Housing is generally recognized as on of man’s necessity for his social welfare.
In Nigeria, successive national development plans have accepted in principle, that every Nigeria should have a right to a relatively clean, state, healthy and habitable accommodation. However, may Nigeria do not have access to such habitable accommodation. Particularly in most urban area many people live in sub-standard houses in environment that are unhygienic and sub-human, however, emphasis of the past government housing facing major Nigeria town.
The perception of housing in Nigeria is predominantly that of neighbour hood and home safety, but as the planner of the fourth national development plan reminds us, inspite of its (Housing) importance, there is unfortunately needed dwelling units. This situation is said to be very serous in developing counties of the world where growth are preceding more rapidly and where the gap between and effort is greatest. But equally serious units, the old housing constantly failing below changing social standard of adequacy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
In the past before the independence of Nigeria in 1960 during the period of British rules hardly any attempt was made to solve the housing problem of the common people except building bungalows for the civil servant on the conception of colonial way of living within an independent large composition. Apart for that, some residential houses where built just to accommodate only junior civil servant in the administration in the large industrial canters. Although there is no country in the world, which is dewed o0f housing problem, the problem of housing is more devastating in the developing country where there are other problem concomitant unit he issue of shelter, such as income etc.
In Nigeria, successive Government at both the Local and Federal levels have show concern at the plight of developing urban dwellers as reflected in the various developing plans. It is however, safe to note that since 1960, housing in these developing urban canter or university town has show little or no significant changes. According to (ONIBOKUN, 1989), housing reflects the cultural social and economic values of society, as it is the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country.
The problem of housing in a university town associated with the difficulties of producing basic infrastructure such as pile-born mater. The problem of providing medical centers recreation facilities for the people, and also there is a great storage of adequate housing facilities in Nigeria town is very hill know and in many cases, the inadequacy finds expression in a very high rate of occupancy ration.
Ekpoma town is not excluded in this universal problem of housing Ekpoma. Presently is experiencing acute housing shortage, and this is because it is an institutional city or town. A built of houses in Ekpoma are traditional block houses most of which are dilapidated. While some of the building are in bad condition due to lack of maintenance. All these contributed to the housing problem currently facing Ekpoma town.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major focus of this study is the problems facing housing in Ekpoma and in Nigeria in general. The study is intended to examine the economic social structure in Ekpoma with a view to highlighting the principal cause of today housing problems. Also this study unit examine the extant to which the rapid urbanization has contributed to the varied nature of housing problem in university with particular reference to Ekpoma.
In this regard, emphasis unit placed on the potential adaptability to the housing problems situation with a view to know the dimension of the housing problems so as to determine whether the conditions are deteriorating or improving.
It is also deemed necessary to provide a basis for developing housing policy in the country in general and to suggest have it can be made more reliant to the prevailing social condition in the urban centres of the country.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In order to examine critically the influence of taste, culture, income level, modernization, rapid urban growth and the social status of individual on housing problem in Ekpoma the following hypothesis are considered.
There is no correlation between income distribution and the quality of the house an individual is prepared to occupy in Ekpoma town.
There are variation in housing types throughout the study area.
There are relationship between increase in population and increase in housing needs in the town of Ekpoma.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The main focus of this study is to examine the problem of housing in a university town. In doing this some methods of data collection were adopted to arrive at the expected goals. This research was also based of field investigation, using questionnaire, direct observation, oral interviews and this will form the primary source of data.
The secondary source of data, which are not in original form, for they have been used, unit be obtained from articles library textbooks, and news papers.
1.5.1 DATA REQUIRED AND THEIR SOURCES
The sources of information for this study are both primary and secondary, the former is based on personal interviews, personal observation and questionnaires designed conducted by the researcher in the area of study. While the late is centred on information obtained form journals book seminar papers and un-published documents as well as media prints. Some of information in the secondary sources were drawn from text books journals and other relevant sources as related to the study.
1.5.2 DATA COLLECTION
The method of data collection in this study is based on two major sources. There are primary and secondary sources respectively. The primary data in clued raw data from personal interview with various people in both the central place and the surrounding villages.
There is still another method of data collection which will be inform of interpersonal contact with the inhabitant of the various villages in the Local Government area.
The secondary sources involved the use of already treated data, available from publication of government, journals, test books, and institutions. This will be of literature reviews of what past scholar have written about the topic-role of rural central place which have been processed and used in one form or the other, they may be inform of charts, histogram and statistical techniques. Also in this work, information will be collected for government agencies such as Esan West Local Government Area population commissions office.
1.5.3 PROBLEM OF DATA COLLECTION
The problems uncounted during the process of collection data for this study include.
Inadequate data on the role of rural central places in the various offices.
Ignorance on the part of respondent in the area.
In the collection of data, the research was also faced with financial difficulty.
1.5.4 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
The method used in analysing the data collected for this research work varies from descriptive and simple table, data are show in tables ease further analysis. The cartographic methods used include constriction of maps.
Various statistical techniques such as the students T-test of two means, that is the chi-square test, product moment correlation co-efficient and the F-test will also be used in the analysis.
1.6 STUDY AREA
Ekpoma, the scale of Edo State University is the headquarters of Esan West Local Government Area. Ekpoma is located on latitude “6036 and 649” North and longitude 60.02 and 6015, East of the Greenwich, it has a projected population of 63, 467 and it is about 98 from Benin city the capital city of Edo State. Then entire region is a plateau underlain by lignite group of rock consisting of clays, fine-grained sand, lignite’s and
The plateau is divided into structural components namely the flat terrain and the deeply dissented slope, which marks the sides the terrain among other factors contributed to the development of the town
A major or highway from Benin city links Ekpoma to Auchi North Wards, the people of Ekpoma are successful farmers concentrating mainly on rice and yam production. Ekpoma people have a culture is associated with other parts of Esan. This culture is believed to have taken its root form old Benin empire. Thus, they believe in the extended family system, inter-marriage and living close to relations.
However, the town is rapidly changing from a additional monoculture peculiar to its people to a modern town of varying people. This is as a result influx, of migrant from one state to another state.
1.6.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC
The research lie in the fact that an analysis of housing problems in the study area will help to solve the spontaneously generate set of housing units consisting of rustic and dilapidated structure which constitute not only an eyesore but also a clean indication of a primitive settlement.
The soil is incompatible acceptable to erosion which involves the easy mash among of soil partakes. It contains different t types of sand, which can be named as sand soil, loamy soil, and clay soil, which are also available in the main community and fine grained sand carbonaceous day.
The study is covered with low forest suanna-sone and the study area also belong to the tropical rainforest, which comprises of tress that attain the most comfortable condition, the rest are the short tree and the rest of the herbivorous and term plans.
Majority of the people in the area are engaged in similar and interrelated occupation. The economic of the areas revolve around farming, mainly subsistence agriculture. Various actinides from the traditional occupation of Ekpoma people. But of recent the subsequent establishment of industries in the area have made people of the area to more from rural employment. e.g farming to salaried employment with the various companies.
The rapid population growth increase the demand of the different health service centres, consequently an increase in the cost of health centre which mainly affect the people of the community that is over population poses high demand of available health services centres which involved with both motherly and child, especially the children who are involved, Different types of hilliness over population we may understand that is lead to poverty, lead to hunger and this lead to sickness etc.
In this study, the population is estimated about 90,927 due to the 1991 census, at that particular period to the present day the population changes its increase every day.
Although, some people died as a result of disease, poverty accidents. Etc. yet there is an increase in population which the member of the various health centres cover up the problem of the people living in the study area.
1.6.4 POLITICAL BACKGROUND
The political background of Ekpoma town, which is also the headquarters of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Ekpoma lies about 80 kilometers northeast of Benin it is made up of twenty one settlements and ten wards, Egoro Amede and Idoa, in the East bound. Ekpoma in the North by Opoji, while Urohi bound it in the South and in the west by West Local Government Area.
The study area is high, the renge of temperature is between 210c-30c (Orubu 1979) Ekpoma situated in part of the mettest part of Nigeria in the coastal belt and as such the south means blows onshore throughout the year; there is no month entirely without rain, but the rainfall is least during December, January and February.
The average rainfall varies between 200mm to 300mm. The temperature between December and January is 20-30 which is characterized by annual rainfall of about 1m1-2m1.
1.6. 2 PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE
Esan west local government lie within latitude 6036 and 60 49 North and longitude 602 and 6015 East of the Greenwich, it is bounded in the North and east by Esan West Local government in Edo State. Affected by the element of rainfall and temperature.
The rainfall pattern is seasonal, the rural season starts in march and extended to September, October and November in most case. As Much as1700- 2100mm could be recorded during the speak periods of fully and August. However, rainfall during the months of February, October and November and way low and there may not be rains in February and November is some cases.
The temperature is as stabled level of 21-30oc during the hottest months (December and January) and it less during others Months.
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