CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The precise content of this project was to construct a model shell and tube heat exchanger.
The material for construction of this project (equipment) and their dimensions are as follows:
- 500mm length of a tube bundle
- 20mm diameter of the tube bundle
- 650mm length of the shell
- 120mm diameter of the shell
- 70mm length of the inlet and outlet
- 20.5mm diameter of the inlet and outlet
- 160mm diameter of the flanges
- 8mm diameter of the holes on the flanges.
The construction of this equipment involves a series of processes which includes:
i. Marking out which was done using metre rule, pair of compasses, scribers and punch.
ii. Cutting of the marked materials to shape
iii. Folding to shape where necessary
iv. Rolling and boring holes as appropriate
v. Welding together by electric welding
vi. Filling for good finish
vii. Assembling together of the individual component.
The carefulness with which the marking out, welding and final assemble of the work was done made it possible for us to obtain an equipment suitable for use as a model shell and tube heat exchanger.
It is established that a horizontal heat exchanger with cold water at the shell side and the treated steam at the tube side is adequate for this operation, with the aim of cooling the steam from the distillation column.
The introduction of vapour (or any hot fluid) and removal of condensate (or a cooler fluid) is near perfection (100%) while the equipment being a heat exchanger is used to recover vapourised liquid in its former form (liquid) or removed heat from a very hot processed fluid. Significantly, this equipment is of great need when vapourised liquid must be recovered back as liquid at specified conditions.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The title of this project is construction of a model shell and tube heat exchanger.
Heat exchanger is a device in which heat is transferred from one fluid stream to another normally by the combined process of conduction and convention. Heat exchangers are the most important item in many thermal systems (Abalu 2006).
According to Jaeger 1995, heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat. On the basis of numerous application in the industry for which they are designed and manufactured, heat exchangers are often given various names such as boilers, steam generator, automobile radiators, evaporators, condensers, heaters, coolers generators etc.
It is used to transfer heat from one fluid steam to another. it is also used to predict the amount of energy required to change a system from one equilibrium state to another (Abalu 2006).
There are various types of heat exchanger equipment generally defined by the function it performs in a chemical industry, they are; regenerator, open-type heat exchanger and closed-type heat exchanger or recuperated (Wickinson 1970).
Since our major concern is construction of model shell and tube heat exchanger, which is a type of recuperates or closed-type heat exchanger.