INFLUENCE OF PARENTING STYLE ON SELF ESTEEM OF CHILDREN IN UGBOWO COMMUNITY
1.1 Background of the Study
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is more essential than the quantity spent with the child. For instance a parent can spend the entire afternoon with his or her child but the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to the demand of their children. Parenting practices are specific behaviours, while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices. There are many different theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest. Children go through different stages in life; therefore parents create their own parenting styles from a combination of factors that evolve overtime as children begin to develop their own personalities.
In sociology and psychology, self-esteem reflects a person’s overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs for example, “I am competent”, “I am worthy” and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame.
Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying the self concept; it is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative of the self, as in how we feel about it” self-esteem is attractive as a social psychological construct because researchers have conceptualized it as an influential prediction of certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationship, and criminal behaviour.
Within Western Cultures, self-esteem consistently has been demonstrated to be directly related with parenting styles characterized by low levels of acceptance and high levels of over protection (i.e. affectionless control). Although in traditional collectivist cultures there may be a preference for this parenting style, within a strong collectivist framework. It is not thought to have a negative impact on self-esteem.
Self-esteem, defined as the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy (Coopersmith, 1981), consistently has been found to relate with psychological states and behaviours (Cramer, 1989; Dishivn, Patterson & Reid, 1988; Workman & Beer, 1989). The importance of self-esteem as a global indictor of psychological health has encouraged research into the influence of variables such as parenting on self-esteem development.
As noted by the Basic Behavioural Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (1996), the parent-child relationship represents the earliest and most enduring social relationship of the human life span. Accordingly, the quality of the parent-child relationship has been argued to have a significant impact on the competence, resilience and well-being of all individuals. (Basic Behavioural Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council, 1996). Two fundamental aspects of parenting have been identified as important for children’s adjustment or maladjustment. The first of these has been identified as warmth, nurturance and acceptance or responsibility. This dimension has been shown to be bipolar. It has defined by parental affection, empathy and closeness on one pole and coldness, indifference and neglect on the other (Baumrind, 1968; Coopersmith, 1967). The second dimension has been defined by the amount and control, structure and involvement that caregivers display toward their children. This dimension has been differentiated in terms of effective, emphatic and developmentally appropriate management versus manipulative or punitivecare giving (Maccoby& Martin, 1983).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been discovered overtime that self-esteem has been consistently related with parenting styles characterized by relatively low levels of acceptance. This study will investigate the various known parenting styles and how it affects children and adolescents both positively and negatively.
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