The incidence of the infestation of plasmodium species (P.Falciparum, P. Vivax, P.Ovale, and P. alaria) which causes human malaria in Enugu metropolis was conducted at Parklane Hospital using their patients. Thick and thin, smear of blood were made and examined after proper staining. The staining method which proved effective were the Giemsa and Liesman staining method. It was observed that P.Falciparum was most prevalent of the fair species while P.Ovale has occuarence. The report from P.Malaria and P.Ovale were not significant to be recorded. Prevalent is higher in children than in Adult.
1.0 THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Malaria is a febrile illness caused by a protozoan of the germs plasmodium present public health problem and cause suffering and premature death in tropical and subtropical countries, because of htier ample rainfall; and long periods, of warmth which favour both mosquito breeding and human infection (Adams and Magraitt 1980,),
In many endemic area, malaria increases and difficult to control because of the resistance of the parasite to antimalaria drings and the failure of vector control measures: At present, about two billion population live in malarious zone. Every year, 200-300 million people are due to the disease. Most of the victims are children under five (5) and pregnant women in areas of stable malaria (intence malaria) transmission. Malaria also poses a risk to travellers, tarists and immigrants and exotic cases of malaria are
There are four species of Plasmodium which infects humans. although infection is generally cases occur in the USA and other countries which are otherwise free of malaria transmission. Falciparum, and Plasmodium vivaz, which are found throughout malaria belt. Plasmodium malaria is widely distributed but less common Plasmodium Ovale is rare but it tends to replace P. Viax in west Africa where it has been linked with Lack of Duffy blood group by (John Murray, 1880).
The life cycle of the malaria (Plasmodium protozoa) includes of the malaria (plasmodium protozoa)includes three basic stages. The first stage occurs in the mosgintos body (Exogenous stage). The second and the third stages take place in a persons body (exogenous stage) the first stage begins where the mosginto bites Samoan who has malaria. Plasmodium enter the insects body and reproduce in its stomach. The protozoan young tin their way into the mosguito saliva. The second stage occurs after the mosquito bites another person. Plasmodia.
During the third stage, each plasmodium invades a red blood cell, where it multiples again. The infected blood cells eventually rapture and release large numbers of plasmodia, which invades additional red blood cells. This invasism, multiplying and cell rupture by, the parasites continues, causing the periodic attacks of fever that are typical of malaria. An attack occurs each time the red blood cells rupture. Some plasmodia develop further in human blood and are able to reproduce in a mosquitoes body. They enter the insects body when the mosquito bites a person their life cycle begins again.