INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY IN PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and process used to treat water that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use.
Water is a natural and inorganic solvent with the composition of hydrogen and oxygen only (H20). When there is addition of other organic or inorganic, substances (high levels of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorous) in water which may come as a result of weather change domestic, waste, industrial waste, lack of awareness and ignorance, then the water is known as waste water which cause a disease called water borne diseases.
Wastewater is very dangerous especially to human beings and should be treated to avoid these dangerous diseases.
There are many method of treating waste water and they include:
– Primary Method
– Secondary Method
– Tertiary Method
The primary method involves many treatment process such as;- screening process, skimming process and sedimentation process.
The secondary method of treatment also involves such treatment process such as aerated lagoons process, trickling filters process etc.
The tertiary method is the final method that involves disinfections process. This process is used to polish and bring back the quality of water which include: PH value, hardness, flories, taste suspended solid, colour etc (Uche, 2011).
Water is essential for the survival of any form of life. On an average, a human being consumer about 2 litres of water everyday. Water accounts for about 70% of the weight of a human body. About 80% of the earth’s surface (ie 80% of the total 500 million hectares in area) is covered by water. Out of the estimated 1,11 million km3 of the total water present on earth, only 33,400m3 of water is available for drinking, agriculture domestic and industrial consumption. The rest of the water is locked up in oceans as salt water, polar ice caps and glaciers and underground. Owing to increased industrialization on one hand and exploding population on the other, the demands of water supply have been increasing tremendously.
However, consideration, part of this limited quality of water is contained by sewage, industrial waste and a wide array of synthetic chemicals. The menace of water-borne diseases and epidemics still threatens the well being of population, particularly in under-developed and developing countries.
Thus, the quality as well as the quantity of clean water supply is of importance for the welfare of mankind (cheremissinof 1981).
1.1 INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
An industry is a place or an establishment for the production or making of things (products) in factories or companies. Industry uses large volume of water in its manufacturing and supporting operations. Indeed, the chemical petroleum and other industries uses a large volume of water that fare exceeds the combined volume of other raw materials, finishing operation generally draw appreciable quantities of water. But it is not the water entering industrial works that actually becomes part of the manufactured product, a small fraction of the water is consumed or lost by evaporation while the larger fraction is not used or is employed non-consumptively.