The microbial changes which took place during the steeping and storage of pan (ogi) was studied. The steeped water had an initial PH of 6.8 which latter reduced to 4.9 at the end of steeping. The bacterial number for the steeped water ranged from 4.7×104 to 3.2 x 107 cfu/ml while the fungal number ranged from 1.5 x103 to 5.7 x 106 cfu/ml. In the stored pap, pap I had higher count which range from 7.2×104 to 6.0×107 cfu/g while 6.0×107 to 1.6×1011. The fungal count for pap I and II ranged from 8.2 x 105 to 2.5×1012 and 8.2×106 to 3.6×1010 respectively. The bacteria isolated from stee pingwere Lactabacillus species Bacillus specie, Corynebacterium, streptococcus specie and clostridium species. The fungi were Aspergillus species fusrarium specie, pencillium specie sachanomyces specie and candida specie. The bacteria spp isolated from stored pap were lactobacillus species, streptococcus specie Eubacterium specie, Pseudomonas specie, Baccillus specie, streptococcus specie, Lactobacillus specie, Leucomostoc specie for pap I and II respectively. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus specie, Pensillum specie, fusarium specie, sacharomyces specie, candida specie, Debaryomyces specie for pap I and II respectively. The pap stored without changing water developed an off flavour after 48 hours and is not fit for consumption. On the other hand, the pap stored while changing water is fit and better for consumption.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cereals have been known to man from the earliest times porridge prepared from cereals are eaten in different parts o the world, especially in developing countries where they may present the basic diet. This porridge could be baked to enhance the taste, quality and improve digestibility (Oke 1967, Adeniyi and Potter 1978, Uno and field 1981).
Corn (zea mays) is one of cereals which is an important raw material in human diet. In Nigeria, maize is grown mainly in the southern part of Nigeria while sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (perinisetum typhoideum) are grown in the northern part of the country. A fermented cereal product is known as paplogi). Corn is processed into traditional food such as pap,ogi) Umo and fields 1981).
Pap is a fermented non-alcoholic starchy food and is a major staple food widely consumed in west Africa. It is a sour fine past beverage which when cooked produces a thin semi solid porridge. Pap (Ogi) porridge has a smooth texture and a sour taste resembling that of yoghurt,. In Nigeria, some states such as Anambra, Imo, Enugu and Abia refer to it as Akamu but Ogi is a Yoruba name but most state of Nigeria, it refers to maize pap. On the other hand, sorghum pap is known as Ogi baba while millet pap is known as Ogi gero in Yoruba (Banigi 1977, Onyekwere and Akinrele 1977).
Pap/ogi can be consumed with variety of other product including with bread, steamed been cake (moi-moi), fried bean cake (Akara), fried yam and plantain etc. it is used as a main meal for adult and sick patients and it is suitable for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Pap is widely used as the first native food given to babies at wearing to supplement breast milk and is a major breakfast cereal for pre-school children and adults. It is consumed as a main meal for convalescing patients because it can easily be digested. As a wearing food, it is utilized mainly by low income earners category, it is estimated that about 25 million or more adults eat it about 4-5 days weakly (Banigo 1972). Milk and sugar may be added to improved the taske and nutritional quality. Pap is cooked and turned into a stiff gel called Agidi which is similar to kenkey, a fermented shanian product (Muller 1988, withby 1968). Some Yoruba indigens beliwved that pap is capable of stimulating the production of breast milk in Nursing mother (Bassir 1962). However, there has been no qualitative evidence of support of this belief.
In spite of it’s important in the Nigeria diet, pap manufacture is essential a home based industry. There are at present no large scale factory operation for the production of pap. The manufacture is carried out on a small scale by some house wives as a commercial venture in many parts of the country. The cleaned grain free of dirt and impurities steeped in eastern ware, plastic or enamel pot for 1-3 days at room temperature, this is followed by wet milling and sieving. Twenty-four (24) hours of sleeping leads to a greater depletion of the fermentable carbohydrate. After sieving, the coarse material obtained is wash with water to separate more of the starch. The filtered slurry is allowed to sediment and undergo further fermentation for 1-2 days at room temperature. The coarse matter which is separated is used ad animal feed while the sediment (Pap) is boiled to obtain.