INFLUENCE OF DISPOSITIONAL MINDFULNESS AND SPIRITUALITY ON READINESS TO CHANGE CANNABIS USE

Spread the love

ABSTRACT

This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the influence of dispositional mindfulness and spirituality on readiness to change cannabis use. Participants were one hundred and fifty seven (157) cannabis users. Their ages ranged between 17 – 44 years, with a mean age of 24.50 (SD = 4.28).  Three instruments were used for data collection. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaires (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006), Spiritual Experience Index-Revised (Genia, 1997), and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES 8D) (Miller & Tonigan, 1996). Step wise multiple regression was the main statistic used for data analysis. Results of the regression analysis showed that Spiritual support (β = – .297, t =- 3.97, p<.001) and spiritual openness (β =.35, t = 4. 71, p<.001) significantly predicted readiness to change. Mindfulness significantly predicted readiness to change (β = .22, t = 2. 80, p<.o1). However among the subscales of mindfulness, only non-judge predicted readiness to change (β = .168, t = 2.21, p< 05). While observing, describing, acting with awareness and non-reactivity to inner experience were not significant predictor of readiness to change. Mindfulness total significantly predicted the subscale of readiness to change including taking step (β = .178, t= 2.19, p<.05); ambivalence (β = .26, t = 3.31, p<.01); and recognition (β =.186, t = 2.36, p<.05). Mindfulness and Spirituality were therefore argued to have potential benefits in the rehabilitation of individuals who abuse cannabis.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

It is estimated that between 155 and 250 million people or 3.5% to 5.7% of the world’s population aged 15-64 have used drugs at least once in the last 12 months (United Nations On Drugs and Crime, 2010). Out of this number, it is estimated that approximately one in six problem drug users accesses treatment each year (United Nations on Drugs and Crime, 2014). However, there are large regional disparities, with approximately 1 in 18 problem drug users receiving treatment in Africa (primarily for cannabis use), compared with one in five problem drug users receiving treatment in Western and Central Europe, one in four in Oceania, and one in three in North America., (United Nations on Drugs and Crime, 2014). There is an increasing trend in psychoactive substance use and abuse in many African countries (Adelekan, Ndom, Makanjuola, Parakoyi, Osagbemi, Fagbemi, & Pute 2000; Reddy, Resnicow, Omardien, & Kambaram, 2007). In Nigeria, for example, where substance abuse was uncommon many decades ago, there is today ample visual evidence of drug use on the roadsides and motor parks of most urban centers where young adults could be seen using marijuana (Rasheed & Ismaila, 2010). Industrialization, urbanization and increased exposure to western life style have been noted to contribute to the increasing trend of substances use in Nigeria with alcohol and cigarette acting as gateway drugs to the use of other substance like cocaine, heroine, amphetamine, inhalants and hallucinogens (Abiodun, Adelekan, Ogunremi, Oni, & Obayan, 1994A).

According to World health organization, (1986) a drug is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism alters bodily functions. It is also regarded as a chemical you take that effects the way the body works. Furthermore, a drug is a substance that has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body, example of these drugs includes, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, alcohol and marijuana. For most of European and Asian countries, opiates continue to be the main drug of abuse and account for 62% of all treatment demands. In South America, drug related treatment continue to be mainly linked to the use of cocaine (59% of all treatment demand).

However in Africa, the bulk of all treatment demand is linked to cannabis 64% (WHO, 2004). Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana and by numerous other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine (Harcout, 2007). Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol; it is one of 483 known compounds in the plant (Russo, 2013). Including at least 84 other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, cannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, (El-Alfy, Ivey, Robinson, Ahmed, Radwan, Slade, Khan, ElSohly, & Rossb, 2010; Fusar-Poli, Crippa, Bhattacharyya, Borgwardt, Allen, Martin-Santos, Seal, Surguladze, O’Carrol, Atakan, Zuardi, & McGuire, 2009), and cannabigerol. According to UNODC (2009), “the amount of THC present in a cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of cannabis potency.” The three main forms of cannabis products are the flower, resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil). The UNODC states that cannabis often contains 5% THC content, resin “can contain up to 20% THC content”, and that “Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content.

Cannabis is consumed in many different ways (Golub, 2012).

Smoking, which typically involves inhaling vaporized cannabinoids (“smoke”) from small pipes, bongs (portable versions of hookahs with water chamber), paper-wrapped joints or tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, roach clips, and other items (Tasman,  Kay, Lieberman, First & Maj, 2011).

Vaporizer, which heats any form of cannabis to 165–190 °C (329–374 °F) (Rosenthal, 2002), causing the active ingredients to evaporate into a vapor without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 157 °C (315 °F) at 760 mmHg pressure).

Cannabis tea, which contains relatively small concentrations of THC because THC an oil (lipophilic) and is only slightly water-soluble (with a solubility of 2.8 mg per liter). Cannabis tea is made by first adding a saturated fat to hot water (e.g. cream or any milk except skim) with a small amount of cannabis (Gieringer & Rosenthal, 2008).

Edibles: Where cannabis is added as an ingredient to one of a variety of foods. Marijuana vending machines for selling or dispensing cannabis are in use in the United States and are planned to be used in Canada (Blackwell & Tom, 2013).

Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed (Onaivi, Sugiura, & Marzo, 2005).  The immediate desired effects from consuming cannabis include relaxation and mild euphoria (the “high” or “stoned” feeling), while some immediate undesired side-effects include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and reddening of the eyes, feeling of paranoia or anxiety (Hall & Pacula, 2003). Aside from a subjective change in perception and mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, increased appetite and consumption of food, lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory (Mathre, 1997; Riedel & Davies, 2005),   impaired psychomotor co-ordination and concentration.

Modern uses of cannabis are as a recreational or medicinal drug, and as part of religious or spiritual rites. The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC (Booth, 2003). Since the early 20th century cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries of the world. The United Nations deems it the most-used illicit drug in the world, (United Nations on Drugs and Crime, 2010). In 2004, the United Nations estimated that global consumption of cannabis indicated that approximately 4% of the adult world population (162 million people) used cannabis annually, and that approximately 0.6% (22.5 million) of people used cannabis daily, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006).

payment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *