Table of Content
Title Page i
Approval page iii
Table of Content vi – vii
Chapter One: Introduction
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 8
Significance of the Study 9
Scope of the Study 10
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Framework 11
Theoretical Framework 26
Empirical Studies 28
Summary of Literature Review 29
Chapter Three: Methods
Research Design 31
Population for the Study 33
Sample and Sampling Techniques 33
Instrument for Data Collection 33
Validity of the Instrument 33
Reliability of the Instrument 34
Method of Data Collection 34
Method of Data Analysis 34
Chapter Four: Results and Discussion of Findings
Summary of Major Findings 48
Discussion of Findings 49
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Suggestions for Further Studies 57
Appendix I 63
Appendix II 66
Appendix III 67
Appendix IV 68
Appendix V 69
Appendix VI 70
Appendix VII 71
The study was conducted on perceived impact of Universal Basic Education in the development of sport in public primary schools in Rivers State. A descriptive survey design was used, five different indices of sports development were considered. They include funding, sports personnel, ports equipment, sports programme implement and sports supervision. Two hypotheses were formulated. Related literature were consulted and reviewed. A structured questionnaire of 34 items made of two section (A and B) (A personal data), (B UBE and sports development) was used a instruments for data collection. The instrument was validated by five experts from the department of Health and Physical Education from University of Nigeria Nsukka. Nine research questions and two hypotheses were used. The two null hypotheses were tested using T-test as alpha level of .05 of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the Universal Basic Education in Rivers State are to be improve to meet up sports development, funding should be made UBE for the provision of sport equipment. Fund provided will be used for purchasing sports materials and organization of competition within public primary schools, qualified Physical Education personnel should also be employed in public primary school in Rivers State. It will help in developing the pupils in public primary school in Rivers State. The population for the study consist 8, 13, teaching staff of the 23 Local Government Authorities out of the sample size of 406 and the sampling techniques was the stratified random sampling method. The instruments was administered direct to the respondent and was collected immediately, 22 persons were used as research assistance and were trained. Each of them were used for each of the Local Government in the State, that make the 100% returned rate were possible. This indicate that all the indices for sports development were either lacking or grossly inadequate. Based on the finding of the study, the researcher recommended that special and adequate budgetary, competent and qualified sports personnel and provides standard sports facilities and equipments, provide constant and realistic sports programme and also provide attractive incentive to sports administrators and sport participants . Suggestions were also made for further study.
Background to the Study
Sports are very popular all over the world because of the diverse purpose it serves. Sports permeate all aspects of societal life such as social cultural, religion, economic and political functions in every society. Elendu (2009) viewed sports as any highly organized physical activity, which has its equipment, definite boundaries and rules made by a professional body. Sports refers to any physical activity that is highly organized within definite boundaries of a standard facility, with its equipment and specified official rules and regulations made by a professional body which every participant must adhere to. Burcher and Krotee (2002) opine that sports contribute to character building, discipline, economy, ideology, patriotism, education, mental development, human communication, physical fitness and health. Sports competitions, seminars, conferences and meetings of various types provide the opportunity for individuals from different countries to exchange ideas and knowledge which in turn would be immense benefit in educating the citizens of their countries.
Today is generally known that sports as a social phenomenon has grown from its humble beginning of being an entertainment and recreation pastime to becoming a visible and prominent business phenomenon that could no longer be ignored in the social, political and economic environment of any nation. Many great nations and societies of the world have realized that participation in sport is the key to a healthy development of their citizens, and have used it to develop their young ones, attaining a success that science, religious and politics have failed to achieve (Morakinyo , 2002). Sporting activities have as well permeated the Nigerian society just as many other societies worldwide. Awosika (2003) described sports as a symbol that has become a unifying factor in Nigeria and views it as an essential ingredient for nation building, which cuts across all barriers-ethnic, religious or social, and has served as a medium for the development of youths. Onifade (2001) states that as a social institution teaches and reinforces societal beliefs, norms and values, thereby assisting in socializing athletes into major cultural and social behaviour patterns in various societies.
Sports have been conceptualized as any particular play, game, or mode of amusement, including other similar activities. That may be individualized, dual or group (Cowell and Schwehn , 1995). Hornby (2001) defined sports as outdoor or indoor game, competition, or activity carried on by rules and needing bodily effort or skill. Onifade (2003) viewed sports as an institutionalized competitive activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skill by individuals. Sports in the context of this study are defined as games and plays of low and high organization within the primary and Junior Secondary School setting, such games and plays may or may not be competitive but encourage greater students’ participation.
The relevance and importance of sports to national development has made spots development a sin-qua-non to the attainment of the goals of sports in the society. The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (2009), defined sports development as the process of continuous improvement of the sports structure, institution, and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and effective functioning and self-actualization. Collins (1995) defined sports development as a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all particular groups and areas to take part in sports for recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire. Shetima (2005) viewed Sports development as creating new and better way of doing things in sports. In the context of the present study, sports development is defined as the provision of standard facilities and equipment, qualified personnel, adequate funding, and sports programmes as well as an effective school sports policy that can accommodate the needs, interests, and aspirations of the participants. The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (1998), categorized sports development into five distinct components, international sports, indigenous sports, stadium management, sports federations and institutional sports.
Institutional Sports here refer to school sports (Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Institutions). Primary and Junior Secondary School Sports is the focus of this study, considering the role, primary school sports plays in the early identification of sports talents and sports development at large.
Sports development in Nigeria has witnessed a lot of metamorphosis from the pre-colonial to independence eras. Elendu (2012), noted that sports development is a multi-dimensional concept. According to Elendu (2012), sports development refers to a positive improvement and change in the status of sports facilities and equipment, sports organization and administration, welfare of sports personnel, officiating officials, athletes, spectators, and fans irrespective of one’s sex, age, religion, race, ethnicity and economic status, to the realization of sports goals in a given society. Sports development requires the coordination of materials and human resources to ensure a safe environment for all citizens to participate and enjoy sports either for recreational or competitive purposes.
Elendu(2012), further expressed sports development in relation to sports facilities, supplies and equipment entails the construction of new sports facilities, and maintenance of the existing sports facilities, supplies and equipment, and purchase of new sports supplies and equipment in line with international standards and guidelines. Sports development in relation to sports organization and administration involves positive improvement in the number of sports participants for either competitions or recreation. For competition, it requires ensuring increase in the number of competitions, increase in number of competitors, and ensuring that the competitions are conducted in line with the stipulated officials rules governing each sports. It involves ensuring a level playing ground for all sports participants irrespective of sex, age, religion, race, ethnicity and economic class.
Sports development in relation to athletes, coaches and officiating officials involves positive improvement in their welfare, payment of salaries and allowances, proper nutrition, provision of security, accommodation, and medical attention. Sport development in relation to spectators and fans requires making provision for their enjoyment of sports with proper safety and security, crowd control, sitting arrangements and zero incidence of violence at sport venue.
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Prorgamme is an educational programme aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. It is in compliance with the Declaration of the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) which was made in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990, and bating clearly in Article 1 that every person-child, youth on adult-shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic needs. This declaration was reaffirmed at the World Summit for Children also held in 1990, which stated that all children should have access to basic education by the year 2000. The World Summit for Children places a lot of emphasis on raising the levels of female literacy. In a bid to achieve education goals, the Dakar World Education Forum was held as a follow-up meeting to the WCEFA where new sets of goals were set to be attained by the year 2015.
Kalu(2010) state that, the former president Olusegun Obasanjo launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on the 30th of September 1999. This was as a result of the fact that the existing educational programmes in Nigeria failed to meet the educational needs and aspirations of the populace who were unhappy that the 6-3-3-4 system which replaced the 6-5-2-3 system earlier introduced Universal Primary Education Programme (UPE) of the past regimes were not better than the earlier introduced programme. Universal Basic Education (UBE) is the transmission of fundamental knowledge to all the facets of the Nigerian Society from generation to generation.
Universal Basic Education as laid down in the National Policy on Education aims at free and compulsory Education for all, hence it is universal. The scheme stems from the realization that education should be open to all and should and compulsory, irrespective of economic and social background. Onocha (2006) explained that Universal Basic Education (UBE) was a reform programme which was meant to reinforce the 6-3-3-4 system of education and aimed at ensuring an uninterrupted access to 9 years formal education by providing free, compulsory basic education for every child of school age (6-15 years). Basic education is the starting point in the acquisition of knowledge. Without basic education, there cannot be higher education. Oloyede (2007) stated that basic education is the type of education that can help an individual function effectively in the society. The emphasis of UBE is on quality education as an indispensable prerequisite in coping with the issues and problems of modern world and it is regarded as the foundation for sustaining life-long learning. It is purposely designed to reduce the level of ignorance to the barest minimum, enhance general awareness and to empower the people so as to contribute their on quota in the harnessing of the nation’s abundant resources.
Universal Basic Education Commission, the objectives of the prorgramme among others include: development of the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion; provide free, compulsory Universal Basic Education for every Nigeria child of school going age; reduce drastically, dropout rate from the formal school system through improved relevance and efficiency; cater for dropouts and out of school children adolescents through promotion of basic education; ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, cumulative, and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civil values needed for laying a solid foundation for lifelong learning (UBEC, 2004). The achievement of these objectives places a great demand on the primary school teachers in terms of provision of instructional resources, effective, relevant and functional instruction, classroom management, counseling of pupils as well as coping with meager salaries and un-conductive learning environment in urban and rural areas. (Nwalado & Nwalado, 2007).
The Universal Basic Education Mission Statement is that at the end of the nine years of continuous education every child that passes through the system should acquire appropriate levels of literacy. Other skills include numeracy, communication, manipulation of life skills and be employable, useful to himself and society at large by possessing relevant ethical moral and civic values. The mission statement states that working in concert with all stakeholders by mobilizing the nation’s energies to ensure that education for all becomes the responsibilities of all. The scope includes prorgammes and initiatives for early childhood education and development, the six year primary education and three year junior secondary school, (Salau, 2001).