ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STANDARD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
The review of the Environmental Impact Assessment of study area revealed that some of the newly developed projects are characterized by severe shortage of basic services like potable water, well laid-out drainage system, sewerage network, sanitation facilities, electricity, roads and waste disposal. These in turn result in to numerous environmental and health impacts that must be addressed. The burden of resource use in upcoming buildings or urban housing projects can be minimized in many ways. Properly designed housing projects can provide numerous services such as purification of air and water, pollution control, mitigation of floods and droughts, re-generation of soil fertility, moderation of temperature extremes, climate change mitigation and enhancing the landscape quality.
1.0 Background of the Study
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a formal study process used to predict the environmental consequences of any development project. It is a technique which is meant to help us understand the potential environmental impacts of major development proposals. This study aimed at prioritizing the most frequent environmental impacts, in order of their impact level, by investigating their frequency and consequences of occurrence.
Environmental Impact Assessment is the term used for the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term ‘environmental impact assessment’ (EIA) is usually used when applied to concrete projects by individuals or companies and the term ‘strategic environmental assessment’ (SEA) applies to policies, plans and programmes most often proposed by organs of state (Fischer, 2016). Environmental assessments may be governed by rules of administrative procedure regarding public participation and documentation of decision making, and may be subject to judicial review.
The term Environmental Impact Assessment refers to the anticipation of various impacts of a project that will have on the environment and the local community. It is a decision making tool, which guides decision makers in taking appropriate decisions prior to sanctioning clearance of a project. EIA is an iterative process. The key stages in the process include proposal identification, screening, scoping, impact assessment, mitigation, review, decision making and follow up. EIA is integrated into the project development process and is not seen as a barrier to development.