EVALUATON OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

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EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

 

ABSTRACT
A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect
antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioastronomy looks for the antigens which are radioactively label. The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive. The Elisa kit were best used because of its sensitivity and specificity. It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radioastronomy which are rare and very expensive to be used.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections. The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because it destroys the
Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease. The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the dis-function of immune system. The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex. HIV
is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus. The family of virus is known for lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s
Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).
HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city. In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human. Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control
had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents. Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus. WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997. In African AIDs was first responded in 1982. In Nigerian it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and calabar. In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention eort in many part of the would, 4. 1 million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs In 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9,020 to 10,000 infection per day. Currently, the health problem in Nigerian considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals, place AIDS infections in Nigerian at a very serious state. the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative eect n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class. HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria.
Meanwhile, Dr. Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal. A number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named
the virus HIV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses. (Neser, 2001).

 

 

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EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

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