Cashew nut oil is basically extracted from the fruit of cashew by the cold pressed method. The cashew nuts have a shell which has a hard layer inside and an oily layer outside. The cashew nut is actively contained within this. The oil comes out of the outer ashy colored shell. This oil is basically considered as toxic for the human beings but still, it has various uses.
Four methods were used in caring out the chemical properties of cashew nut. The methods are Saponification value, Acid value, peroxide value, and Iodine value.
The cashew nut (Anacadium Occidentale) produces nuts, the Kernels of which have increase considerably in economic importance over the past few decades. Indigenous to Brazil. The cashew was taken to West Africa, East and India by the Portuguese in the 15th and 6th centuries. It was noticed that the tree grew well on poor sandy soils along the costal belt and was used by the Portuguese in Africa as an anti soil, erosion measure the tree prospered and spread naturally, particularly in East Africa and India and the progeny of these wild cashew has formed the basis of the raw material for the cashew industry. Through the plant was primarily intended for checking soil erosion, it is now mainly grown for its commercially important kernel and shell oil. (Tiyadurai 1963).
Cashew nut is a high value edible nut. It yield two oils one of these found between the seed coat (or pericare) and the nut, is called the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSC). It is used in industry as a raw material for brake lining compounds, as a water proofing agent, a preservative and in the manufacturing of paints and plastics. Iy is toxic and corrosive to the skin. (Cashew applies are sometimes made locally in to fruit drinks, wines and pickles.
The fat of nut is completely naturally and unprocessed which is best for the body. It is especially rich in Linoleic acid (omega-3) and is least damaging to heart and arteries. Infact, it constitutes about 47% of the total weight of the nut. Nut often produce oil half their weight. It could be good news for people who feel week debilitated. Cashew has the right combination of fat and the ratio consumption. The relative abundance of monounsaturated fatty acids in cashew nut is conducive to the promotion of good health and that the relative abundance of fat is cashew nut in no way poses a nutritional risk (Achal 2005). The advantages of cashew kernel is that it has a rich, delightful taste and it meaty and acceptable as it.
Cashew is a highly nutritious and concentrated form of food, providing a substantial amount of energy. The cashew nut kernel has a pleasant taste and flavor and can be eaten raw, fried and sometimes salted or sweetened with sugar (manay et al, 1987). It also contributes as an important source of invisible fat in the diet, being widely used in a variety of ways there has been a growing demand for cashew. The nut contains an acid compound which is a powerful vesicant, which is abrasive to the skin. There has been a growing demand for cashew in many temperate countries where the demand is increasing (Russel, 1979).
1.1.1 OVERALL COMPOSITION
The kernel is considered to be of high nutritive quality and growing conditions or the variety of cashew may have an influence on kernel composition (Ohler, 1979). The overall composition of the kernel is protein 21%, fat 46% and carbohydrate 25%.