1.1 Background of the study
From the dawn of time, education has been one of the most essential institutions in all cultures. It has played a significant role in the development of human capital and the empowerment of citizens with self-reliance skills. Teachers, on the other hand, are the pivot around which global education revolves, and they are tasked with the mental, physical, and moral training of students in all educational institutions worldwide (Paula, M., 1996). The most significant function in the educational process is that of the teacher. They improve and grow the human intellect through this schooling. Teachers are also the central figure in achieving and implementing Nigeria’s educational objectives and aims. So, in order to effectively attain educational objectives, it is critical that instructors remain motivated in their work. Teachers must appreciate their career and be content with it in order to fully utilize their efforts and abilities. According to Turner (2007), many instructors express discontent with their working circumstances, time allowed for planning lessons, bad relationships with coworkers, and the overall school climate. Job satisfaction is a common occurrence. Although there are considerable disparities owing to social, political, and cultural origins, most employees’ expectations are generally similar across the world. However, all global employees demand comparable things from their jobs, such as fair pay, a pleasant working environment, and acknowledgment and respect for their human rights. Job satisfaction, on the other hand, is a highly sought after commodity across the world (Heywood 2008). According to Heywood, countries such as the United States, Australia, Germany, Korea, and the United Kingdom place a high value on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a set of feelings about an employment in connection to the type and condition of the job. Employees may be content with certain aspects of their job while unsatisfied with others. Job satisfaction relates to the amount to which employees’ needs are met, and it serves as the foundation for organizational assessment and evaluation. As a result, at all phases of employee remuneration and success planning, effectiveness is highly encouraged. Teachers and pupils lose efficiency and motivation as a result of lower satisfaction and lack of commitment (Harmer, C., & Smith, F., 1978).
According to Locker, E. (1976), satisfaction is achieved when many requirements, such as food, health, safety, and other social demands, are met as a consequence of a work completed. Income, career stability, sense of pride with institute and its belongingness to local norms and tradition are some of the characteristics that aid in satisfaction evaluation. Other aspects are living style, pay, work environment, and supervision. The pleased employee has a highly positive attitude about work and has a negative attitude toward work. Employees that are dissatisfied with their jobs have a harmful and negative attitude about their jobs. A complicated location of behavioral cognition, emotions, behavioral preferences, and general working style correlates to the attitude change. Job satisfaction components, according to Lawler, A. (1976), are connected to the work itself, such as feelings of dependency, success, victory, self-esteem, control, and other similar feelings received from work. External factors like as strong relationships with coworkers, a high wage, decent well-being, and utilities, on the other hand, are not directly tied to employment. As a result, variables that impact job satisfaction may be split into two categories: work-related and employee-related aspects.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Teachers at all levels of education have thoughts and ideas concerning the condition of the profession. They value employment status for a variety of reasons, including prestige and financial security. In most circumstances, the job’s level of satisfaction is highly regarded, and vice versa (Nwachukwa 2006). Most instructors acquire positive attitudes toward their jobs as a result of the financial advantages they get. Teachers will be more motivated if their earnings are satisfactory and consistent. Due to a lack of proper financial support, instructors acquire negative attitudes toward their professions, and others seek another employment or work carelessly.
Teacher job satisfaction issues have also been raised in Nigeria, where teachers’ agitations and requests for better remuneration have received little attention due to a lack of resources in the Ministry of Education to address the employees’ requirements. As a result, the Nigerian government and the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) are always at odds about raising instructor Nwachukwu’s salary, perks, and improving his working circumstances (2006).
In his study on the causes of teacher work satisfaction, Paula (1996) asserts that the most important component is the school environment. A teacher must have adequate facilities, good instructional materials, security, good contract conditions, and a good school community, as well as a decent salary, positive exchanges with colleagues, school culture, school size, communication with school leaders, parents, and colleagues, and professional treatment, among other things. He also highlights the need of important characters who are supportive of a teacher’s well-being, such as administrators, students, and parents, in creating a positive school environment. This gives a teacher confidence and steadiness, which leads to satisfaction. As a result, the working environment is critical since it shapes a teacher’s attitude toward work, and school administrators must constantly follow appropriate processes for creating a stable and acceptable atmosphere for instruction in order to improve teacher job satisfaction. This is because when teachers are happy with their jobs, they are less likely to leave and are more motivated to perform. This study is based on this concept, and it aims to find characteristics that improve work satisfaction among Physics instructors in Umuahia.
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the factors that promote job satisfaction among Physics teachers in Umuahia. Specifically, the study seeks:
1. To explore the major factors that affect teacher’s job satisfaction in working placing
2. To assess the impact of factors that affect teacher’s job satisfaction on the overall job satisfaction and
3. To suggest possible mechanism that helps to reduce the existences of negative factors that result in decreased job satisfaction.
1.4 Research Questions
The research is guided by the following research questions:
1. What factors affect the Physics teachers’ job satisfaction in working place?
2. What are the impact of dissatisfaction of physic teachers on job performance?
3. What are the mechanism that can helps to reduce the existence of job dissatisfaction among Physic teachers?
1.5 Significance of the study
Findings from this study will be beneficial to school management, teachers and ministry of education. To school head, principals and directors, the result will enlighten them on the need to create a good school culture and environment where cordial relationship thrives between them and the teachers. it will emphasize the need for them to ensure provision of laboratory facilities, instructional material and other equipment that will make teaching Physics enjoyable for the professional teachers. To government, the result of the study will improve the framework by which teachers salaries, benefits, and working conditions are improved.Finally, the study would contribute empirically to the body of existing literature and it would serve as a reference source to students or other researchers who might want to carry out their research on the similar topic.
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study borders on examination of factors that promote job satisfaction among Physics teachers in Umuahia. It explored the major factors that affect teacher’s job satisfaction in working placing. It assessed the impact of factors that affect teacher’s job satisfaction on the overall job satisfaction and suggested possible mechanism that helps to reduce the existences of negative factors that result in decreased job satisfaction. The study is however delimited to some selected secondary school physics teachers in Umuahia in Abia State.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools outside the State. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.