TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page——————————————————————————————— i
Approval Page—————————————————————————————– ii
Table of Contents———————————————————————————–vi
List of tables—————————————————————————————-viii
List of Figures—————————————————————————————-ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study———————————————————— 1
Statement of the Problem———————————————————— 13
Purpose of the Study—————————————————————– 14
Research Questions —————————————————————— 15
Significance of the Study ———————————————————– 15
Scope of the Study —————————————————————— 16
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework————————————————————— 18
An overview of the concept of Internet ———————————————- 18
Facilities, Purposes and problems of internet adoption in University Libraries —— 22
Adoption practices of internet, internet availability and strategies for enhancement in university libraries. —————————————————– 24
Theoretical Framework ————————————————————— 26
Review of Related Empirical Studies ———————————————— 29
Summary of Literature Review ——————————————————- 38
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design ——————————————————————— 40
Area of the Study ——————————————————————- 40
Population of the Study————————————————————– 41
Sample and sampling technique———————————————————41
Instrument for Data Collection —————————————————— 42
Validation of the instrument ————————————————————-42
Procedure for Data Collection ——————————————————- 43
Method of Data Analysis ———————————————————— 43
CHAPTHER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Data Presentation and Analysis———————————————————–44
Summary of major findings——————————————————————64
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Discussion of Findings ——————————————————————67
Implications of Study——————————————————————–72
Suggestions for Further Research——————————————————–74
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Observations and Percentages on Availability of Internet Facilities—————44
Table 2: Means on Methods of Internet Adoption with standard deviation——————55
Table 3: Means on Purposes of Internet Adoption with standard deviation —————–57
Table 4: Means on Factors influencing Internet Adoption with standard deviation ——-60
Table 5: Means on problems Associated with Internet Adoption in these Libraries,with standard deviation———————————————————-61
Table 6: Means on Strategies for Enhancing internet adoption with standard deviation -63
List of Figures
Figure 1: Bar Chart on Laptop facility——————————————–46
Figure 2: Bar Chart on Cybercafé facility ————————————47
Figure 3: Bar Chart on Virtual or Digital libraries facility ———————47
Figure 4: Bar Chart on Desktop Computer facility——————————48
Figure 5: Bar Chart on Institutional Website facility—————————–48
Figure 6: Bar Chart on Individual Website facility———————————-49
Figure 7: Bar Chart on Dial-up facility——————————————49
Figure 8: Bar Chart on Wireless-Fidelity facility ——————————-50
Figure 9: Bar Chart on Digital subscriber line (DSL) facility ———————50
Figure 10: Bar Chart on Integrated service Digital Network (ISDN) facility —————51
Figure 11: Bar Chart on Cable Modem facility——————————51
Figure 12: Bar Chart on Broadband internet facility————————–52
Figure 13: Bar Chart on worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAS) facility ————————————————————————52
Figure 14: Bar Chart on Satellite dish facility———————————53
Figure 15: Bar Chart on Cellular Broadband facility——————————53
Figure 16: Bar Chart on Fiber Optics Communication facility ————–54
Figure 17: Bar Chart on E-mail facility———————————————54
The study investigated internet adoption in four federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. Six research questions were raised to guide the study. The study adopted survey design approach. The population comprises 30 principal librarians and University librarians in the four federal University libraries in South East Nigeria. A total of 27 copies of the questionnaire were returned. Interview was conducted and observation was made on internet facilities to determine the authenticity of the respondent’s responses. Findings reveal that major internet facilities through which the libraries adopt internet include laptops, cybercafé, institutional website, institutional virtual library, desktop computers, wireless fidelity, cable modem, computer networking (local/wide area network), broadband internet, satellite dish and E-mail. The findings equally reveal that the major purposes of internet adoption among others include sending and receiving mail, chatting, reading news and sports information, downloading music, researching for products and services, downloading images, searching for job online, cataloguing, video conferencing, sharing information, accessing information on any subject worldwide, accessing online directories and encyclopedia, review of literature and research investigation, sending research article for publication, sending and receiving questionnaire online, collecting research data through interview, giving and receiving information from users, giving and receiving information from vendors and contacting government agencies and the minors include buying producing online, playing game, banking online, telephone call, and listening to radio. Based on the findings the study recommended that library management should try to educate their staff especially librarians on internet facilities available in the university libraries. It also recommends that internet adoption should be included as part of the academic library services because that will provide libraries the opportunity to guide students better. It will equally help to ameliorate the damages on internet facilities.
Background of the Study
University libraries are storehouses of knowledge, technological information centers and settings for research. They are libraries that seek open access to all types of information and encourage free intellectual inquiry. They are established to serve their parent institutions –the universities. The university libraries seek to provide her users information needed to prepare them to make a positive contribution to the common good of society and to extend knowledge through research. The libraries within the universities provide bibliographic, physical, electronic and intellectual access to information, enabling each academic unit to be recognized for its excellence in teaching and for its scholarship and achievement. According to Onye (1998) library’s main purpose is to promote effective academic action through making knowledge available through efficient bibliographic control and through a rapid and effective dissemination of information. The university libraries are part of the university with the responsibility for selecting, acquiring, processing, storing and disseminating needed information to meet the mandates of the universities. University libraries are essential component of any university education. The basic function of university libraries are to assist and support the study, teaching, and research that go on in the universities. In this effort, university libraries essentially aims to: capture and hold the interest of the university community’s reading, to produce intelligence users with all types of documents and to cultivate in users an appreciation of libraries as important institutions to the universities. The university libraries provide essential reading materials and documents, Chowdhury (2001).
University libraries in Nigeria are focal point of higher education in Nigeria. According to Aguolu (1996), since independence in 1960, there has been an unrelenting upsurge in the establishment of educational institutions at all levels, especially university education. Different governments of Nigeria continue to invest strongly on education. It must be realized that university libraries, being an integral academic parts of the universities, generally emerge simultaneously with their parent institution. Hence there are as many university libraries as there are universities. The increase in universities despite economic recession in the country since 1980s has increased the problem of Nigerian universities and their libraries so much that their future is uncertain.
During the “oil boom” era Nigeria University Libraries flourished tremendously such that the shelves were filled with learning materials in order to sustain the main point academic disciplines established by their parent universities. Today the story has changed. Nigeria University Libraries have problems of maintaining core collections which represent their universities’ curricula and activities because of lack of money and high inflation. Coupled with this, is the emergence of new technologies like the internet in the educational system worldwide. Aguolu (1996) revealed that since the onset of the current recession the governments have been giving the universities grants that are not commensurate with their rapid growth in number of faculties, departments, staff and students. The resultant under funding of the universities has become perennial problem for Nigeria university libraries.
The Nigeria university libraries of today should no longer be university libraries of the 17th century image, they must be information oriented. Osundina (1973) pointed out that the library of today should not merely store documents and preserve them; it must also devise means by which the contents of such documents can be rapidly and effectively transmitted for use. Information has always played a very important part in human life. However, in the mid 20th century the role of information increased immeasurably as a result of social progress and the vigorous development in technologies. The pace of change brought by these new technologies should have significant effect on the way Nigeria university libraries operate. New and emerging technologies like the internet challenge traditional process and the way they operate. Many Nigeria university libraries have been exploiting the potential of internet.
It is becoming increasingly clear that university libraries must embrace internet technology if they are to be the heart of universities in the future. The most important things for library users are quick services, full collection and quick information on the required materials as well as getting access to world information resources. The internet now offers the capability to find everything man has created and put on the network and gets unlimited access to a huge amount of information resources. Technological innovation and changing information economies threatens radical changes in the scholarly communication process, the conduct of research, and the nature of learning. Academic computing centres and other information providers threaten the university libraries’ standing if it does not step forward to be a major player in the technology revolution currently underway. Internet technology is advancing in such a torrid pace that university administrators may decide that the traditional library is not even needed anymore. Moreover university libraries are facing a great deal of competition as other information providers are meeting the needs of the university community. We observed that many students, researchers and lectures, hardly use university libraries at all since the internet meets their needs.
In the recent years, however, the notion of the university libraries’ control position in university life has been seriously challenged. A major factor affecting the libraries’ loss of confidence to see itself as the very “heart of the university” is the emergence of new information technologies and the internet in particular. The new environment has complicated the mission of the university libraries as well. The university libraries are now forced to ask questions like: Where, exactly, does library fit-in in the university? Can the libraries reclaim its symbolic central position in the universities and provide needed information for her users? Can they make differences in the scientific life of researchers, lecturers and students? Despite these challenges, there are many opportunities for the resourceful university libraries to gradually change the face of the universities. University libraries are shifting from custodian to an access role in a rapidly evolving network society within the universities. Their role, purpose and means of operation have changed greatly. Technology simplifies the way people work.
Internet is one of the greatest recent advancement in world of information technology and has become a useful instrument that has fostered the process of making the world a global village. The internet is derived from two words: “international” and “networks”. It can be defined as an international computer network of information available to the public through modern links, Bassey . According to Lagos, , the internet is worldwide system of linked computer networks. It is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks. These networks consist of millions of private, public, academic, business and government setups that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies, Wikipedia (2010). The internet carries a vast range of information resources and services such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.
All the communication media in the world today are tailored in line with the internet through the adaptation of web sites and blogs, including telephone, television and print media. The internet has provided new forms of human interaction through instant messaging, internet forum, chats, teleconferencing and social networking. The complex communication infrastructures of the internet consist of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support software system, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the internet and provides the foundation for its success.
The internet has become an important subject for all information providers such as libraries. This is because of its relevance and application to tasks in libraries and information centres. The potential impact of internet on the public demand for the services and resources of libraries is an issue of critical importance. University libraries have remained unchallenged until the emergence of internet, as providers of convenient and comprehensive information to meet a wide range of the information needs of her users. Libraries have been the sole gatekeeper of information, Pugh (2000). The fifth law of Ranganathan as cited in Weiner,  is that the library is a growing organism. Growth, imply change and libraries are faced not only with an unprecedented rate of change but also challenges to their existence in contemporary society. The development of internet during the past decades has had profound impact on society in general and on libraries in particular. In the context of an increasing competitive environment, in which libraries are required to manage their resources and capabilities in a more efficient and effective way, the internet has become an important tool to accomplish such demands. Considering the specificity of services provided by libraries, which are mainly based on intangibles like ideas, and information, attitudes and awareness, the internet is therefore likely to be better suited to this kind of body than it is to profit firms, Saxton and Game (2001).
This technology has evolved process, functions, services, media and information resources; on the library as a whole, Melchionda (2007). Observation has shown that any library left behind will lose her users in near future. We equally observe that fewer people are visiting the libraries than before because what they go to library for is found elsewhere. University libraries can no longer afford to be parochial and isolated. They have to change with the society. This has been recognized for years and the networked world of the information society imposes per se a new dimension and a new obligation for co-operation. There are virtual library created due to the advent of this new information technology.
Virtual libraries are libraries in which the holdings are found in electronic stacks. They are libraries that exist without any regard to physical space or location. They are technological way to bring together the resources of various libraries and information services both internal and external, all in one place ,so that users can find what they need quickly and easily. Virtual libraries are product of internet. They are useful and very diverse in what they contain. The option for what they can contain include virtually endless and has become more and more boundless as technology advances. Their advantages includes but not limited to their ability to occupy small space, enhances search capabilities in digital format, materials are available at the user’s desktop regardless of where the user is physically located and eliminates the problem of book missing. Libraries are now everywhere and any time. Internet has made this possible. Akintunde (2004:10) summed this up when he stated that:
Library world since the last decade, have undergone significant metamorphosis from a purely traditional modeled manual services delivery system to a more dynamic technological driven system … like a cyclone the technology driven environment has developed the library and is taking it to unprecedented heights in knowledge acquisition, management and communication.
The attractive display of materials on the internet motivates libraries to explore and use it in their daily activities, a quick look at the content on the world wide web gives a clear picture of the variety of information resources and communication applications it contain. Those resources and applications covers millions of multipurpose web sites including images, sounds and graphs with interfaces which allow users to interact positively with the contents. In addition it makes access, retrieval and distribution of information from resources not only possible but also easy for any user regardless of their locations.
In spite of the emergence of many forms of innovations for storing and delivering information in library, the internet has remained the most valuable sources of information. In fact, “the diffusion of internet adoption in library can be considered as the most important event of the late 20th century”, Vadillo, Barcens and Matute (2006). This can be seen from prevalence of using the internet for different purpose in library such as accessing of information, cataloguing, circulation purposes and reference purposes. Internet facilities such as electronic mail (e-mail) can facilitate communication within and outside the libraries. Some other related networked applications can simplify flow of information among libraries. Real-time teleconferencing technologies can support meetings involving individuals or groups located in different libraries. Internet facilities such as laptops, desktops allow for distributed management of supply chains, support of human resource functions and exchange of contact and other library information. Although the deployment of these systems is still in an early stage in Nigeria university libraries, internet technologies appear to have enhanced library performance, costs, and efficiencies.
The increasing popularity of internet in wide range of different areas of society has, to some extent, compelled some libraries to adopt it. This practice has been however differently undertaken by different libraries. While profit making organization such as business firms and government are in forefront in adopting the internet, non-profit bodies such as libraries have moved at “a snail’s pace when adopting such systems in their organizational structures” Akers and Colemon (1994). This trend is reflected in much of the existing literature about the adoption of the internet which has been found to be mostly addressed to profit firms. In fact, scanty literature has been addressed to libraries. However, it has been recognized that the internet impacts on every non-profit activity especially libraries notably in raising awareness and influence, creating an information resources, fundraising and mobilizing libraries to a specific cause.
Adopting the leading edge of new technologies offers libraries existing areas in which to carry library profession to a higher level of achievement and recognition. New technologies induce profound change in the work place. Some established methods of internet adoption include:
WI-FI: an acronym for wireless fidelity. The term WI – FI is a method of connecting a high-speed local area network via wireless transmitted /receiver. It is convenient for mobile internet users that can bring service to areas where wiring would be costly. It is used to describe only narrow range of connectivity technologies. One can connect wi- fi devices in an ad-hoc mode from client to client without a router. If this is done, it allows communications directly from one computer to another without the involvement of an access point. Space where cables cannot be run as outdoor areas can host wireless LAN. One problem of Wi-Fi technology is that increasing the number of Wi-Fi access points provides network redundancy.
Another method is Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)which is an excellent internet access solution for homes and businesses. It is affordable and easy to install. It is a way to access internet over ordinary phone lines at speed up to 8mbps for downloads and 1mbps for uploads. A DSL modem and Ethernet card is required for installation. A splitter may also be required. A splitter is a frequency filter that separate high frequencies used for sending data upstream and receiving downstream data from the low frequency data used for voice. These high and low frequencies are transmitted at the same time. A factor that may limit maximum speed is ones physical distance from telephone company central office. DSL can operate single line without preventing normal use of the phone line for phone calls. It uses high frequencies, while the low frequencies of the lines are left free for regular telephone communication Wikipedia,(2011).
Dial-up is another method that uses a modem and standard telephone line. It dials into a network through an existing modem. With dial-up internet, a computer’s modem must manually dial into an internet service provider (ISP) using phone line to establish a connection. Each time the modem calls the ISP the computer receives a new and unique IP address which the ISP uses to identify a specific computer and allow it to surf the internet. One problem associated with dial-up is that it slows connection speed, making viewing videos, playing online games and handling large e-mail attachments difficult. But the advantages is derive from the fact that it offers more security to users than broadband as its IP address constantly changes with each new connection.
The Cable method of internet access utilizes TV Coaxial cable. The cable modem device connects just like a television or cable box. Cable can be used for high-speed internet access. It is “always on”. A cable internet connection is much faster than any type of dial-up connection. However one disadvantage is that the more congestion, the more delay, that is, the more the people using the cable, the slower the service. The cable have low interference comparably high speed and allow television use, the cost of bringing service into an area (trenching cable) can be very high Wikipedia, (2011).
Others include Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN which utilizes existing telephone line. Broadband internet access is a method that does not utilize television cable. The process does not require dial-up. This method includes a broad range of technologies all of which provide high data rate access to the internet. With broadband internet connection, the computer remains connected to the internet all the time and retains the IP address until a person disconnects or unplugs the modem. Broadband internet doesn’t take up a phone line, it allow for talking and internet surfing at the same time. Broadband internet runs fast and handles tasks with ease and allows more features, such as voice over internet protocol, allowing users to make phone calls all over the world. Broadband internet has speed and “always on” feature also make it useful for quick and efficient research.
World Wide Interoperability for Microware Access (WIMAX) is a method of internet access that works similarly to WI – FI in that it transmits information via airwaves but it handles network traffic more efficiently. WIMAX allow internet users to go online at broadband speed. Users can access the internet via laptops and hand held devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), pocket PCs equipped with a wireless card, and internet enabled cell phones. The wireless network is basically an extension of the wired network because it provides broadband access to the internet via access points known as “hot spots” built to the edge of the wired network.
Satellite Internet is transmitted through satellite orbit in space. Cellular broadband is a high–speed internet access through a portable telephone or cellular device. Fiber Optic Communication is a method that is extremely fast and has little interference. Fiber optic wires convert electrical signals carrying data into light through tiny transparent glass fibers. It is more expensive than other methods to deploy. Its speed is dependent on how close fibers are to ones computer, the amount of bandwidth available and how the service is configured. Power-line Internet Access utilizes power line to send and receive radio signals. Because of power line infrastructure already in place, it allows people in rural and low populated areas to access internet with little cost.
According to Marcus (1986) adoption is influenced by “availability of resources” “Communications with adopters of the innovation and value attached to an innovation”. The first variable “availability of resources” could be material as well as experimental. It is material when we consider sources of fund and experimental when we consider trying the innovation. When we talk of “communicating with adopters, we will be considering the channel through which adoption occurs. The value attached to an innovation represents “the potential adopter’s perception of personal and functional usefulness of an innovation” Marcus (1986:92). A high values indicate an inclination to adopt whereas low values indicate reluctance to adopt. In library, internet is innovation process that adds values to library function. Reasons for internet adoption in university libraries are first, for exponential growth of internet information resources and their users in 1990s and secondly for implications of the situation for library in its function of bringing the user and the information together. Application of internet in libraries is aimed at advancing the frontier of knowledge. They help to enlarge human choices, skills and capabilities, by developing human resources. The traditional functions of universities include teaching, research and community services as well as knowledge preservation, Ifidon (1985). We now live in an integrated world characterized by globalization, change, uncertainty, and competition. Universities now find themselves in a new world that is being driven by knowledge and ideas, Nafukho (2007). In this view, technological changes are presented in terms of “progress” often conceived as inevitable. The modern role of universities now embraces an overly optimistic of new technologies as the central tools for university change and privileges “knowledge” in the characterization of contemporary society, taking global economic changes as its analytical starting point and generally supporting models of market driven, technology led higher education transformation, Ravjel (2007).
Internet technology offers a range of potentially useful applications to libraries in many different areas. The internet represents a particularly profound change that will enable or force significant changes in library form. The internet potentiality equally lies in its capability to empower librarians and library users to support dynamic information exchange among libraries and “flatten” library bureaucratic bottleneck with a promise to result in new operational strategies and service delivery modes. The changes will have far reaching implications that libraries need to start preparing now to adopt the advanced internet applications that are expected to appear in the near future. Internet not only helps to access information, it also helps as a communication medium. Multiple communication applications provided by the internet encourage libraries to keep in contact with each other regularly and exchange information in a shortest period of time. To carry out library activities, libraries suppose to have access to a wide variety of services.
Though internet has far reaching effect, there are factors that affect its adoption. These factors differ from one library to the other. A resistant to change might come from denial of the need to change, the ability to manage change, uncertainties about the type of changes needed and how best to manage them, mistaken assessment of optional changes and failure in executing them. Even if university can identify the need to embrace internet based library and can overcome some of the factors, the progress can be inhibited by considerable uncertainties about how best to proceed.
We are besieged by claims that internet based contents, services, and applications can solve wide range of problems that have played prior efforts to implement other information technologies, yet internet equally have problems associated with it. For instance, it is not clear whether the traditional hurdles of implementation of complex library information system such as the cataloguing of library materials etc are significantly lowered by the use of internet. For example, although the capability to provide access to a set of services, content and applications through a wide array of workstations and other devices might reduce the costs for an application, it is not clear what aggregate cost of the application infrastructure is reduced. It is likely that the adoption of internet will ease some of the challenges that have plagued the implication of information system over the years. It is also likely that some challenges will persist, unaffected by the presence of the internet.
Regardless of these uncertainties there may be some strategies for enhancing internet adoption and its application in libraries. Inappropriate expectations of the internet ability to solve certain problems can cause the internet true contributions to be disregarded. Library management can think up technical computing and communications skills plus management abilities to the libraries. Just as it is transforming other organizations the internet could enable profound changes in the nature and structure of libraries and ultimately, the delivery of information. Library is – and will continue to be – diverse with different sections facing different environmental pressure, pursuing their specific function and cultivating different cultures, but the internet is capable of support at least a handful of common strategic interest.
Nigeria university libraries play roles in encouraging the use of new technologies including the internet. Nigeria university libraries like any other university libraries are in a special position for diffusing some technologies. Like many companies, economies of scale mean that they often have cutting edge technologies available. In the present time, adoption of internet in the library is aimed at increased access to timely, accurate, relevant and current information from both immediate and remote databases. Comparatively less has been researched on the adoption of internet in libraries. No doubt internet is permeating professional life and is being promoted as a future way of information transfer. However we believe that libraries are expected to be on the forefront of adoption of internet. This has become necessary because of current phenomenon of information explosion worldwide resulting from the astronomical rate at which information is being generated in this twenty-first century. So even searching for useful information is challenging in the digital world. As we know today, despite having well-stocked libraries and well equipped resource centers, users demand for information is still very high. In this view an attempt is made to study internet adoption in federal university libraries in south-East Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem