1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial method whereby the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identifies major areas of responsibility, in which they will work. Set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards (Derek 2005:
Management by objectives is also called managing by objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals, for any organizational unit.
Odiorne (1981:1) defines MBO as a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify bjectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a “system of management” an overall framework used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that “the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives”. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the “results” that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organization evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output.
Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business.
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EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFOMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF VITAMALT PLC)