EFFECT OF INTERFACE ON THE QUALITY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCT IN MULTI PURPOSE PIPELINE SYSTEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Interface on petroleum product in multi-purpose pipeline system refers to as the zone of demarcation between two products where mixing occurs. Generally, interface is a boundary layer, so the boundary between two products when they are pumped in succession is known as interface.
In Nigeria Petroleum Industries like NNPC (PPMC) make use of multi-purpose pipeline system. This is where interface comes in petroleum products. Interface as defined above plays a lot of economics importance in petroleum product in multi purpose pipeline system three main products were specifically considered in this research project which also were the main products in Nigerian petroleum, they are PMS, AGO and DPK. During the pumping of this products from refinery to depot station, they are not allowed to get in contact with each other because of lack of tolerance, due to this, they are pumped in successions and in-between two products in pipeline, interface solution comes into play the role of intermixing.
The main objective of this research project was to determine the effect of interface on the quality of products in multi-purpose pipeline. Generally, interface if properly handled has no effect on the quality of petroleum products in multi-purpose because it is a product itself, but because of lack of proper handling, some effects are now uncounted. The chief problem here is contamination, when interface is not properly handled, it results to the product, therefore the degree of this product were studied with distillation unit, flash point tester and hydrometer used to effect the degree. The distillation unit was used for ASTM 36 test which confirm the products off or on. Specification various classes of interface were analyzed, properties and factors affecting interface length were all considered.
The cost of accomplishment for the research project was N6500.00.
Contaminants which was the major problem on the quality of petroleum product in multi-purpose system and the methods used in rectifying the contamination were analyzed in this research project. Some experimental tests which were carried out to determine the degree of contamination on which the quality of the petroleum products will be certified, when compared with that of standard showed only slight difference. As the ASTM D86 distillation curve was gotten from the ASTM D86 test distillation carried out on the three grade of products. The curve shows that the higher the temperature, the more the products vaporized. The effect of pipeline vandalization on the interface arrival were treated. Alleviation on contaminants, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of petroleum products in multi-purpose pipeline were all treated to improve the quality.
Nigerian Pipeline and Depot Operations comprises of two main products; Viz: white and black products which are further broken down into:
1. White products
a. Premium Motor Spirit (PMS)
b. Automative Gas Oil (AGO)
c. Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK)
d. House Hold Kerosene (HHK)
e. Aviation Turbine Kerosene (ATK)
2. BLACK PRODUCTS:
a. Locally Produced Crude
b. Gulf Crude
c. Bonny light
d. Ughlli Quality Control Crude
e. Imported Crude
f. Lagomar Crude
g. Arabia Light Crude
In consideration of three major sub-products in white products, namely, PMS, DPK, AGO. These products travel through the pipeline network from one location storage facilities to another. However, as the products are traveling through the pipeline network, there will be a point or phase where two products will mix together. The pint of the mixture is referred to as interface or when any two products are pumped in succession through a multi-product pipeline, the zone of demarcation between them where mixing occurs is called the interface. These three products (DPK, AGO & PMS) are being used in our every day live, that is they are being used in some heavy duty machines, cars, lorries, generators and for domestic uses.