This study examined the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation on students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system in government. The study employed a quasi – experimental which involved a 2 x 2 pretest – posttest non-equivalent control group factorial design. Two intact classes were used for the study. The population of the study comprised of 2, 800 Senior Secondary Class Two (SS II) Students. The sample of the study consisted of 170 senior secondary class two (SSII) government students. Using purposive sampling technique, two co-educational public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area in Enugu State were selected for the study. Experimental group one is made up of 22 males and 46 female students while experimental group two is composed of 45 males and 57 female students. Experimental group one were assigned to digital video instruction (DVI) and PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) was assigned to experimental group two respectively. The instruments for data collection are the government achievement test in electoral system (GATES) and government interest inventory in electoral system (GIIES). The instruments were validated by experts in measurement and evaluation as well as experienced government teachers. An internal consistency of reliability of GATES was computed and found to be 0.76 using Kuder – Richardson formula 20(K-R 20) while for GIIES, an internal consistency reliability co-efficiency of 0.92 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha formula. Equally validated are the digital video instructional package and PowerPoint presentation package by experts in educational technology. Six research questions and six hypotheses were formulated for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation as well as Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) which was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The major findings of the study amongst others are as follows: Students taught electoral system using PowerPoint presentation performed better than students taught with digital video instruction. The students exposed to PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) had achievement mean scores of (x = 55.82) while the students exposed to digital video instruction (DVI) had achievement mean scores of (x = 49.76) in electoral system. The male students had a higher achievement mean scores of (x = 54.48) than the female students who had achievements mean scores of (x= 52.70) in electoral system. Students taught electoral system using digital video instruction (DVI) had a higher interest mean scores of (x = 97.28) than the students exposed to PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) who had interest mean scores of (x = 97.12). The result of the study also showed that the use of PowerPoint presentation had a significant effect on academic achievements and interest of students in electoral system. There was no interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ achievement mean scores in electoral system as well as there was no interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ interest mean score. These findings imply that there is need for government teachers to adopt the use of PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) and digital video instruction (DVI) in teaching and learning of government at the secondary school levels since they are found to be effective in electoral system. Based on these, it was recommended amongst others, that state government, ministries of education and professional associations should organize conferences, seminars and workshops to train teachers on the use of PowerPoint presentation and digital video instructional techniques. Finally, the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies, summary as well as conclusions were highlighted.
Background of the Study
Government as a concept is conceived by scholars in different perspectives. Government can be viewed as a body of persons or authority vested with the sole authority to pilot or control the affairs of a given country for the welfare of the governed. The study of government helps students to understand how the society is being governed as well as enable them to know when a country is being ruled well or not (Amadi, 2006). Dibie (2008) defined government as an academic field of study which involves the study of political institutions in the state. Lawrence and Murray (2009) viewed government as a group of people that governs as well as administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through institutions and laws within a state. While, Ukaegbu, Mezieobi, Ajileye, Abdulrahaman and Anyaoha (2009) defined government as a course of study geared towards helping students to acquire a sense of loyalty, honesty, and patriotism which ultimately inculcates in them the spirit of nationalism, values and attitudes. In the context of this study, Government is defined as machinery established to organize the state, manage its affairs and administer its functions and duties for the ultimate well being of the individuals in the society.
The importance of studying Government at the secondary school level cannot be over-emphasized. The study of Government is an effective means of building national loyalty and the adaptation of young ones to the system in which they live in. It is through the study of Government that the spirit of nationalism and patriotism are inculcated into the young ones whereby they are taught about their civic duties and obligations to the state and the role of the state to their security and welfare. It is also through the study of Government that students are taught the national anthem, national pledge, national symbols and the flag which are considered as powerful instruments for national unity and identity (Onoguere, 2007).
As contained in the National Policy on Education, Federal Republic of Nigeria, (FRN, 2013) the goals and aspirations of Nigeria is mainly to build a free and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united strong and self-reliant nation, a great and dynamic economy and a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens. In line with these goals and the need for national consciousness and unity in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, the need for a subject of study that is geared towards promoting unity, national understanding, peace and harmony among members of the society becomes imperative. Against this background, Government was introduced as a subject to help reduce political crisis, civil unrest, ethnic rivalries and disunity in the country.
Furthermore, the national secondary school Government curriculum stated the objectives of Government amongst others include: to enable students understand the concepts, principles, institutions and processes of Governments, recognize his roles as informed citizens as well as his contributions towards the achievement of national development. In view of this, Government as a discipline has a crucial and strategic place in the curriculum of secondary schools and colleges. Considering its importance to national development and transformation of a society, some experts are of the view that Government should be made a compulsory school subject. Onoguere (2007) stressed that since Government play such a strategic and important role in one’s life, it is reasonable and appropriate that it should be taught to students effectively and meaningfully using adequate instructional media and approaches.
Unfortunately, in most secondary schools, teaching and learning of Government is predominantly by the use of conventional method which involves talk and chalk verbal approach (Heafner, 2004; Martorella, 2007 Rao, 2008 & Ugadu, 2010). Rao (2008) observed that the use of conventional method in teaching Government in secondary schools such as mere talk and chalk verbal approach does not make Government lessons to be realistic, clear and engaging to the students rather, it makes lessons in Government to be monotonous and dependent on memorization of facts as well as promote rote learning. Rote learning according to United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 2004) means learning by the exercise of memory only regardless of understanding. In the context of this study, rote learning is conceived as the memorization of the information or facts by students based on repetition without deep understanding using the conventional method.
From the discussions above, conventional method involves the direct delivery of lessons in Government from notebook with little discussions and no serious effort is made to actively engage the bored minds of the students. This usually leads to a situation whereby students complete their lessons yet lack the requisite and coherent body of knowledge or any link to the subject- matter Government with other social sciences. Consequently, the students may likely graduate from secondary school without knowing how to think critically and logically, neither could they be able to identify, explain, analyze and evaluate issues in Government most appropriately. Therefore, conventional method affects the students negatively due to poor attention span, reluctance to respond to questions, underdeveloped high-level critical thinking skills and non-interactive participation in teaching and learning process. It is against this background, the researcher explored other approaches in teaching and learning of electoral systems in government using digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation.
Digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation are current innovational media that can be effectively used to enhance teaching and learning process. The acronym DVD stands for digital versatile disc or digital video disc. They are carriers of information between a source and a receiver and it is considered digital video instruction DVI when it carries messages or information with instructional purposes in order to facilitate communication and enhance learning (Smaldino, Russel, Heinich & Molenda, 2002). Nwoji (2002) defined digital video instruction as a multimedia system which can be used in teaching instructional contents that requires pictures, graphics, audio and texts in which a learner is able to interact effectively under the control of a computer. While Alfonso ( 2004) and Newby, Donald, James and James ( 2006) viewed digital video instruction as one of the newer brand of video medium used as an educational tool to enrich and enhance teaching and learning. In the context of this study, digital video instruction is conceived as the type of instruction delivered through the use of technology such as video and software which offers students a personalized sequence of learning experiences without live interaction with the teacher. In other words, digital video instruction provides a self-paced instructional platform which allows students to control the flow of instructional programmes progressively in electoral system in government. With digital video instruction, the learning environment becomes asynchronous. Asynchronous learning in the context of this study means a learning environment in which students are engaged in learning at different places and time without the physical presence of a government teacher. Digital video instruction can be effectively used for individualized instruction.
Consequently, the use of digital video instruction in learning electoral systems in government at secondary school levels cannot be over-emphasized in the sense that digital video instruction has the capability to present learning content in electoral system dynamically. Moreover, presenting lessons in electoral system using digital video instruction would help students processes information in both visual and auditory formats simultaneously thereby helping them gain deeper – understanding in electoral system in Government. Studies on digital video instruction by Adeosun and Ayodele (2002); Osokoya (2007) and Nkweke, Dirisu and Umesi (2012) showed that digital video instruction had a positive impact on students’ academic achievement in history and biology respectively.
On the other hand, PowerPoint presentation is a flexible teaching and learning support tool that can be used to present lessons on a particular subject – matter (Allan, 2003). Amare (2006) also viewed PowerPoint presentation as a software educational tool used to improve teaching and learning by presenting lessons that are structured and interesting to the learners. Within the context of this study, PowerPoint presentation is conceived as a teaching and learning tool that enhances and improves teacher’s oral presentation of lessons in the classroom. With PowerPoint presentation, learning environment becomes synchronous in the sense that a Government teacher has to be physically present in the classroom with the students for teaching and learning of electoral system to effectively take place in the classroom and at the same time. Students are kept focused on the lesson(s) being presented and the teacher at the same time maintains eye contact with the students in the classroom using PowerPoint presentation.
Furthermore, PowerPoint presentation improves students’ learning in the sense that they have the opportunity to see the notes, that is, the slides and texts on the screen and easily follow the instructions progressively to the end. Indeed, with PowerPoint presentation, pictures, graphics, figures and texts are remarkable and clearer when compared with conventional teaching method in which teachers drew pictures and graphics on the chalkboard. Moreover, PowerPoint presentation makes it possible to cover content and show pictures in less time as well as rotate images or pictures in order to make comparisons in teaching and learning process (Tufte, 2003). Studies on PowerPoint presentation by Amare (2006) Michael and Silva (2007) and Naki (2011) indicated that PowerPoint presentation had a significant impact on students’ achievement and interest especially students with low ability levels. The Institute for the Advancement of Research in Education (2003) asserted that students tends to learn best by seeing, listening and drawing pictures that represent concepts and that using PowerPoint presentation is a method for representing information visually which can be used to illustrate concepts in electoral systems in Government. Perhaps, if government students are offered the opportunity to learn, see and interact with digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation they may retain as much as 80 percent of the instructional content. Consequently, it is expected that digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation may enhance students’ learning in electoral systems in government as well as improve their academic achievement and interest in electoral system.
Achievement is considered very important in education in view of the fact that it is seen as a benchmark for academic progress of students in the school. Most importantly, the level of a learner’s performance as well as his or her ability in school subject(s) or topic(s) is determined by the academic achievement. Olaitan, Ali, Eyo and Sowande (2002) defined achievement as knowledge, skills and competences attained by students in school subjects or topics and which is denoted by a score. Similarly, Nurulafizan (2012) viewed achievement as to what students have learned in terms of knowledge, skills and competence acquired in school and which is measured through assessment such as standardized tests. In the context of this study, achievement is conceived as the extent to which students have performed in their formal educational goals which is commonly measured by examination, continuous assessment test, and graduation grades. According to Ugadu (2010) the availability of learning facilities, instructional methods as well as instructional media coupled with the competence of the Government teacher to deliver instruction as most desired, may affect the attainment of students’ achievement in both internal and external examination bodies such as WAEC.
The standard of the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) and the General Certificate Examination (GCE O’ Level) meaningful achievement in Government refers to a pass at credit level and above. Unfortunately, the report of Chief Examiner WAEC May/June, 2013 – 2015 confirmed the abysmal performance of students in Government. The poor performance of students in Government is reflected in WAEC May/June 2013 – 2015 (Appendix C, P. 156 ). The same trend of low achievement in Government was also recorded in public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area in WAEC conducted examinations 2012 – 2015 academic sessions. The result indicated poor percentage scores in all the secondary schools (Appendix D, P. 157). It was identified amongst other things that students had weaknesses in wrong interpretation of questions, illogical reasoning, poor coverage of the syllabus and inability to explain concepts clearly. Consequently, the poor performance coupled with the students indentified areas of weakness could be as a result of uninspiring methodology and inadequate use of instructional media by Government teachers to teach electoral system effectively.
Electoral system as an aspect of Government and which also forms part of the overall assessment in WAEC is of great interest to the researcher. The topic needs to be really taught to students using appropriate approaches and instructional media so as to drive home the points to the students as well as make it possible for them to apply what they have learnt in school to real- life situations. Against this background, concerted efforts need to be made to prepare students adequately with a view of improving their achievement and interest in electoral system in government. Realizing the fact that instructional method has a significant influence on students’ achievement, it may not be out of place to say that the present teaching and learning of electoral system in Government using the conventional method has not really been effective and efficient therefore, there is need to explore whether digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation would enhance students’ achievement and interest in electoral system in government.
Interest is regarded as an important factor in teaching and learning process in the sense that it has a direct influence on students’ achievement in school subjects and/or topics. Obodo (2002), viewed interest as the attraction which compels a child to respond to a particular stimulus. Similarly, Harbor–Peters (2002) defined interest as a tendency to become grossly absorbed in learning experiences and continue with it consistently. In the context of this study, interest is conceived as the degree of zeal or enthusiasm a learner brings to bear in a teaching and learning process. Indeed, students tend to be active and pay more attention to what they enjoy most and ignore or misinterpret what they are not interested in. In other words, students retain information especially when it is consistent with their interest and disregard information when it is in conflict with their interest. Okoro (2002) explained that students perform better especially in those areas they have interest and poorly in the areas they lack interest.
Studies on interest by researchers such as Ifeakor (2005) and Ede (2005) showed that interest plays a vital role in any undertaking as it influences one’s devotion to study, endurance and discipline. In teaching and learning process, Government teachers should try as much as possible to create and sustain students’ interest by using appropriate instructional approaches. Experts are of the view that lack of students’ interest in learning some subject(s) or topic(s) is related to instructional method and media used in the delivery of lessons Ajah (2004); Ugadu (2010) and Michelle (2013). In view of this, it becomes imperative to explore whether digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation would make any difference in students’ interest in electoral system in Government.
In recent times, the issue of gender has been a contentious subject issue among scholars in education. Gender shapes and influences all aspects of an individual life in the society. Most importantly, the education a learner receives and the social roles he or she plays in a community or organization are all shaped by gender. Azikiwe (2002) defined the concept gender as the characteristics of maleness and femaleness. Ike (2006) also viewed gender as the characteristics of human classified as male or female. In the context of this study, gender is conceived as the sex of a person or the categorization of persons into male or female within the social structures and institutions of a society. Gender is expressed differently in various societies so much so that, there is no society where men and women perform equal roles. In education, the level of vigour exerted in any meaningful activity tends to influence achievement and this to a large extent differs between male and female students.
Most of the studies carried out by researchers scholars with regards to gender related differences in achievement and interest of students appear to be conflicting and inconclusive. For example, the studies by Anie (2007); Negedu (2008) and Abdullahi ( 2014) showed that male students had higher achievement than female students while on the contrary, the studies by Njuku (2004); Ajibade (2009 ) and Zudonu ( 2013) indicated that female students did better in achievement than male students. However, Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) and Gambari, Yusuf and Sherifat (2014) reported that there is no gender differences in students achievement and interest in biology and technical drawing respectively. It is against this background, the researcher carried out this present study to find out whether there could be a better solution which would emerge on gender differences on achievement and interest in electoral system in government using digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation.
Statement of the Problem
How to make teaching and learning of electoral system in Government to be more efficient and effective at the secondary school level has been a problem confronting researchers. The teaching and learning of electoral system in Government in most secondary schools has been predominantly by the use of conventional method which is characterized by talk and chalk verbal approach. This approach tends to be more of teacher – centered as well as subject – matter oriented. It does not really stimulate, motivate and inspire students to learn concepts in electoral system meaningfully, efficiently and effectively. Obviously, the active person in the classroom becomes the teacher whereas students are forced into passive learners in the teaching and learning process. Moreover, with this approach, the opportunity for students to psychologically, physically, mentally and actively involved in the teaching and learning of electoral system would be greatly affected. This approach may have been responsible for students’ poor achievement and interest in electoral system in Government in SSCE.
It is against this background, that the researcher investigated whether digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation approaches would compel positive change on students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system in government. Therefore, the problem of this study is stated thus: how effective is the utilization of either digital video instruction (DVI) or PowerPoint presentation (PPPs) in improving students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system?
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation on students’ achievement and interest in electoral system. Specifically, the study sought to:
- Find out the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation on secondary school students’ achievement in electoral system.
- Determine the influence of gender on secondary school students’ achievement in electoral system.
- Determine the interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ achievement in electoral system.
- Find out the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation on secondary school student’s interest in electoral system
- Determine the influence of gender on secondary school students’ interest in electoral system.
- Determine the interaction effects of instructional modes and gender on secondary school students’ interest in electoral system.
Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance is based on the fact that if found that these theories are not in support of the findings of this study, the theories may need to be modified however, if found to be in line with this study, the theories may be strongly up-held. Practically, the findings of the study would be of immense benefit to Government teachers, students, instructional designers, curriculum experts and the society in general. The study is expected to provide information to Government teachers on how the performance of students in electoral system can be improved using either the digital video instruction or PowerPoint presentation mode. It would also offer Government teachers the opportunity of acquiring practical skills that is, techno-pedagogical skills in the design of multimedia instructional packages that would suit every learner’s style taking into consideration of individual differences among students. Moreover, if the idea that using digital video instruction or PowerPoint presentation mode would improve students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system, Government teachers may become more motivated in using digital video instruction or PowerPoint presentation in teaching and learning of electoral system at the secondary school level. Furthermore, the use of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation would enhance Government teacher’s effectiveness of classroom teaching and learning especially electoral system in Government in many flexible ways; thereby help teachers to regularly modify and update their lessons and use them over and over again. Through this means, Government teachers time in terms of giving out reading materials-notes, writing on chalkboard and repeated speeches are saved or minimized.
The students would also benefit from the findings of the study in the sense that they will become more active participants in teaching and learning of electoral system using digital video instruction or PowerPoint presentation. The use of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation would appeal to students’ diverse learning styles such as auditory, visual and kinesthetic. Collaborative learning in group using PowerPoint presentation is enhanced by involving every student in the teaching and learning process. With digital video instruction, teaching and learning would be highly individualized and this will enable students to go about their learning especially in electoral system at their own pace. Most importantly, students who are constantly absent from class could still catch-up by going through the content in electoral system with digital video instruction (DVI). It would also afford students the opportunity for practical and drill in electoral system in Government using digital video instruction. Students stand to benefit from this study in the sense that if using digital video instruction or PowerPoint presentation improves their academic achievement and interest in electoral system, they would be better informed and educated on norms and values of electoral system which would help them transfer it to real-life situations in terms of conducting elections in the schools, institutions, community, state and national levels without resorting to electoral violence. The use of multimedia such as digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation would help students to build meaningful connections between words and pictures; they will learn more deeply and effectively in electoral system than they could have when the lessons are being presented with words alone. In other words, students would be disposed to process information and/or materials from both verbal and visual channels respectively which will help them make appropriate connections between words- based and image-based information in electoral system in Government.
There is no doubt, that if electoral system is being taught effectively using digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation modes, students may start to have a positive behaviour in electoral system and even help to educate their parents, friends and relations on the proper behaviour during elections. Through this means, the high rate of youths involvement in electoral violence would be drastically reduced. It will also help to improve the voters’ apathy among the adults in Nsukka. They will begin to see election as one of the civic responsibilities they must be involved.
The society stands to benefit from the findings of the study in the sense that, the loss of lives and destruction of properties, killing of political opponents, political thuggery, diverting of electoral materials, snatching of ballot boxes and papers as a result of election violence will become a thing of the past. The money which will be used in organizing a re-run elections as a result of election violence will be channeled into meaningful developmental projects like establishing industries where the unemployed youths will be meaningfully employed. Indeed, the society will experience a tremendous social, economic, cultural and religious harmony and growth in all dimensions. Foreign investors will have the confidence in investing their resources in the economy of the country. Consequently, in a situation where there is relatively hitch- free electoral violence, there will be peace; harmony, unity, and stable democracy which would ultimately help actualize the dream of an ideal society- Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
The study is primarily concerned with finding out the effects of digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation modes on students’ academic achievement and interest in electoral system. The content coverage is electoral systems which include: elections; types of electoral systems, organization of elections and electoral commission. These topics are contained in the senior secondary school class two (SS11) Government Curriculum. The choice of electoral system is based on the fact that it is an aspect of Government which forms part of the overall assessment of candidates in WAEC. Electoral system is considered as very crucial both in individual lives and to national issues. The study was limited to two co-educational public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area in Enugu State. Furthermore, the senior secondary school class two (SSII) students were chosen for this study based on the following reasons. Firstly, they have registered for Government as a subject in the school, secondly, they have been exposed to some basic concepts in Government; thirdly, they do not have any external examination for which they are preparing for and so, it is expected that they will pay full attention as well as participate actively in the lessons.
In this study, six research questions are formulated which guided the study. They include the following:
- What are the mean achievement scores of students taught electoral system using digital video instruction and those taught using PowerPoint presentation?
- What is the influence of gender on secondary school students’ achievement in electoral system?
- What is the interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on student’s achievement in electoral system?
- What is the mean interest score of students taught electoral system using digital video instruction and those taught using PowerPoint presentation?
- What is the influence of gender on the mean interest score of secondary school students in electoral system?
- What is the interaction effect of instructional modes and gender on students’ interest in electoral system?
Based on the research questions posed, the following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 levels of significance.
HO1: There will be no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students exposed to digital video instruction and those exposed to PowerPoint presentation.
HO2: There will be no significant difference in the mean achievement score of students exposed to digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation according to gender.
HO3: The interaction effects of modes of instruction and gender is not statistically significant in achievement of secondary school students in electoral system.
HO4: The interest scores of students exposed to digital video instruction and those exposed to PowerPoint presentation will not differ significantly in electoral system.
HO5: The interest scores of students exposed to digital video instruction and PowerPoint presentation will not differ significantly according to gender
HO6: The interaction effect of modes of instruction and gender is not statistically significant in interest of secondary school students in electoral system.