This project provides, to a satisfactory level, all the facilities that are needed in the disaster management centre for optimum performance
to manage disaster. There are provisions for effective control, relief and rescue of disasters by mitigating, preparedness, response and recovery.
The scope of the project is limited to the following;
- The design of the Administrative building
- The clinic
- A staff residential building
- Hanger for helicopter
1.10.1 THE SITE:
This project involves the design of a Centre that aids for Disaster Management, thus, due to the amphibiotic nature of its function,
the facility would require a site that enhances the marine and land base operation, and hence, it is located within the southern section of Port
Harcourt. It can also be accessible through various pedestrian routes emanating from the neighbouring residential zones. This will be dutifully respected in the cause of designing.
The site is in close proximity to the State secretariat, the Nigerian marine base, Trans Amadi Industrial Layout, Orobum Vimmage (now called Obunabali). Ogbunabali bound the site on the East, the far North by Trans Amadi Industrial Layout, to the West by the Amadi flat and old GRA Residential Quarters and the South by Marine Base.
The exterior element in the site include
- Parking lots
- Sig npost
- Main building
- Staff Accommodation
- Power plant.
1.10.2 THE MAIN BUILDING: The sections in the Disaster Management Centre include:
- Administrative unit
- Control unit
- Training unit
- Maintenance unit
- The Aviation operation
- The Marine operation
- The land operation
- Finance unit
- Relief and rehabilitation unit
- Conference hall
- Search and rescues unit.
- The Administrative unit:
This is the first point of call as one gets into the building, this department is responsible for all staff matters, appointments, records of service, welfare of officers, employment etc. This section is responsible for personnel functions and employee services, Personnel functions cover tracking staff and disaster deployments, obtaining local hires, arranging billeting, and processing payroll while Employee services include providing for personnel health and safety, overseeing access to medical services, and ensuring security of personnel, facilities, and assets.
- Control Unit:
This is one of the most important units in the centre, it takes care of all emergency calls and make sure they are transmitted as clearly and as fast as possible to the squad responsible for that particular disaster. The unit will have communication gadgets such as pager systems, walking talkie, phones, radars, satellites, reception systems global positioning system (G.P.S), to guide the development of a comprehensive information and communication system and establish integrated communication links with all disaster risk management role players.
This unit has two major tasks: the collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of information about disaster operations to support planning and decision making in the field and at the headquarters’ levels; and the coordination of short- and long-term planning in the field.
- The Training unit:
This unit will be responsible for the training of the rescue squads and will feature necessary fitness facilities. It is also a unit that aids to promote a culture of risk avoidance among people by capacitating role players through integrated education, training and public awareness programmes informed by scientific research.
The department of training develops the curriculum and coordinate the human resources development of the agency in addition to catering for the training needs of the staff on modern skills which qualify them to be good disaster managers as obtain in other part of the world.
- The Maintenance Unit:
This unit takes care of all repairs and daily/weekly check of all the vehicles used for search and rescue operations. The automobile workshop, electrical workshop, vulcanizing workshop, tailor workshop, spare parts store etc. are all part of the maintenance department.
- The Aviation Operations:
This section takes care of disasters not easily assessable by land; it involves the use of helicopters necessary for rapid response to disasters that occurred in difficult or far terrain.
- The Marine Operations:
This unit takes care of offshore disasters such as boat mishap.
- The Land Operations:
This unit will take care of out-breaks and other land accidents where necessary. It will involve provision of parking lots for ambulances; fire fighting vehicles, motor bikes, personnel carries etc.
- The Finance Unit:
This section plans, organizes, and directs logistics operations that include control and accountability for supplies and equipment; resource ordering; delivery of supplies, equipment, resource tracking, facility location, setup, space management, building services, general facility operations, Transport coordination and fleet management services, and salary of staff.
- The Relief and Rehabilitation Unit:
This unit provides leadership to build, sustain, and improve the coordination and delivery of support and relief to citizens and State, local, tribal and territorial governments to save lives, reduce suffering, protect property and recover from all hazards. These units also receive the materials for relief and properly distribute it to affected people.
1.6.3 THE CLINIC:
Time is a crucial element in Disaster Management. In recognition of this, the agency will have a clinic that will aid in first aid treatment of victims, and also, there will be ambulances that will convey seriously injured people to bigger hospitals and also convey the dead to the mortuary.
1.6.4 THE STAFF ACCOMMODATION:
Accommodation will be provided for resident staff of the organization and also for resident doctors that will handle the clinic and all medical affairs.
1.7 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
The project is located within the southern section of Port Harcourt. The site is in close proximity to the State secretariat, the Nigerian marine base, Trans Amadi Industrial Layout; Orobum Vimmage (now called Obunabali). Ogbunabali bound the site on the East, the far North by Trans Amadi Industrial Layout, to the West by the Amadi flat and old GRA Residential Quarters and the South by Marine Base.
This site was chosen for the following reasons:
- Itcanbe assessable through the Eastern bypass road and various pedestrian routes emanating from the neighboring residential zones
- No existing facility defined for this purpose within the area.
- The area is very busy and prone to disasters like accidents.
- The site can be assessable from land and water.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Disaster:this is an event, natural or man-made, sudden or progressive, which impacts with such severity that the affected community or individual has to respond by taking exceptional measures.
- Disastermanagement:is the systematic observation and analysis of disasters to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
- Disastermanagementcentre: this will serve as a centre for the operational squad and aid for investigation, assistance and relief of people affected with disasters.
- Risk:isthe relative degree of probability that a hazardous event will occur. An active fault zone, for example, would be an area of high risk.
- Mitigation:isaction taken to reduce both human suffering and property loss resulting from extreme natural phenomena. Measures include land use planning, improved disaster resistant building techniques, and better agricultural practices.
- Preparedness:encompassesthose actions taken to limit the impact of natural phenomena by structuring response and establishing a mechanism for effecting a quick and orderly reaction. Preparedness activities could include pre-positioning supplies and equipment; developing emergency action plans, manuals, and procedures; developing warning, evacuation, and sheltering plans; strengthening or otherwise protecting critical facilities; etc
- DisasterPrevention:this is action taken to eliminate or avoid harmful natural phenomena and their effects. Examples of prevention include cloud seeding to control meteorological patterns, pest control to prevent locust swarms, erection of dams or levees to prevent flooding, etc.
- Intervention:this refers to an action taken in order to change the course of events. In disaster management the term’s use is similar to the medical sense, i.e., disaster response initiated from outside the affected community is a form of intervention and, as such, must be handled with care because it does come from without. It therefore always runs the risk of being more disruptive than productive.
- Pre-disasterplanning: this is the process of preparing, in advance, to meet a future disaster. Pre-disaster planning consists of disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness.
- Vulnerability:thisis a condition wherein human settlements, buildings, agriculture, or human health are exposed to a disaster by virtue of their construction or proximity to hazardous terrain.
- Maintenance:refersto the services that are provided to refugees during the period after the emergency but before a permanent solution to their plight is developed. Maintenance operations may include tracing and family reunification, general care and food distribution, a variety of social services such as education and cultural activities, and efforts to help the people to become as self-sufficient as possible under the circumstances.
- Evaluationoccursas a refugee operation ends or as a new phase begins. Evaluation should be carried out by every manager and key members of the staff. The results and lessons learned should become the basis for further emergency preparedness activities.
- Durable(Permanent) Solution is the term used to describe collectively the three long-term solutions that resolve a refugee situation-voluntary repatriation, assimilation, and resettlement to a third country. In this phase, any number of activities can take place including transportation of the refugees, legal assistance, and provision of financial and material aid to the refugees to help them start their new lives.
If the solution is repatriation or assimilation, the Patterns of assistance often resemble reconstruction and development assistance given to the victims of natural disasters.
- Essentialgoodsand services: this means those products, items, expertise or manufacturers, which are considered of importance or are indispensable when responding to a disaster.
- Hazard:means threats to life, well-being, material goods or the environment.
- Headof centre means the person appointed in terms of either section 45 of the Act.
- Localdisaster means a disaster classified as a local disaster in terms of section 23.
- Primaryrolemeans that function for which a specific identified role player is best equipped and qualified to perform.
- Recoverymeans decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk.
- Reliefmeansthe provision of assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster in order bring relief to people and communities affected by a disaster.
- Riskreduction means measures taken to reduce long term risks associated with human activity or natural events.
- Roleplayermeans an individual or group in society that can contribute meaningfully to the implementation of disaster management.
- Secondaryrolemeans an additional function that is performed by an identified role player in support of a primary role player.
- Emergency:“Isa situation generated by the real or imminent occurrence of an event that requires immediate attention” (key words).
Paying immediate attention to an event or situation as described above is important as the event/situation can generate negative consequences and escalate into an emergency. The purpose of planning is to minimize those consequences.
- Assistance:tohelp support affected persons with relief materials and make sure it is properly distributed amongst the people.
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research process for this project was tedious as it was interesting. The research methods used in this project is a descriptive research that employs survey or observational research method. Typically, the following methods where used for the research:
- The use of the library
- Site visits
- Books and foreign data review
- Case studies
- Interview and questionnaires
- Consultation with my supervisor.