1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The idea of food security emerged between 1972 and 1974 during a global food crisis with the initial focus on national and global food availability. The focus later shied to individual and household units of analyses in the 1980s (Maxwell and Frankenberger, 2015; Clay, 2011; Mequanent, 2014). Food security occurs when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO, 2010). Despite the persistent decline in global hunger, about 795 million people are chronically hungry and cannot lead a healthy active life (FAO/IFAD/WFP, 2014). Food security has been defined as “access by all people at all times to safe and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life” (FAO 2010). Food security is thus people-oriented and implies a situation in which all households have both physical and economic access to adequate food for all members and where households are not at risk of losing such access (A-shami 2011). If food security is attained, the result according to Talabi (2011), will be a contented, patriotic, and more productive populace and, therefore, an ideal environment in which to thrive. Mustafa (2011) viewed food security as a major element in national security alongside domestic law and order as well as territorial defense and other forms of security.
Furthermore, according to the checklist of fundamental human rights, the right or easy access to food means more to households who are food insecure than the right to basic education, participation in political and social life, and so on. Relating food security to the security of the State, Omole (2011) indicated that food is not an ordinary commodity, but a powerful instrument of State policy that can be employed to punish enemy and recalcitrant nations, reward friendly States, and influence the political and economic decisions of nations. According to Beer (2016), food is an instrument of power and hence Government must be concerned with how to increase its availability. If there is a shortage of food, then the power of the State becomes weak. The level of food security is, therefore, one of the indicators of the level of development. Thus, it is imperative to group the level of world economic development into high, medium, and low-income food-deficit countries (Oyakhilome 2011). Food security can, therefore, be seen to have social, economic, and political implications for any nation. Food insecurity is synonymous with not knowing where your next meal is going to come from (Wilson and Ramphale 2010). And, according to Olayemi (2015) there is often a strong interrelationship between food