EFFECT OF DRAMA ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN FAMILY LIFE AND HIV/AIDS EDUCATION
This study focused on the effect of drama on junior secondary school students’ achievement in Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education (FLHE). The FLHE curriculum is new in Nigerian schools and an experiment on a new method of teaching it as well as through a carrier curriculum like English Language becomes a challenge to the core subject teacher. The purpose of this study therefore was to explore the effects of drama on the achievement of students in FLHE. The study adopted a quasi-experimental, non- equivalent control group design. The population for the study comprised all 36,922 students of JS II in all 28 public junior secondary schools within Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, South-West Nigeria. The sample consisted of 180 JS II students from four schools that were stratified into urban/rural sections with each having a school assigned to the treatment and control groups respectively. Instructional materials used by teachers trained for the research included training packages for both groups based on NERDC English Language/FLHE curricula and scripted process drama, ‘Police Alert’ for the experimental groups, respectively. A validated 40-item FLHE Achievement Test (FLHEAT) instrument used, sought information on gender, location, religious belief, knowledge issues on abstinence, body abuse, stigmatization/discrimination, and comprehension skills. The reliability index of the instrument using the test-retest procedure, yielded .86 after two weeks interval, with the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient. 5 research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation while the 5 null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of probability. Results show that the mean achievement score of the students taught FLHE using drama was greater than that of those taught using the lecture method. Tested HO1 shows that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the FLHE mean achievement score of the students taught using drama and that of those taught using the lecture method. Therefore, the null HO1 was rejected, while the null HO2, HO3, and HO4 failed to reject and as such were accepted, meaning that gender, location, religion each has no significant effect on students’ achievement in FLHE. HO5as well, confirmed that the interaction effects of method on gender, location and religion were not significant on students’ achievement in FLHE (P>0.05). This research has ascertained that students’ achievement can be enhanced using process drama. Subsequently, recommendations made include the need for governments to train teachers in using process drama technique in place of other non-effective methods, and that curriculum experts should integrate process drama structures in their works.
Background to the Study
Nigeria is ranked the most populous country in the black world and Africa, while the population which is her most valuable asset is said to be both the agent and beneficiary of her national developmental plans (Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), 2003). Though growing rapidly, the population is fast losing its quality to the Human Immuno Virus and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic. The HIV/AIDS scourge threatening the nation’s social and economic development is plaguing this rich endowment. Nigeria was reported to have ranked second in Sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 2.9 million persons living with HIV in 2005 and third in the world in terms of persons infected (Ondo State Government (ODSG, 2006a: 11). A look at the life expectancy of Nigerians showed a rise from 47 to 53 years between 1980 and 1995, but declined to 46.5 years in 2005 with the HIV/AIDS scourge (NPHA, 2009). The impact of HIV/AIDS on every area of human endeavour, including the educational, health, agriculture and defense sectors, among others is severe. The scourge has reduced the number of health staff and diminished economic resources. It has also reduced the supply of teachers, resources available to education and the demand for education in some states and communities as children withdraw from school in order to care for sick members of the family amidst increased family expenditure and dwindling funds (Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), 2002: 16). The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), (2003) concluded that the quality of education is badly affected due to teachers’ absenteeism resulting from sickness or eventual death. This decline in the number of teachers results in decline output in the totality of education.
The first two cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in Lagos, Nigeria in 1985. Since then, the spread and rise of the infection has continued sharply and steadily with the HIV sero prevalence rates from 1.8% in 1988 to 3.8% in 1994; 5.4% in 1999 and 5.8% in 2001 (UNESCO, 2003: 3). In spite of the downward trend recorded in the epidemic from 5.0% in 2003, 4.4% in 2005 to 4.6% in 2008 (ODSG, 2010: 1), Nigerians newly infected with HIV in 2005 and 2008 approximately were 300,000 and 400,000 respectively. A major cause for concern was the higher prevalence of 6.8% recorded among the age group of 15 – 49 years. The worry is justified because this group represents the nation’s workforce, which is 50% of the population, and most importantly the reproductive and economically viable segment of the society (NERDC, 2003: i). Reports from National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA) indicate that in 2009, over 2.95 million people in Nigeria were infected, out of which 278,000 were children and 1.72 million (58.3 percent) females. The Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, in its Orphan and Vulnerable Children National Plan of Action (2006-2010) reported that 1.8 million children were orphaned by AIDS in Nigeria in 2003, while the Federal Ministry of Health, in the 2008 HIV sentinel survey report, gave the figure to be 2.23 million (FGN, 2003, 2009). The number of children orphaned by AIDS will continue to rise in the next decade if drastic steps are not taken to stem the spread.
The pressing concern of the Nigerian government has always been the provision of better quality life, improvement of the living conditions of the people as well as harnessing available human and material resources.
In responding to the threat of HIV/AIDS pandemic, the Nigerian government through the Federal Ministry of Health adopted a plan of action that “when followed through, will put the country on a recovery path to social and economic recovery” (FGN, 2003: viii). One of such policies is the National Policy on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) adopted in 1997. In 2003, this policy document was revised to reflect the need for “multi-sectorial efforts to control the epidemic and its effects; (and to) accept that all Nigerians must together accept responsibility for prevention of HIV transmission, the care and support of those affected by the virus” (FGN, 2003: ix), among other strategies. Again, NPHA was reviewed in 2009 to further strenghten the national intervention strategies through improvement on the previous ones, evaluation of current position, what to achieve in the future, commitment to play the leadership and ownership role in reaching the goals of universal access in halting and reversing the HIV epidemic
The priority accorded education as the “window of hope” is crucial because according to the World Bank, (2002: 4), it is the “major engine of economic and social development… and a proven means to prevent HIV/AIDS”. The reasons for this conclusion are that for a country, education drives the future, is pivotal to the achievement of several of the Millennium Development Goals and has been proven to provide protection against HIV infection. It is among the most powerful tools for reducing children’s vulnerability and offers ready-made infrastructure for delivery of the HIV/AIDS prevention efforts to large numbers of the uninfected population in the school and to youths who constitute the age group most at risk (The World Bank, 2002: 4 – 5). The World Bank also posits that children aged 5 – 14 years represent one window of opportunity in stemming the spread of HIV, when protected. Education becomes a veritable tool for the school children to be protected before they reach the peak vulnerable years. At age 11 – 16, the secondary school learners become teenagers and young adolescents, who start to experience body changes. Due to biological changes and growing reproductive features, these learners become aware of their sexuality and are prone to experimenting with their bodies. The youths, 15 – 24 years, therefore represent a second window being the high-risk group with 60% of all new HIV infections in Nigeria (NERDC, 2003: i). Education can yield maximum result in reducing the ignorance, confusion and risky experiences among the secondary school youths and in the combat of HIV/AIDS scourge particularly in the absence of curative vaccines or drugs. This protection will be reinforced by early training that promotes healthy life styles and avoidance of risky behaviours (World Bank, 2002: 5).
Nigeria’s response to international calls for the eradication of illiteracy by 2015 gave birth in 1999, to the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBE). The agency responsible for its coordination, the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), was created through the UBE Act, 2004 (UBE, 2004: 1). The scope of the UBE is all inclusive in matters that cover the nine years of basic education and has within its ambit, programmes and initiatives for the formal school system from the beginning of primary education to the end of junior secondary school (UBE Digest, 2006: 9). The UBEC collaborated with the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to develop a new, acceptable, culturally sensitive, National Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education (FLHE) curriculum with the main goal as “promotion of awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS” (NERDC, 2003: i). The objectives of FLHE include, to assist individuals in having a clear and factual view of humanity; provide individuals with information and skills necessary for decision-making about their sexual health; change and affect behaviour on humanity and prevent the occurrence and spread of HIV/AIDS. FLHE is therefore defined by the NERDC, as “a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, formation of positive attitudes, beliefs and values as well as development of skills to cope with the biological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual aspects of human living” (NERDC, 2003: iii).
The objectives of FLHE are similar to that of AIDS Education. Oroge and Familusi in NERDC (1993: 43) defined AIDS Education (AE) as the “total package of information and activities describing the causes, effects, prevention, empathy for AIDS/STDs patients, lack of cure of HIV/AIDS with the challenge of changing people’s behaviour”. They opined further that the main objective of the AIDS education is to promote behaviours that prevent the transmission of AIDS/STDs, as well as correct reactions to and associations with HIV/AIDS/STDs infected individuals (p. 44). Also considered important to this is the fact that students will be provided appropriate information needed for risk-free courtship and married life. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour so gained and formed will be reinforced over time, as they grow into adults. Similarly, Family Life Education (FLE) according to NERDC (1993: 12) is the “study of attitudes and skills related to dating, marriage, parenthood, family health and later life of the family as a socio-cultural and economic unit in the society”. It is further described as an educational process designed to assist people in their physical, social, emotional and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, etc. Family Life (FL) on the other hand is concerned with, among other things, the relationship between family members and their respective roles and functions which extend to patterns of production. Family Life Education (FLE) was added as a necessary component to the population education programme (PEPN) when Nigeria realised through the NERDC, that the family is crucial and central to the national population progamme (NERDC, 1995: 12 – 14). In the context of this study, FLHE is operationally defined as a programme package that is directed at increasing people’s awareness towards a healthful family living and eradication of HIV/AIDS.
The Family Life and HIV/AIDS Educationcurriculum in Nigeria was developed through an inclusive, representative and participatory process. The curriculum is premised on five broad themes, based on the five major strategies of achieving HIV/AIDS policy goal, principle, objectives and targets. These themes and the relevant topics are (I) Human Development: Puberty and Body Image. (II) Personal Skills: Values, Effective Communication, Assertiveness, Negotiation, Decision-making, Goal Setting, Self Esteem, and Finding Help. (III) HIV Infection: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS, Abstinence, and Body abuse. (IV) Relationships: Families, Friendship, Love, Relationship with larger society, and Understanding risky friendship influence; and (V) Society and Culture: Gender roles, Rights, Religion, Diversity, Society, Arts, Law, Media and other socio-cultural factors that predispose one to HIV Infection. The curriculum is teacher-friendly as it is structured to guide the teacher towards the basic information and activities needed by learners for a fundamental knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The activities are also stated to encourage innovative implementation by the teachers. Features of the curriculum include Background Information (Preface and Introduction). It is spirally arranged in the order of Topics; Performance Objectives; Contents; Activities (teacher/students); Teaching and Learning materials; and Evaluation Guide (Appendix C). The FLHE curriculum like every other curriculum, is a process of instruction, designed, executed, experienced and measured for the study of a healthful family living and HIV prevention towards a positive change of attitude to achieve better quality life and HIV free society.
There are two distinct levels of integrating Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education into the school system in Nigeria. These are the curriculum development stage carried out by the NERDC, and the stage where the teacher actually infuses FLHE topics in what is being taught. The design adopted for incorporating this new subject into the secondary school curriculum is a combination of comprehensive, integrative, thematic and topical issues with the core carrier subject curriculum on the school time-table. The other models considered are the conceptual, modular and core curriculum approaches. The carrier subject approach was preferred due to overcrowd-ed school time-table as well as teachers’ overload. Other factors include the need for HIV/AIDS knowledge and skills to reach more students; shared concepts between FLHE and carrier subject for reinforcement; involvement of more teachers which enriches FLHE delivery and challenge to teachers’ creativity (NERDC, 2003; UNESCO, 2003; & NERDC, 2007). In this study, the National Integrated English Language Curriculum for the junior secondary school was engaged as the carrier subject curriculum or curriculum of connections (Tomlinson, Kaplan, Rensulli, Purcell, Lapien and Burns, 2002), for the integration of the FLHE curriculum content. NERDC, (2007) puts the essential elements of the Integrated English Language Curriculum as Listening and Speaking; Reading and Writing; Grammatical Accuracy and Language appreciation through literary works (supplementary readers). These curricula elements are to be infused into emerging issues such as value orientation, peace and dialogue, human rights education, family life and HIV/AIDS education, entrepreneurial skills, etc. The integrative approach infusing FLHE into english language is further supported by Tomlinson, Kaplan, et al. (2002: 129) when they concluded that the ability to recognise connections and relationships both broaden and deepen one’s understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of knowledge.
Teachers described as veritable change agents in our society, need to be trained in the use of FLHE curriculum to save future Nigerians from the scourge of HIV/AIDS (Bello, 2005). Towards this, UBEC (2006, 2007) had through its various National Routine Monitoring Reports on classroom observations nationwide confirmed the fears expressed on the need to re-examine existing delivery systems in Nigerian schools in that some teachers taught their lessons without good use of instructional materials. The teacher/pupils interaction in most schools was found to be poor, and pupil/pupil interaction during lessons in most cases was non-existent. Teaching is teacher-centered and most teachers made use of the lecture method which makes most pupils not to participate adequately. These concerns had received calls for recommended participatory instructional techniques as suggested by NERDC (2003) to ease the teaching/learning of FLHE. These methods include case studies, brain-storming, role play and peer education recommended by UNESCO (2003: 16) to reinforce the learners’ experience.
The use of drama as an instructional technique, as against other methods such as the lecture method was employed in this study. Lecture method is one where the teacher through talking, gives information and the students simply listen and take notes. The students may ask questions at the end of the lesson and the teacher answers such questions. Drama on the other hand is an adaptation, recreation and reflection of reality on stage, used to inform, educate, entertain and mobilize the audience (Dukore, 1974) as a medium of communication with actors/actresses to convey a message. Drama thrives on action in which these actors/actresses assume other people’s personalities by bearing different names, ages, occupation, nationalities, etc., while being conscious of themselves as characters involved in imitation and impersonation through representation and re-enactment (National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), 2008). The drama of any society reflects the problems, aspirations, philosophy and cultural background of the people. The focus of drama, to the teacher, is to teach it as an art form in its own right, however, with particular emphasis on structured activities in which the participants use language to share information and understanding, for instance, FLHE: HIV Infection – Abstinence and Body Abuse. Thus, drama is a way of creating or recreating a situation, imitation, and articulation of reality through impersonation or re-enactment in performances on stage (NOUN, 2008) or in the class that can be used to reinforce such FLHE issues as abstinence, body abuse and stigmatisation/discrimination.
Two techniques used in drama are the process drama and play building. Process drama was however adopted for this study because according to Norris, (2000) the technique does not lead to performances or presentations of the devised material to audiences who have remained outside the drama nor admits experience where some students demonstrate, model or perform before others. The technique was chosen instead because it involves all the students all of the time (Stinson & Freebody, 2006). The procedure involved is that the teacher takes each process drama structure as carefully pre-planned (creating the drama text/activities) to offer various opportunities for negotiations and inputs by participants, via the medium of role, ensuing in a product through a collaborative meaning-making process. The benefits of process drama to the teaching of FLHE include opportunities for the individual and groups to contribute to the dramatic actions, to solve problems identified and to employ higher-order thinking processes such that it leads to improved achievement. The technique allows the teacher merely to facilitate learning, while all the students participate under a director chosen by them. It also offers the disguise or mask of someone different in which to experiment enabling the teacher to correct the “character” rather than the child. It provides situations for repetition, practice and preparation. Whereas, in lecture method, students merely listen to what the teacher says and take notes, the teacher does the thinking and talking, with less participation of the students. It does not allow for students’ collaboration, negotiations and inputs to solving problems identified. For the purpose of this study, process drama is seen as an instructional technique that extends over a period leading to a product built up from FLHE issues, ideas, negotiations, responses and inputs from all participants in order to foster social, intellectual and linguistic development, attitudinal as well as behavioural changes towards a healthy living. Therefore, the procedure starts with identification of a problem such as body abuse, followed by planning of the drama/role activities, preparation of the lessons, space, materials etc., and implementation of the lessons with built-in evaluation mechanisms.
Another technique is play building, which usually begins when a performance or workshop is commissioned for presentation to a conference, students, or any other specific audience. The build starts with the assemblage of a cast, followed by the exploration of the topic using personal and external resources, under the director, who manages the activities and discussions (Norris, 2000). The play building, unlike the process drama is performed by a collection of a cast before an audience outside the group and under a director who may not be a student. These drama techniques are expected to lead to better achievement of the students taught FLHE, hence the choice of process drama which allows for the participation and experince of all the students.
In a study related to students’ achievement, Ugoeze (2005) defined achievement as the ability of one to get what is intended. Anderson, Carey, Cullen, Flackett, Grandison (1999: 12) define achievement as an exploit, something achieved, while ‘achieve’ is to bring to a successful outcome, to accomplish, perform, win and to end. Measurement of achievement involves the determination of the degree of attainment of individuals in tasks, courses or programmes to which the individuals are exposed. It should cover the attainment of students in all categories of instructional intended outcomes (objectives). Thus, achievement seen as the process of performing and ending a task successfully having been adjudged so by some standard or tests will be measured after the effective delivery of FLHE to secondary school students, using drama technique.
Various studies (Offorma, 1990; Umo, 2001) have shown that personal factors such as gender, location and religion influence students learning outcomes. There are opposing reports on how gender influences achievement in various school subjects. As the above mentioned scholars agree that females perform better, (Uzoegwu, 2004) opined that males perform better. In science achievement, Balogun (1985) and Ogbu (2011) found out that sex is not a significant factor. Similarly, Offorma (2004) opines that there is no consensus on which gender achieves higher than the other in languages. Marjah (2008) also saw that gender differences in achievement worldwide sometimes favour boys and sometimes girls. Related to this discourse is the submission by Shofoyeke (2002) that there was no significant difference between boys and girls both in their achivement and attitudes scores in population education, within the pilot schools. This study further looked at the gender variable in relation to students’ achievement in FLHE through drama.
One other factor that influences learning has been found to be the location of the school. Schorlars had opined that the implications of the differences in locations are the existence of differences in demographic and socio-economic parameters of the quality of the school. Some stressed that owing to the urban involvement, students in schools located in the urban areas perform better in second language learning than those in the schools located in the rural areas. Umo (2001), Akabogu (2002), Uzoegwu (2004) and Agada (1008) submitted further that the location of the school determines many things that influence learning. These include learning facilities, infrastructure, class size, and other factors which include the facts that students from the rural location have limited access to reading materials. They have inadequate reading culture, and that the graduate teachers in the rural areas are not sufficient. School location as used in this study has to do with the site of the school either in the rural area or the urban community. This study, however, determined the extent to which the difference in one school environment from the other, results in a differential influence in the achievement of students taught FLHE using drama.
Also, NPHA (2009) has identified religion as a factor that may hinder government implementing HIV programmes, because both christian and islamic religious bodies have their perceptions of the people living with HIV/AIDS and their specific reactions to the use of some safer sex techniques (UNESCO, 2003). Igbokidi (1992) also identified culture and religion as problems that might have hindered the implementation of population education in Nigeria. Population Reference Bureau (1996) reported data on the most pronounced religions in Nigeria in the following order: Muslim 50%, Christain 40%, Indigenous beliefs 10%. Adherents of these religions generally regard open discussion of sexuallity as profane and as such, “unable to initiate discussions on HIV/AIDS with their wards and among themselves” (UNESCO, 2003). Young students from these religious homes learn consequently much of the facts about human sexuality from their peers and through books because parents rarely discuss the subject with them (Kisekka, 1985 in Shofoyeke, 2002). Most of the time, these sources contain fear-inducing misinformation and superstitions (NERDC, 2003). Religion is an influential factor in dealing with HIV/AIDS, myths and faith-based moral empowerment and personnal skills according to the dictates of the holy books. How do the christian students view FLHE issues differently from the muslims? Shofoyeke (2002) opined that students from christian homes in the pilot schools in Ogun State obtained significantly higher achievement and attitude scores than those from a muslim backgroud in population education. It was therefore important that this study looked into the interaction of religion and achievement in FLHE using drama method.
Statement of the Problem
The major concern in this study therefore was that the FLHE curriculum though approved in 2003 is still new in Nigerian secondary schools and an experiment on a new method of teaching it is a problem. Also, teaching FLHE topics through carrier subjects or core curriculum like the English Language becomes a challenge to the core subject teacher. Several teaching methods recommended in the FLHE Curriculum document include dramatization/role-play, but no report indicated that teachers make use of drama or process drama which had made UBEC to express in its various National Routine Monitoring Reports the need to re-examine existing delivery systems in Nigerian schools. Scholars have also expressed concern on the non-effective and boring classroom application of methods such as the lecture method. The lecture method appears to be the most commonly used in teaching most subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. Irrespective of the associated advantages, the lecture method can not be said to be comprehensive enough to take care of all the problems and exigencies of classroom demand as well as teaching and learning process. The implementation of a new curriculum becomes a task particularly in the delivery of a new, sensitive and factual subject as the FLHE through another subject, hence, the application of the process drama technique in this study. Therefore, the main problem investigated by this study, stated in question form, is: What effects will a short-term series of drama lessons have on junior secondary school students’ achievement in Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education including gender, locations and religion as variables?
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study was to explore the effects of drama on achievement of students in Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education. Specifically, this study sought to
- determine the mean achievement score of students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using process drama and that of those taught using lecture method.
- identify the effect of gender on the achievement score of students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using process drama.
- find out influence of location on the achievement score of students in Family Life HIV/AIDS Education using process drama.
- determine the influence of religion on the achievement score of students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using process drama.
- ascertain the interaction effect of method on gender, location and religion.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this research would be significant to school administrators, curriculum planners, teachers, students, parents, government and the Nigerian society in the HIV/AIDS prevention programmes nationwide and elsewhere. As a method, the study would show the teachers the advantage of process drama as involving all of the students all the time thereby ensuring their participation, collaboration in small and large groups, working in and out of roles. The findings of the study would also be of significance to teachers in that drama as alternative teaching method will enable teachers of FLHE, English language and other subjects de-emphasize the use of old conventional methods that might cause students boredom or non-participation during teaching/learning.
When exposed to the findings of the study through workshops and seminars, curriculum planners/implementers, policy makers and school administrators might find the drama method more effective in teaching in general and teaching FLHE in particular. They might consequently recommend for its inclusion in the teaching/ learning of FLHE, and other subjects in the secondary schools.
The study would be of significance to colleges of education and universities if the findings on the drama method are applied in their teachings. Lecturers and students in the tertiary institutions might also use the findings of the study to conduct similar studies in other subject areas.
Researchers and curriculum experts would find the result of this study helpful to further confirm “the possibility of drama itself as an investigatory tool” and might also use the findings of this study to conduct further research on drama method in the various subject areas taught in Nigerian schools and recommend it for use in Nigerian classrooms and elsewhere. Textbook writers could access the findings of this study and use such particularly to write and publish texts on the drama method using the Nigerian situation.
The study would represent one of the first few attempts at inquiring into the classroom integration and delivery of the Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education curriculum in Ondo State schools towards its education sectorial response since 2005, in stemming the HIV/AIDS scourge. The Federal and Ondo State Ministries of Education might find the results of the study beneficial for formulation of policies and progammes on methods of teaching to recommend and train teachers in the use of the drama method for teaching at the primary and secondary schools.
The implementation of the FLHE Curriculum through selected school core subjects require that teachers be trained, so that the application of the various theories in HIV/AIDS prevention, integration and drama could contribute significantly to overall improvement of education, teaching methodologies, the quality of life of the students and by extension their parents and society at large. These users listed above would know of the existence of this study since the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, places abstracts of doctoral theses on its website. Finally, the study would contribute further to the development of knowledge in general and understanding of the family life education as well as HIV/AIDS preventive education in Nigeria and the world.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to exploring the effect of drama on the junior secondary school class II students’ achievement in Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using English language lessons on the school timetable. JS II students were chosen for three reasons. One is to ensure that subjects used for the study have been adequately exposed to their school curricula particularly English Language and FLHE. The second is that they were not in their terminal examination classes. The third reason is that they also fall within the window of opportunity aged 12 – 14, who are the least likely to be infected with HIV. The FLHE topics were limited to Abstinence, Body Abuse and issues on stigmatization/discrimination, while the twelve English language lessons were on comprehension and composition due to time constraints. The study was carried out in the first term of the school session lasting six weeks before the commencement of the term’s examination. The process drama text, Police Alert, scripted by the researcher was dramatized by the experimental group while the control group was taught using lecture method. The study was delimited to all public JS schools in Akure South Local Government Universal Basic Education Authority. The LGA was picked because it has the largest number of settlers in Ondo State.
The following research questions were posed to guide the study:
- What are the mean achievement scores of students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using process drama method and that of those taught using the lecture method?
- What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using the process drama method?
- What are the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education using the process drama method?
- What is the influence of religion on the students’ achievements in FLHE using the process drama method?
- What is the interaction effect of drama method, gender, location and religion on the students’ achievements in FLHE?
The following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at .05 alpha level of significance:
HO1 There will be no significant difference (P< 0.05) in the mean scores of students taught Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education (FLHE) using the process drama method and that of those taught using the lecture method.
HO2 There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught FLHE using the process drama method.
HO3 There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural school students taught FLHE using the process drama method.
HO4 There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of islamic and christian students taught FLHE using the process drama method.
HO5 There is no significant interaction effect of gender, location, religion and teaching method on students’ mean achievement in FLHE.