TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Approval Page iii
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 11
Purpose of the Study 13
Research Questions 13
Significance of the Study 14
Scope of the Study 15
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 16
Conceptual Framework 16
Concept of Job Performance 16
Concept of Motivation 19
Job Performance among Librarians 22
Motivational Factors Affecting Job Performance of University Librarians 27
Job Satisfaction and Its Effect on Job Performance 33
Problems Affecting Motivation and Job Performance of University Librarians 36
Need For Assessing Librarians Job Performance 40
Strategies for Improving Motivation and Job Performance among University Librarians 44
Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework 47
Theoretical Framework 48
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 48
Douglas McGregor’s X Y Theory 52
Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory 53
Review of Related Empirical Studies 55
Summary of Literature Review 60
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 63
Design of the Study 63
Area of the Study 63
Population of the Study 63
Sample and Sampling Technique 64
Instrument for Data Collection 64
Validation of the Instrument 65
Reliability of the Instrument 65
Method of Data Collection 66
Method of Data Analysis 66
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 68
Research Question 1 68
Research Question 2 73
Research Question 3 77
Research Question 4 78
Research Question 5 79
Hypothesis Testing 80
Summary of the Major Findings 80
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND 82
Discussions of the Findings 82
Implication of the Findings 85
Limitations of the Study 87
Suggestions for Further Research 88
APPENDIX A: Population of the Study: 95
APPENDIX B: Motivational Factors as Correlates of Job Performance of Librarians’ Questionnaire ( MFJPL) 96
APPENDIX C: Computation of Reliability 106
APPENDIX D: Result of Data Analysis 114
LIST OF TABLES
Tables Title of Table Pages
1 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Responses on Job Knowledge and Competency 68
2 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Response on Work Habits 69
3 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Response on the Effectiveness of Staff Communication 70
4 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Response on Character Traits 70
5 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Human Relations 71
6 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Leadership Attainment 71
7 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Team Work and Cooperation 72
8 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Quality and Quantity of Work 72
9 Summary of the Cluster Means 73
10 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Salary 74
11 Mean Rating and Standard Deviations of Responses on Promotion 74
12 Mean Rating and Standard Deviations of Responses on Training 75
13 Mean Rating and Standard Deviations of Responses on Work Environment 76
14 Mean Rating and Standard Deviations of Responses on Leadership Style 76
15 Regression Table on Relationship between Motivational Factors and Job Performance 77
16 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on the Problems Affecting Motivation and Job Performance 78
17 Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses on Strategies for Enhancing Motivation for Improved Job Performance 79
18 Correlation Table on Influence of
Motivational Factors on Job Performance
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Schematic Diagram of the Purposes of Performance Appraisal 42
2 Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework 47
3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Diagram 51
purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivational
factors and job performance of librarians in state-owned universities in North
Central Nigeria. The study was designed to determine the level of job
performance of librarians, their motivational factors, relationship between
motivational factors and respondents’ job performance, problems affecting
performance and strategies to enhance job of performance librarians. The study
was guided by five research questions and one null hypothesis. The population
of the study is 92 librarians in state-owned universities in North Central
Nigeria. No sampling was done in the research because the population was manageable.
Therefore, the entire population was used. The questionnaire tagged
Motivational Factors as Correlates of Job Performance of Librarians (MFAPL
) was developed and used to collect data
for the study. The questionnaire was validated by three experts from the University
of Nigeria, Nsukka and Federal University of Technology, Minna. A total of 84
out of 92 librarians in state-owned universities in North Central Nigeria
responded to the questionnaire. The overall reliability index of the instrument
was 0.83, indicating that the instrument was reliable. The questionnaire was
administered using research assistants after the researcher personally visited
each university. Means and standard deviations were used to answer the research
questions while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the
hypothesis formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. The major
finding of the study revealed that there is significant relationship between
motivational factors and job performance of librarians in state-owned
universities in North Central Nigeria and that their overall level of
performance of librarians was good. All the motivational factors had good
ratings. The study recommended the regular assessment of librarians’
performance, adequate motivation of librarians; sustenance of the tempo of librarian’s
performance by exploring better ways of job performance(s). In the same vein,
poor remunerations, delay in promotion, lack of staff training, bad university
policies such as discriminatory attitude towards library staff as evidenced in
the unwillingness to open opportunities for training among others were some
major factors hampering the performance of librarians. The study discussed
strategies for improving job performance such as empowerment of staff ( that is
giving employees freedom and authority to execute their jobs without overbearing
supervision) rewarding and recognising their efforts and sacrifices, evolving stimulating
working environment and welfare among others..
Background of the Study
Universities are higher educational institutions where students undergo studies for the award of degrees or diplomas. Among the major objectives of universities include provision of high quality, comprehensive educational and training opportunities that are relevant to the varying needs of the students. The university is also dedicated to providing faculty, staff, and students with the environment and infrastructures that help them develop. As part of their objectives, universities help students and members of staff understand and develop the necessary skills that will help them to excel in whatever path they choose. In addition to the above mentioned objectives, universities provide opportunities for students to understand their competencies, aspirations and options through a variety of means, including personal discussion with professional advisers that collaborate with the university academic departments, colleges and relevant organizations in activities designed to further the aims of the service. Universities recruit, train and develop staff at various levels to enable those objectives to be met.
State-owned universities are those universities established by states or equivalent segments of a country. Such universities are established primarily to cater for the indigenes to secure admission into them to further their education. Establishment of state universities goes a long way in reducing student admission problems since securing admission into federal universities has become very difficult. State-owned universities award degrees and certificates as federal universities do. The edict establishing these universities is usually passed by the state House of Assembly. In the same vein, senior staff appointments and those of principal officers come from the state. Most of the financial expenses of the state universities come from the state government. Usually, the governor of the state is the visitor to the university.
Every university irrespective of the type has a functional library. The library attached to the university is referred to as a university library. University libraries are identified by the university of which they are a part, serving the teaching and research needs of students and staff. These libraries serve two complementary purposes: to support the school’s curriculum and to support the research of the university faculty and students. University libraries decide what focus they take in collecting materials since no single library can supply everything.
University libraries provide all of the following: an organized collection of printed or other materials or combination thereof, a staff trained to provide and interpret such materials as required to meet the information, cultural, recreational or educational needs of clientele and the physical facilities necessary to support such a collection, staff, and students. The library provides reference services and all possible information needs for researchers, students, academic staff as well as neighbouring communities, University libraries also provide technical service such as book binding, printing, editorial and reprographic services. These libraries ensure fast and quick accessibility to the available print and non print information resources to staff and students at all times. Being one of the most important facilities in any learning institution, a library is the centre for knowledge acquisition and development in the university. In summary, services provided in a typical university library include traditional ones like loan transactions, ancillary services such as binding and photocopying, and current awareness services like selective dissemination of information (SDI).
Librarians. manage /organise, evaluate and disseminate information, providing support to members of the university community including students, researchers and teaching staff. These librarians may be responsible for a specific academic subject, developing specialist knowledge and other functions such as resource ordering, loans, specialist collections, ICT systems and library project. Their main role involves facilitating and supporting learning by teaching information retrieval skills to students and staff within classrooms or virtual learning environment. Saka, Abubakar and Abubakar (2014) state that librarians in Nigerian universities enjoy equal academic status / benefits like their counterparts (faculty members) undertaking teaching and research functions as well as scholarly contributing to knowledge. Edibo (2009) posited that academic librarians in universities world-wide enjoy academic status like the faculty members but must fulfil certain conditions in order to be promoted.
According to Justine, James and Karen (2007), librarians spend considerable time working with electronic resources involving data bases management and web development. They are responsible for acquiring, organising, managing and distributing library resources and ensuring that library provision meets the needs of all its users. Academic librarianship is a people-focused role, requiring individuals to manage learning resources while keeping the library users’ needs in mind. Their duties vary considerably according to the size of the library, but typically include, selecting, developing, cataloguing and classifying library resources, answering researchers’ enquiries, management of staff, including recruitment, training and/ or supervisory duties. Other duties performed by librarians include supporting independent research and learning, assisting readers to use computer equipment, conducting literature search, and providing the library resources to users. One is qualified to become a librarian especially those with a first degree other than in librarianship must do a Masters in Library and Information Science. Librarians are expected to possess strong IT skill, team work and management skills, verbal communication skill and familiarity with the use of databases and the Internet. However, these skills can only be well displayed if librarians are adequately motivated.
Everybody who works in an organisation such as the university library has certain jobs assigned to him or her to perform. Such jobs are assigned based on qualifications and experiences of such people. Coleman (1993) defined a job simply as a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities assigned to a position or individual in an organisation. Job can also be seen as a set of duties and responsibilities whose completion serves to further organisational objectives. The performance of a job is how well or otherwise an individual undertakes the job. As Bassey (1999) observed, job performance is a function of many variables and therefore subject to numerous definitions and interpretations. Job performance is the actual workers execution of assigned tasks. For purposes of this study, job performance is interpreted as the act of performing a set of duties or responsibilities assigned to an individual working in an organisation. Job performance is the sum-total of a worker’s execution of assigned tasks. Job performance is central to the growth and stability of an organisation. This is why it is important to find ways of motivating employees.
Alhamdu (2010) posits that a well-motivated staff is a great asset to any organisation because he or she will always be production-hungry, adding that such a staff is usually proud, ready, willing, available, and able to deliver on any assigned task no matter the circumstance, making him to be highly efficient, focused and goal-oriented. The effective provision of information service for maximum utilisation by the academic community depends on how the library is equipped and administered. This can only be achieved when members of the library staff are hardworking and exhibit excellence in the performance of their jobs. The professional job in the library is very important and plays a significant role in the provision of efficient services to library users. For professionals to render maximum service there must be drive or motivation urging them to greater effort and excellence (Lawal, 2004). It is a well known fact that a happy worker is a productive worker. This suggests that the emotional state of a worker is significant for productivity, both in the quantity and quality of service rendered by the worker. Boxal and Purcel cited in Armstrong (2004), asserted that the level of individual performance is a function of ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO). People perform well when;
- They are able to do so (they can do the job because they have the necessary abilities and skills).
- They have the motivation to do so (they will do the job because they want to and are adequately given the incentives).
- Their work environment provides the necessary support and avenues for expression (for example functional technology and the opportunity to be heard when problems occur). Therefore, in order to influence employee performance positively, it is mandatory for all managers to stimulate and induce the staff to put in their best.
Efficient and effective job performance of the librarian, who has an important place in the information society, is crucial to the success of the university as an intellectual mill. Aarabi,Subramaniam and Almintisir (2013) opined that it is important that employers of labour know the primary needs of workers to manage and address them towards great job performance. It is for this reason that there is need to understand how the material and moral elements interact to impact on the job performance of librarians. Librarians seem to be characterized by a strong obligation to meet the demands of users. According to Inana (2008), employers of labour can enhance performance of their employees by providing them with reasonable pay, welfare services, such as rewarding hard working employees, promotion and in-service training, and punishing erring employees Therefore, in order to influence employee performance positively, it is mandatory for all managers to stimulate and induce the staff to put in their best. Employees are more likely to demonstrate good job performance if they understand that doing good work increases their chances of advancement and higher pay. All these are vital for employee’s success on the job.
According to Bates and Holton , cited in Armstrong ( 2006), performance is a multi-dimensional construct, the measurement of which varies depending on a variety of factors. On individual basis, it is a record of a person’s work or job accomplishments. However, accomplishing tasks and performing at a high level can be a source of satisfaction, with feelings of mastery and pride. The success of any organisation is directly related to the performance, productivity and commitment of its employees. According to Williams (1995), the livelihood of a company is dependent on the employees. Librarians, who perform more complex and intellectually vigorous jobs in the libraries, become much concerned about job satisfaction in order to promote efficiency of library personnel in the realisation of the goals and objectives of librarianship (Murray, 1992). How they feel about the work they are doing and the results received from that work directly impact on the organisation’s performance and ultimately its stability.
Low performance and not achieving the goals might be experienced as dissatisfying. Good performance could be enhanced or improved upon by encouraging and developing harmonious and pleasant work place. Clear and unambiguous job description, punishing poor job performance in reasonable ways, and rewarding good job performance among others, serve as a motivation to employees. Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance. According to Aarabi, Subramaniam and Almintisir (2013), motivation is a Latin word and it means ‘to make’. Psychologists believe that motivation is the process that drives individuals towards achieving a goal. Moreover, motivation gives a person a purpose and the drive that he needs to achieve it. It helps people to push or pull from bad situations, which are negative features in their lives. To be effective, management needs to understand what motivates the professional library staff within the context of the roles they perform. Employees who are motivated enjoy their jobs. They care about the quality of their work and they generally are what employers call ‘engaged’ workers who enthusiastically embrace their duties and responsibilities. Obisi (1996) in the book Personnel ‘Management defines motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the ability to satisfy some individual needs. In order to get librarians satisfied and committed to their jobs, there is need for strong and effective motivation at various levels, departments, and sections of the library.
No matter the size of a functional library as well as the scope and strength of the collection, the manager of a library cannot meet his or her set goals if members of staff are not well-trained, properly equipped and highly motivated. In the world of work, a number of factors interact to affect both the quantity and quality of workers’ efforts towards their job How satisfied librarians are with their jobs may affect their performance in their jobs, their relationships with their co-workers, subordinates, clients, physical health, social lives and adjustment. In the long-run these will affect the mental health, happiness and longevity of the librarians. Motivated employees are happier and more productive. They perform duties assigned to them with total commitment, concentration and dedication, the end of which is a good result. Employees who are motivated to perform their duties usually are conscientious workers who show pride in the quality and quantity of their work. However enthusiasm, commitment, pride and productivity are the cornerstone of employee engagement.
Motivational factors are the drivers of human behaviour related to the intrinsic nature of the work, and also necessarily to the surrounding circumstances or environment. They refer to the dynamics of behaviour which involves people’s needs, desires and ambitions in life. Other motivating factors include salary, promotion, training, work environment and leadership styles. One may ask if money actually demotivates? Some have argued that it does; that there is a natural tension between extrinsic and intrinsic motives, and that financial rewards can ultimately depress or crowd out intrinsic goals (e.g. enjoyment, sheer curiosity, learning or personal challenges). A promotion refers to the advancement of an employee’s rank or position in a hierarchical structure. Job promotions usually include a new job title, a greater number of responsibilities and a pay increase.
Employee training is a tool that managers can utilise to help enhance employee’s performance. The challenge for the employers of labour is to design training options that give employees the information or skills they need and then measure whether those training options are effective in producing desired outcomes. Employees can receive two kinds of training to improve their performance. First the organisation can offer general training to give employees new knowledge and skills, which will be transferable to any future job. Second, the organisation can offer training in skills specific to its technologies and new processes. The effect of training on job performance is great. Training is designed to provide employees with the knowledge and skills needed for their present job because few people come to the job with the complete knowledge and experience necessary to perform their assigned job. Training facilitates self- development and also provides opportunities for career development. Every employee has a desire to grow, develop and rise higher. This desire should be exploited fully in motivating employees to perform better. In fact, there is an increasing awareness in organisations that the investment in training could improve organisational performance in terms of increased productivity. Training raises the worker’s productivity. Most organisations invest in training because they believe that it brings about higher performance. Employers should design training options to motivate workers of all types, minimises their error rate, absenteeism and give them feedback during training.
Each employee or group of employees must be assessed for training needs. Accordingly, Audra (2010), states that managers and supervisors operate under the mistaken impression that the level of employee performance on the job is proportional to the size of the employee’s pay packet. Although this may be true in some cases, numerous employee surveys have shown this to be untrue. In fact, salary increases and bonuses for performance, in many instances, have a very limited short-term effect. The extra money soon comes to be regarded not as an incentive but as an ‘entitlement’. In broad terms employee training is more effective than salary increase.
There are other factors that provide a more powerful determinant of employee performance. When these other factors are missing or diluted, the employee comes to work only for a cheque. In this case, the employee is present at work in body only, leaving his or her mind outside the gate. It is the quality of the employees’ work environment that mostly determines their level of motivation and subsequent performance. How well they engage with the organisation, especially with their immediate environment, influences to a great extent their error rate, level of innovation and collaboration with other employees, absenteeism and ultimately, how long they stay on the job. Many studies have revealed that most employees leave their organisation because of the relationship with their immediate superior or manager.
The role of leadership in job performance as a source of motivation is an important issue. Fatokun (2010) is of the view that leadership is about listening to people, supporting and encouraging and involving them in the decision making and problem-solving process. It is about building teams and developing their ability to make skilful decisions. A leader is a person who plays the central roles in interactions and who influences the behaviour of other members of the group. He is an individual who has authority over others and is responsible for guiding their actions.
Aniemeka (2003) observed that Nigerian civil servants are not adequately motivated. They lack working tools and equipment. This makes the working situation to be so frustrating for the civil servant. It gives rise to a non-committal attitude to government programmes, apathy and low morale which leads to ineffectiveness, inefficiency and low productivity. This makes the working condition to be so unattractive. According to Senyah (2003), when employees are highly motivated, they tend to direct their energies towards meeting organisational goals and to display continuum levels of performance. Conversely, when motivation declines, there is a great tendency for employees to display such negative traits as apathy, hostility and aggression. These traits also tend to undermine efficiency, productivity and sustainability. The need to motivate and be motivated is therefore continuous and constant.
If employees are motivated to achieve certain goals, they will be satisfied if they achieve these goals, usually by improving their performance. There may be even greater satisfaction if they are rewarded through extrinsic recognition or intrinsic sense of achievement. This suggests that performance improvements can be achieved by giving people the opportunity to perform, ensuring that they have the knowledge and skill required to perform, and rewarding them through financial or non-financial means when they perform (Armstrong, 2007). Libraries are indispensable cornerstones of universities. The qualifications of the library personnel are the fundamental determinants of development and organization of the service. Rendering effective service in libraries depends on its human resource (Bamigboye, Buraimo & Ajani, 2008).
Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables relate together. Positive correlation indicates the extent to which those variables increase or decrease in parallel or development. A negative correlation indicates the extent to which one variable increases as the other decreases. When the fluctuation of one variable reliably predicts a similar fluctuation in another variable, there is often a tendency to think that the change in one causes the change in the other. The variables in this study are the motivational factors which are independent variables, and job performance as a dependent variable. The determination of the relationship between these two variables on librarians’ job performance will go along away in making this study a reference material for future work on job performance and motivation of university librarians.
This study covers state-owned universities in North Central Nigeria which were established between 1992 and 2009 as earlier stated. Apart from Benue State University, Makurdi that is located in the state capital, others are located outside their state capitals. For example, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai was established in 2005 and it is located at Lapai; Plateau State University is located at Bokkos; Kwara State University is located at Malete; Kogi State University is located at Anyigba while Nassarawa State University is sited at Keffi. These universities have functional and well equipped libraries. As at the time of this study, a total number of 95 librarians were working in these universities. Appendix A shows the universities, their years of establishment, and their places of location and population of librarians working in them. Some of these universities named their libraries after some influential people in their states. For example, IBB University, Lapai, named its university library after one Alhaji Abubakar Gimba, of blessed memory who was a seasoned and prolific writer in his life time, while Kogi State University named its library after Dr. Aliyu Obaje. (The Attah of Igala).
Statement of the Problem