DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON COMPUTER SCIENCE
Organizations are made up of group of people who have come together to pursue a common goal. Organizations, whether formal or informal make use of information to survive. The survival of any formal organisation rests entirely in the hands of the managers who at their various hierarchical levels do work with and through others to ensure such survivals. Management at all times works with information to put into use, the resources of their organisation. However, these resources of men, materials and money (3m’s) Obey the economic theory of scarcity. The concept of economic scarcity has made it imperative for management to prudently operate their organization for success.
It is this call to manage the organization for optimal performance at reduced costs while pursing accelerated profits that has given the management the impetus to apply the Science of Management information system (MIS) to ensure that they perform their jobs better to the advantage of the organization.
From this broad perspective, MIS can be seen as the central factor in the performance of managerial functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling with all, these interviewed and integrated in the decision-making process in the organization.
Conceptually, MIS activities must be integrated and holistic in scope and nature and like the system theory, has to be evenly spread in the organization. it is therefore an indispensable, supporting system to management. MIS is not a new concept parse since it has existed long time, there were management requiring information to plan, organize, direct or control their activities.
In those olden days, the existence of MIS, its nature and practice were essentially manual and informal because organizations and their activities were far from been complex.
The manual application meant that most of the activities in a good MIS such as gathering of data, storage, processing and dissemination were wholly operated with only human effort.
However, the invention and introduction of computer in the running of business organization has opened up a new era in the nature and practice of management information system (MIS).
MIS is a modern form of management and information technology. MIS is a formal method of making available to management, the accurate and timely information to facilitate the decision-making process. It is a system of information creation. The system provides information about the past, present and projected future and also about relevant events inside and outside the organisation. The advent of computers as machines with the ability to process and condense large quantities of data and hold them until they are required for processing into relevant information, and with the introduction of computer-based MIS, it became imperative to approach the designing of management information systems as a formal process and a field of study.
MIS in formal organizations is of course formal in structure and functions in the sense that it follows, flows and permeates the organisation parts through the well-established organizational structure and design.
There has been continuous quest for man to improve his well being, thought, reactions to problem and challenges posed by his environment.
Tools upon tools have been fashioned and designed by man to help him conquer these problems and challenges posed by his over crowded environment.
The entry of computer system into the scene could not have been for any other reason except to improve efficiency and reduce time of provision of more reliable and accurate output.
There is no doubt that the modern society and the accuracy, availability and management of this information should be of great importance to human beings.