1.1 Background to the Study
Gesinde (2000) asserts that, the need to achieve varies among individuals. While some individuals‟ need for achievement is very high, that of others may be very low. Atkinson (1964) states that, individuals‟ actual achievement behaviour depends not only on their motivation to achieve but also whether they expect to achieve. People are more likely to work hard when they perceive a reasonable chance to succeed than when they perceive a goal to be out of reach. The trend of school achievement over the years among secondary school students seems to be poor. This could be in line with WAEC Report (2005), which observes that, the level of achievement among secondary school students in recent times has not been encouraging. It is in recognition that statistics from the West African examination council WAEC (2005) reveals that, the number of candidates that entered for biology, for instance has been encouraging over the years while their percentage pass at credit level in the senior school certificate examination (SSCE) has been following a downward trend. In the year 2001,2002,2003,2004, for instance, only 31.7%, 25.6%, 25.3%, 23.1% passed biology at credit level respectively.
These are indications of poor achievement by students. On a similar note, Osuji in Ali (2006) states that, trend analysis studies on achievement pattern in mathematics among secondary school students indicated that between 1979 and 2001, there was steady average of 1.7% annual decline in students A1 to C6 grade in mathematics at the west African school certificate examination. This implies that over the past decade or there about in Nigeria, students‟ attitude to achievement in their schoolwork has taken a negative direction. Shaffer (2000) opines that, achievement is inferred from individual (and often competitive) accomplishments that can be compared among some standard of excellence.
Conceptually, achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people or ideas; for attaining a high standard (Iheanacho 2002). Students develop interest in reading certain literary genres, writing, poetry, engaging in experiments and so on, all of which enhances learning. These unique patterns of interest might have developed through exposing the children to a knowledge domain or type of activity they discover they value as they identify with it in some fashion or because it meets some salient need
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS
MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE