Humans and all other species consciously or unconsciously have the objective to procreate (that is bringing forth life after their kind) (Tomczak et al., 2020). However, this aim to reproduce can be threatened by physical, psychological, environmental and biological phenomenon thereby inhibiting fertility (Hanson et al., 2018).
Infertility is a disease caused by failure to achievea clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. Globallyit is estimated to affect a range of8% – 12% of couples within reproductive-age (Borght andWyns, 2018). The Malefactor is responsible for 20– 30% of infertility problems but contributes to 50% ofoverall cases of infertility. Secondary infertility which is the most common form of femaleinfertility around the globe is often due to reproductive tract infections (Borght and Wyns, 2018).Some of the conditions that lead to infertility in women include endometriosis, celiac and thyroid autoimmune diseases (Nalli et al., 2019). Apart from the underlying medical causes of infertility, some psychological conditionssuch as low self-esteem, homeliness, perception of social support (poor acceptance level), and depression have been linked to causing infertility (Dembińska, 2019).Conditions such as obesity, consumption of junks and use of chemotherapy have also been shown tocauses ofinfertility in women (Gonzalez-Campoy, 2019).The management of various types of infertility is dependent on the diagnosis. While some types of infertility can be managed with medications and surgeries, others will demand the application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART)
In vitro fertilization,is the most widely used form ofassisted reproductive technology that assist couples who are finding it difficult to conceive.it involves fertilization of the male and female gamete outside the body and subsequent transfer of the resultant embryos into the womb to achieve pregnancy. This process is sometimes plagued with low success rates and risk factors.The success rate of IVF cycles could be affected by couples age, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity and so on (Wu et al., 2014) the risk factors associated with IVF procedures includes multiple births, premature delivery, low birth weight, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), miscarriage, egg retrieval procedure complications and ectopic pregnancy. (singh et al., 2020) This study will focus on the demography of the causes of infertility.
This research is aimed towards the determination and collection of valuable data in a population range of 243 patients showing the causes of male and female infertility in couples visiting a private fertility clinic in Abuja.
i. To investigate the main causes of infertility in the males in the couples in the stated range
ii to investigate the main causes of infertility in the females in the couples in the stated range
- Scope of the Study
The retrospective study will be reviewing the diagnostic reports investigated by the doctor for each couple, the various causes of infertility in 243 couples who had visited a private IVFCentre in Abuja. And the percentage distribution of the causes of male and female infertility will be evaluated across various age ranges. The data will be analyzed using statistical package for social sciences(SPSS23) and results interpreted with diagrams where needed.
- Limitation of Study
Data was obtained from the inventory of patients and this study did not have any opportunity to access any physical test on the individual patient or couples. This study did not take note of the occupation of the couples and the lifestyle of individual.
- Statement of Research Problem
Infertility which is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercoursehas been linked to many spiritual or superstitious beliefs especially in our immediate society in Nigeria (Borght and Wyns, 2018). In most of the cases the actual cause of inability to bear children was not identified and properly documented, hence the impossibility of expunging these erroneous beliefs. However, this study
investigated the causes of male and female infertility within different age ranges in a private fertility clinic in Abuja.
Data from this finding will enormously contribute to the paucity of information on causes of male and female infertility here in Nigeria. This will fill the lacuna in data, thereby preparing the scientific community to manage cases of infertility.