The study examined the availability of instructional materials, its adequacy and relevancy; characteristics of instructional materials, importance of instructional materials, and factors affecting the use of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in business studies. The following objectives were obtained; to examine the extent at which instructional materials in used in teaching and learning business studies in Nigeria secondary school. To identify the value added or importance of instructional materials to teaching and learning in business studies. To identify different types of instructional materials used in teaching and learning business studies. To identify methods to improve the use of instructional materials in business studies. This study made use of Survey Research Design. Government and private secondary schools were used. It had the population 200 secondary school staff in Akwa Ibom state were use were randomly selected. The instrument used for collection of data was a questionnaire designed by the researcher for the teachers and students of business studies
- Background of the study
In teaching, it is highly desirable to know exactly what one aims to achieve as it is in all great undertaking. Instructional materials according to Wiki (1998), are kind of tools or equipment that can help the instructor effectively in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. They are also materials that aid in the transference of information from one to another. Also Ilori (2000) pin-pointed that instructional material are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner there by enabling the learner to gain direct experience. Instructional materials are assumed to have being in place right from the primary school level but if not properly utilized, enhancement of learning is thwarted. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) in Dr. (Mrs) E.O kobia (2011) noted that teaching resources means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one they can learn faster and easier. According to Nwafor.C. E and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time. The learner can see touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful. This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, i forget, i see, i remember and i do, i understand.The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more.
Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Larson (2001) quoted Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher 3 to student 3 centred classes. In this situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach resource guide and companion in learning. The use of instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials made up of reading and non reading materials and audiovisual materials comprising electrically operated and nonelectrically operated materials. Business studies are a subject that depends on the use of a number of resources. Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resource. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning situation. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials present, support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegban and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrip, maps, chart, graphs, and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experience. Other investigators including Jimoh (2009), Nwanyanwu (1999) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of business studies lessons in secondary schools. These views have been corroborated by international investigators including Blick, Berson and Coutts (2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011) they observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers logged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials and resources in business studies teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. Nigeria teachers operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural setup. And even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.