EFFECTS AND CAUSES OF OVERPOPULATION IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ECONOMICS
This research work was designed to find out the causes and effect of overpopulation in Nigerian. In carrying out this research, the researcher visited some Areas in Edo State, and questionnaires were used to elicit information for the general public, and these information’s were analyzed in form of tables. It was observed that polygamy; illiteracy, poverty and early marriage are some of the reasons responsible for the rapid increase in population. Also the effects have raised concerns that the planned economy may not be able to sustain present or large number of inhabitants. Hence, having few number of children, monogamy and improvement in the standard of living are the solutions to the resultant effects of population explosion in Nigeria. The following recommendations were made. The government should improve the appalling health sector of this country; there is need for the elimination of harmful practices such as sexual trafficking and violence against women. Government should endeavour to provide programmes that will stress on the continuo’s use of family planning services, women should be educated and empowered. Finally, if the government can provide incentives for smaller families, exponential population growth can be checked.
BACKGROUND OF THE ST UDY
Population in biology is referred to as the total number of organisms of the same species in a give habitat at a given time. In respect of human population, population can be defined as the total number of people in a given country (Obueh, 2006). The size and structure of human population have been completely changed by a number of factors including higher incomes, improved nutrition, safe and sufficient water and sanitation, wide availability of immunization, high effective drugs against infectious diseases, increased education and technological development. It is therefore correct to state that the economic growth of a nation is significantly dependent on the growth of its population.
Nigeria is one of the fastest growing countries in the world with an estimated population of one hundred and forty million (140,000,000) and an annual population growth rate of 2.9% (Npc, 2006).
Nigeria is the most populous nation in sub Saharan Africa and the tenth most populous in the world. However, the composition of this population is mainly in the youthful category with 49% being youths below the age of twenty-one (21) and a dependency ratio estimated at 89%. A large proportion of this population favours and is living in the rapidly expanding urban area, presently estimated at over 45.2% and will likely hit 55.4% mark by the year 2015 (UNDP, 2007)