This study sought to determine the effect of the local resources on students’ achievement and interest in Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA). It also investigated the influence of gender and location on achievement and interest in CCA when local resources are used. The two types of instructional materials used are local resources for the experimental group while commercial materials for the control group. The study employed a quasi experimental 2 x 2 x 2 factorial research design, involving four intact groups. Specifically the pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design was adopted. Ninety-Eight (98) Junior Secondary School two (JSS 11) students randomly drawn from four schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, served as the subjects for the study. The subjects in each of the four groups were tested before and after treatment on their achievement and interest in the units of Cultural and Creative Arts taught during the study. Ten research questions and ten null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The researcher hypothesized that type of resources, gender and location as main effects and the interaction between the three independent factors would not have significant (< 0.05) effect on the learners’ achievement and interest in CCA. Instruments used for data collection were a Cultural and Creative Arts Achievement Test (CCAAT) which consisted of 40 questions and a Cultural and Creative Arts Interest Inventory (CCAII) made up of 20 items. The instruments were developed by the researcher and validated by three experts. Kuder Richardson was used to determine the estimate of internal consistency for CCAAT and Cronbach Alpha for CCAII which yielded reliability indices of .67 and .72 respectively. Both instruments were considered usable. Analysis of data was done using mean and standard deviation for the ten research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used for the hypotheses. The results showed among others that the commercial resources were not superior to local resources since both resources enhanced students’ achievement and interest in CCA. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean achievement and interest scores of students due to the type of resources; there was no significant difference in the achievement and interest of male and female students in CCA; there was no significant mean difference in the achievement and interest of urban and rural students in CCA. There was also no significant interaction effect between resource type and gender on achievement and interest in CCA and also between resource type and location on achievement and interest in CCA. These findings enabled the researcher to conclude that local resources are equally very effective in the teaching and learning of CCA. Recommendations were therefore, made on the basis of the findings of this study. It was suggested among others that the local resources should be used for the teaching and learning of CCA in junior secondary schools; students should source the local resources which abound in their local environment for their individual and group art work; and students should popularize the use of local resources as close substitute to commercial ones which are very scarce and expensive.
Background of the Study
Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA) programme is an amalgamation of fine and applied arts, music, and drama. The infusion of knowledge, skills, attitude and values in the several components of CCA enhance entrepreneurial skill acquisition which begets good theatrical performance and good art works (masterpiece). These types of art products make the learner achieve self fulfillment and actualization (Buoro, 2000). Each component of CCA, including studio activities, develops skills with the artistic process that enhances the learners’ understanding of the subject. Such skills which the learners acquire from CCA activities enable them to produce works which are also end products in the process of artist’s productions (Ogumor, 2002).
Cultural and Creative Arts curriculum was first proposed in Nigeria in the Lagos Curriculum Conference of 1969 to be one of the six core curricula used in the primary school (Olaosebikan, 1982). It was stated in the conference that one of the aims of CCA is to use it to impart to learners cultural and practical values of society to which they belong. According to Olaosebikan, CCA is like a catalyst that speeds up and controls the process of cultural diffusion in a most meaningful way that will give the Nigerian child a sense of direction and sound judgment to re-enact the Nigerian cultural heritage. The subject is also aimed at expressing the emotions, experiences, ideas and feelings, beyond the reach of language. Hence the subject was very much recognized and rated by Wangboje (1982) as the foundation programme that would serve the needs of students in developing their creative imagination, self-realization, self actualization as well as sharpening intelligence and creativity. A truly creative and well-educated person learns how to work with his/her hands, head and every kind of work can be noble when a person gives it his/her best effort (Buoro, 2002). This suggests that CCA programme can offer manipulative skills for human development. The programme will be able to produce creative, patriotic, and productive Nigerians who will contribute optimally to national development (Orlean, 2009).
Consequently, in 1971, the Nigerian Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) organized a workshop where specialists in drama, education, music, fine and applied arts met to spell out what the programme should cover for the secondary school education level. As a result of the conference, CCA programme was adopted for secondary education but due to logistic problems such as lack of instructional resources and qualified teachers, the programme could not start until the introduction of the 9-Year Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 2008 (NERDC, 2007). The curriculum stated that CCA should be made core and compulsory subject at the UBE levels which consist of Lower Basic Education (primary 1 – 3); Middle Basic (primary four to six); and Upper Basic Junior Secondary School (JSS 1- JSS 3). The learning activities in the curriculum for CCA are exciting, interesting and gainful with useful knowledge and skill acquisition. This type of curriculum, Omole (2007) contends, is strategically packaged to build confidence in the recipients.
The practical values which CCA inculcates in the learners include expressing the emotions, experiences, ideas and feelings, beyond the reach of language. If the programme is well implemented, it will also develop ones personality in terms of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviours. For the cognitive, CCA trains individuals on the expression of conceptualized ideas and feelings through art work. On the affective domain, it deals with the development of aesthetic values in individuals. On the psychomotor domain, the programme trains individuals to use their hands in the construction of useful objects. This is in line with the cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviours aimed at in education. The educational objectives can be achieved with the Universal Basic Education curriculum, which has well articulated activities for teachers and students.
The philosophy of the Basic Education curriculum according to NERDC (2008:2) is that every learner who has gone through 9 years of Basic Education should have acquired appropriate levels of numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life-long skills as well as the ethical, moral, and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for live-long learning as a basis for scientific and reflective thinking. Also that the new curriculum, among others, will provide the basis for: “Acquisition of scientific and technological skills, inculcation of value re-orientation; civic and moral responsibility as well as good family living, acquisition of skills for poverty eradication, laying the foundation for knowledge and application of ICT”.
Cultural and Creative Arts curriculum for junior secondary school (JSS1-3) aims at contributing its quota in the realization of the purpose of Universal Basic Education and in turn, meet up with the challenges of global reforms such as Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies (NEEDS), which have their focus on poverty reduction, wealth creation and empowerment of people through education. Cultural and Creative Arts will help to equip learners with knowledge and skills for self employment which is relevant to dynamic human society and culture if properly taught in schools with relevant and adequate instructional resources. It can also train people in a number of professions such as sculpture, graphic communication, textile design, ceramics, dance, drama to mention but a few.