The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of management strategies on inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in regular primary schools in Tharaka Nithi County. The objectives of the study were to; establish the level of training of education managers on special needs, establish the number of managers trained on special needs identify inclusion placement options and models for learners with hearing impairment in regular primary schools, investigate the effectiveness of management strategies in implementation of inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in regular primary schools and analyzing challenges faced in implementing managements strategies for inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in regular primary schools. The study used management theory founded by Henly Fayor on management functions and process. The theory was important for the study because it examined how the managers in regular primary schools carried out the various functions to ensure that there is inclusion in their schools. Descriptive research design was used. The target population was education managers from Tharaka North Sub County in Tharaka Nithi County. The study used a sample of Eighteen (18) managers out of target population of sixty. Simple randomly selected twelve (12) managers were from regular schools without special units while purposive sampling of three managers from schools with special unit and three education managers from Sub county office. Questionnaire was used for managers in regular primary schools without special unit while interview guide was used for managers with special unit and from Sub county education office. Pilot study was conducted where the results from two instruments were compared through criterion related validity to test reliability and validity of the instruments. Data was collected through mixed research design, (Qualitative and Quantitative approach). In qualitative, data was coded and thematically presented while Quantitative data was .analyzed through use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and then presented through use of charts and frequency tables. The finding from the study revealed that there were few managers trained to handle learners with hearing impairment, inadequate training of managers on sign language which is medium of instructions for learners with hearing impairment. Placement options and models for learners with hearing impairment were inadequately used .The role of managers were underperformed as most of them were not conversant with inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in their schools, Challenges noted to threaten inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in regular school were; low qualification of some managers to perform management roles,, communication barriers, In adequate in-service seminars and workshop for education managers to get knowledge of using sign language, monitoring and evaluating on inclusion from national level to the primary level. The conclusion of the study was that managers have not been able to implement strategies for inclusion of learners with hearing impairment in regular primary hence making inclusion of learners with hearing impairment nonfunctional The main recommendation of the study is that sign language be made compulsory and examinable at all level of learning while managers should be degree holder and trained in sign language.
INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE STUDY
This chapter discusses background to the study, the statement of research problem, purpose of study research objectives, research questions, significance of study, scope of study, limitation and delimitation of study, assumption of study, theoretical and conceptual frame work as well as stating meaning of operation terms used in research thesis.
Background to the Study
Education programmes for learners with hearing impairment started before 16thcentury in Europe and emerged early in the 19th century in United States where the residential schools were the primary model for delivery of educational Service (Baurch 2004, Marschark & Spencer, 2005). In half of the 19th century, day schools were established in United States followed by special classes for learners with hearing impairment within general education schools (Gargulo, 2004, Hardman, Drew & Egan, 2011, Friend, 2008). Education provision for hearing impaired learners continues to improve throughout the world where integration and inclusive education has been introduced to ensure children learn together based on civil rights and equal opportunities for all (Gregory, Knight, McCrakem Power & Watson 1998).
Inclusive practice has been internationally and nationally recommended as the best way to ensure that all learners learn within their immediate environment. UNESCO (2007) point out that, inclusion focuses learners with all types of special needs
Kauffman (1995, point out that the philosophy of inclusive education is focused on educating all learners in the same classroom. Where each student unique needs are addressed through adaptation of equipment, specialized instructions and use of well- trained personals. The school accommodates all learners regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and linguistic and other conditions. UNESCO, (2003) asserts that inclusion looks further at how to transform the system in order to respond to diversity of learners. It emphasizes on reviewing schools and system by eliminating all barriers in order to achieve learning.
In India, the problem is particularly serious with many prevailing problems in the education system of learners with hearing impairment. This has leads to inadequate and insufficient education for learners with hearing impairment. Education for a deaf child is of paramount importance as a school plays a greater role in a deaf child life. It equips each child with adequate communication skills, academic knowledge and vocational skills to become independent and secure in life hood. It also contribute to cognitive, social; and emotional growth as well as personality development (Glickman 2010 and Hoy Foryth, 1986). Their findings further asserts that the current system of deaf education in India is wholly inadequate, as the deaf in India feels the need to change to current system that recognizes deaf children‟s requirement for early natural language competence, appropriate communication and access to the curricular material.