This study examined the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation on students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system in government. The study employed a quasi – experimental which involved a 2 x 2 pretest – posttest non-equivalent control group factorial design. Two intact classes were used for the study. The population of the study comprised of 2, 800 Senior Secondary Class Two (SS II) Students. The sample of the study consisted of 170 senior secondary class two (SSII) government students. Using purposive sampling technique, two co-educational public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area in Enugu State were selected for the study. Experimental group one is made up of 22 males and 46 female students while experimental group two is composed of 45 males and 57 female students. Experimental group one were assigned to digital video instruction (DVI) and PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) was assigned to experimental group two respectively. The instruments for data collection are the government achievement test in electoral system (GATES) and government interest inventory in electoral system (GIIES). The instruments were validated by experts in measurement and evaluation as well as experienced government teachers. An internal consistency of reliability of GATES was computed and found to be 0.76 using Kuder – Richardson formula 20(K-R 20) while for GIIES, an internal consistency reliability co-efficiency of 0.92 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha formula. Equally validated are the digital video instructional package and PowerPoint presentation package by experts in educational technology. Six research questions and six hypotheses were formulated for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation as well as Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) which was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The major findings of the study amongst others are as follows: Students taught electoral system using PowerPoint presentation performed better than students taught with digital video instruction. The students exposed to PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) had achievement mean scores of (x = 55.82) while the students exposed to digital video instruction (DVI) had achievement mean scores of (x = 49.76) in electoral system. The male students had a higher achievement mean scores of (x = 54.48) than the female students who had achievements mean scores of (x= 52.70) in electoral system. Students taught electoral system using digital video instruction (DVI) had a higher interest mean scores of (x = 97.28) than the students exposed to PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) who had interest mean scores of (x = 97.12). The result of the study also showed that the use of PowerPoint presentation had a significant effect on academic achievements and interest of students in electoral system. There was no interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ achievement mean scores in electoral system as well as there was no interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ interest mean score. These findings imply that there is need for government teachers to adopt the use of PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) and digital video instruction (DVI) in teaching and learning of government at the secondary school levels since they are found to be effective in electoral system. Based on these, it was recommended amongst others, that state government, ministries of education and professional associations should organize conferences, seminars and workshops to train teachers on the use of PowerPoint presentation and digital video instructional techniques. Finally, the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies, summary as well as conclusions were highlighted.
Background of the Study
Government as a concept is conceived by scholars in different perspectives. Government can be viewed as a body of persons or authority vested with the sole authority to pilot or control the affairs of a given country for the welfare of the governed. The study of government helps students to understand how the society is being governed as well as enable them to know when a country is being ruled well or not (Amadi, 2006). Dibie (2008) defined government as an academic field of study which involves the study of political institutions in the state. Lawrence and Murray (2009) viewed government as a group of people that governs as well as administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through institutions and laws within a state. While, Ukaegbu, Mezieobi, Ajileye, Abdulrahaman and Anyaoha (2009) defined government as a course of study geared towards helping students to acquire a sense of loyalty, honesty, and patriotism which ultimately inculcates in them the spirit of nationalism, values and attitudes. In the context of this study, Government is defined as machinery established to organize the state, manage its affairs and administer its functions and duties for the ultimate well being of the individuals in the society.
The importance of studying Government at the secondary school level cannot be over-emphasized. The study of Government is an effective means of building national loyalty and the adaptation of young ones to the system in which they live in. It is through the study of Government that the spirit of nationalism and patriotism are inculcated into the young ones whereby they are taught about their civic duties and obligations to the state and the role of the state to their security and welfare. It is also through the study of Government that students are taught the national anthem, national pledge, national symbols and the flag which are considered as powerful instruments for national unity and identity (Onoguere, 2007).
As contained in the National Policy on Education, Federal Republic of Nigeria, (FRN, 2013) the goals and aspirations of Nigeria is mainly to build a free and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united strong and self-reliant nation, a great and dynamic economy and a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens. In line with these goals and the need for national consciousness and unity in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, the need for a subject of study that is geared towards promoting unity, national understanding, peace and harmony among members of the society becomes imperative. Against this background, Government was introduced as a subject to help reduce political crisis, civil unrest, ethnic rivalries and disunity in the country.
Furthermore, the national secondary school Government curriculum stated the objectives of Government amongst others include: to enable students understand the concepts, principles, institutions and processes of Governments, recognize his roles as informed citizens as well as his contributions towards the achievement of national development. In view of this, Government as a discipline has a crucial and strategic place in the curriculum of secondary schools and colleges. Considering its importance to national development and transformation of a society, some experts are of the view that Government should be made a compulsory school subject. Onoguere (2007) stressed that since Government play such a strategic and important role in one’s life, it is reasonable and appropriate that it should be taught to students effectively and meaningfully using adequate instructional media and approaches.
Unfortunately, in most secondary schools, teaching and learning of Government is predominantly by the use of conventional method which involves talk and chalk verbal approach (Heafner, 2004; Martorella, 2007 Rao, 2008 & Ugadu, 2010). Rao (2008) observed that the use of conventional method in teaching Government in secondary schools such as mere talk and chalk verbal approach does not make Government lessons to be realistic, clear and engaging to the students rather, it makes lessons in Government to be monotonous and dependent on memorization of facts as well as promote rote learning. Rote learning according to United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 2004) means learning by the exercise of memory only regardless of understanding. In the context of this study, rote learning is conceived as the memorization of the information or facts by students based on repetition without deep understanding using the conventional method.
From the discussions above, conventional method involves the direct delivery of lessons in Government from notebook with little discussions and no serious effort is made to actively engage the bored minds of the students. This usually leads to a situation whereby students complete their lessons yet lack the requisite and coherent body of knowledge or any link to the subject- matter Government with other social sciences. Consequently, the students may likely graduate from secondary school without knowing how to think critically and logically, neither could they be able to identify, explain, analyze and evaluate issues in Government most appropriately. Therefore, conventional method affects the students negatively due to poor attention span, reluctance to respond to questions, underdeveloped high-level critical thinking skills and non-interactive participation in teaching and learning process. It is against this background, the researcher explored other approaches in teaching and learning of electoral systems in government using digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation.
Digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation are current innovational media that can be effectively used to enhance teaching and learning process. The acronym DVD stands for digital versatile disc or digital video disc. They are carriers of information between a source and a receiver and it is considered digital video instruction DVI when it carries messages or information with instructional purposes in order to facilitate communication and enhance learning (Smaldino, Russel, Heinich & Molenda, 2002). Nwoji (2002) defined digital video instruction as a multimedia system which can be used in teaching instructional contents that requires pictures, graphics, audio and texts in which a learner is able to interact effectively under the control of a computer. While Alfonso ( 2004) and Newby, Donald, James and James ( 2006) viewed digital video instruction as one of the newer brand of video medium used as an educational tool to enrich and enhance teaching and learning. In the context of this study, digital video instruction is conceived as the type of instruction delivered through the use of technology such as video and software which offers students a personalized sequence of learning experiences without live interaction with the teacher. In other words, digital video instruction provides a self-paced instructional platform which allows students to control the flow of instructional programmes progressively in electoral system in government. With digital video instruction, the learning environment becomes asynchronous. Asynchronous learning in the context of this study means a learning environment in which students are engaged in learning at different places and time without the physical presence of a government teacher. Digital video instruction can be effectively used for individualized instruction.
Consequently, the use of digital video instruction in learning electoral systems in government at secondary school levels cannot be over-emphasized in the sense that digital video instruction has the capability to present learning content in electoral system dynamically. Moreover, presenting lessons in electoral system using digital video instruction would help students processes information in both visual and auditory formats simultaneously thereby helping them gain deeper – understanding in electoral system in Government. Studies on digital video instruction by Adeosun and Ayodele (2002); Osokoya (2007) and Nkweke, Dirisu and Umesi (2012) showed that digital video instruction had a positive impact on students’ academic achievement in history and biology respectively.
On the other hand, PowerPoint presentation is a flexible teaching and learning support tool that can be used to present lessons on a particular subject – matter (Allan, 2003). Amare (2006) also viewed PowerPoint presentation as a software educational tool used to improve teaching and learning by presenting lessons that are structured and interesting to the learners. Within the context of this study, PowerPoint presentation is conceived as a teaching and learning tool that enhances and improves teacher’s oral presentation of lessons in the classroom. With PowerPoint presentation, learning environment becomes synchronous in the sense that a Government teacher has to be physically present in the classroom with the students for teaching and learning of electoral system to effectively take place in the classroom and at the same time. Students are kept focused on the lesson(s) being presented and the teacher at the same time maintains eye contact with the students in the classroom using PowerPoint presentation.