1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Hotel business of what could be described as small scale hotel business started as a result of movement of people from one place or town to another. These movement are categorized in:-
- Movement which one locality or town for example going to work from one’s house within the same city or from one’s city to another.
- Movement from one town to another like in the case of Ogui migration where there is an exodus of the people from rural area to the developed Ogui area. In this case, people concerned to go out for greener pasture like looking for better jobs and business.
- Movement from one country to another for wither business, study or search for better jobs.
- Movement to places of interest like – the Olumo Rocks inAbeokutaor Yoruba game reserve.
In 7course of these movement, it has not been easy for people to carry along the required quantity of food and drinks that would last them the length of time they would stay outside their homes. The instructive desire to help in feeding of these group of travelers brought about the business of hotels.
Before the 15th century, what used to be called inns existed inEurope. These were place where travelers called spend a night or two or even more and were served food and drinks at a cost. The inns were merely remedy by inn-keepers between 1750-1850, the year of industrial revolution, the business of hotels became a common thing all overEurope.
In Nigeria, the business is beleected to have started with the arrival of Europeans into the country. Before the Europeans, all travelers woe only catered for by their hoppetabeo natures. Travelers who come to peace mission were virtually carried for by their hosts. These Europeans or their guide had to make do with the local food which brought about some kind of exchange process. As this process continued, it dawned on the local people that food could be prepared and sold to these travelers who moved from one place to another. This was the early shape of hotels unfit it grew to its present standard which was made possible by the attendant development of the country by the presence of the Europeans.
However, the small scale business may not be said to have attained its height in hotel management and its operations due to the difference in tradition and cactane inNigeria. The different ethnic groups or race have their favante dishes some of these dishes are beginning to gain national acceptances, while others are steel confined to their local use by the people concerned. For instance garri is more or less a national food because majority of Nigerian do eat it. One the other hand, “Tuoo” for instance still remain the food for the Northern part of the country.
Hotels plays very important role in the economic activities of the country because almost all business endeavour depends on hotel foundation eats across feeding the work force of the economy.
Besides the fact remains that a good number of hotels inNigerianeeds better operations and management. These observation daily considers the cactaral background and ethnic difference in the country, the problems and prospects of operating and managing hotels inNigeriatherefore are what this research is all about. In order to accomplish this study some hotel in Ogui Enugu has been selected as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Government ofFederalStateand Local levels have set agencies that are specifically changed with providing funds and other services for the small scale business people. The purpose of establishing these support agencies by government is to encourage the rapid development of small or medium scale industries in the country for government want to encourage school levels to establish their own small business or unemployment and for economic development.
These support agencies are National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Funds for Small Scale Industries (FSSI) and National Economic Reconstruction Funds (NERFUND) have their various functions. Some are established to provide loans, render advisory services, identify source of raw materials, structure their organisation which could be managerial or technical/structuring.
But inspite of all efforts being made, the performance of small scale business inNigeriaare still below expectation.
Especially in the small scale hotel business today, these is relatively high rate of business failure, low productivity, managerial management, financial stringency, and of good human relations under capitalization etc. small scale hotels still perform below expectation? What are the courses of small scale hotel business failure?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study will address the following purposes:-
- To find out why some small scale hotel still perform below standard.
- To find out why there is high rate of business failure in small scale hotels.
- To determine the extent of managerial incompetence of owners of small scale hotels in the management of their business.
- To determine why there is poor human relations with small scale hotels.
- To find out the causes of low productivity in small scale hotels.
- To determine the extent of financial stringency in the operations of some scale hotels.
- To recommend what should be done to improve standard of small scale hotels.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work covers a selected hotel inEnugu. The Grand Metropolis in the Eastern part ofNigeriaI strongly believe that careful analysis of fault obtained will enable me to make general observations regarding hotel business in the other cities ofNigeria.
This study tries to identify areas of problem such as financials, marketing, advertising, expansion and other meaningful suggestion that will help managers in this sector to surmount them.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To solve the research problem, I have asked the following research questions.
- Are small scale hotels performing below standard?
- Are there high rate of business failure in small scale hotels?
- What is the extent of managerial incompetence of owners of small scale hotels?
- Are these low productivity in small scale hotels?
- Does poor human relation have negative effect on the turnover of small scale business.
- What is the effect of financial stringency on the operation of small scale hotels?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis will be used in the study:-
1. Ho: Most small scale hotel do not perform below standard.
Hi: Most small scale hotel perform below standard.
2. Ho: Owners of small scale hotel do not make good profits.
Hi: Owners of small scale hotel make good profits.
3. Ho: There is no financial stringency in small hotel business.
Hi: There is financial stringency in small hotel business.
4. Ho: There is good human relations in small hotel business.
Hi: There is good human relations in small hotel business.
5. Ho: Most operators of small hotel are not illitrated.
Hi: Most operators of small hotel are illitrated.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very timely, especially today that the nation is striving towards better economic development and growth. This study will be of immense benefits to both the operating and potential hotel because it will give a thorough insight into hotel operations. This is aimed at patting hotels in trace operative, so that those concerned will got to know what the business is about. In the same vein, different categories of hotel customers will be put in a position where they can appreciate hotel problem and probably adjust their irrational behaviours. The work unravels the technicians of the game and to ensure success of the operation by discussing things live customers – workers relationship, marketing strategies, behaviour in the restaurant.
The study should create the long required awareness in the hotel business because it will emigration the hotel on its potentials and how best to top them optionally and also appreciate and how best to top them optionally and also appreciate the important role it plays in the society and national economy.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
I must acknowledge the fact that the information obtained from my respondent are not hundred percent correct, some may be beased due to human faultiness. Those who have responded without beas woaed have helped in on small ways in making this work successful.
As a student, there is both time and financial constraints, hence my decision to limit the steady toEnugumany foods prepared in international hotel or hotels elsewhere otherNigeriafood are mainly prepared and served. Such food include foo foo, eba, amala, rice, beans, fried plantain, stew, pepper soup, agba, salad and so on. Others include take away food like meat pile, sausage-roll, hotdog, bread and tea, moi-moi, akamu, pap etc. in short, the research work is on hotel seeling available food inNigeria.
1.9 PIFINITION OF TERMS
A, hotel means a place or building where means and drinks are served. Bedrooms are provided for accommodation. There are other facilities provided, such as casmo, swimming pool, playing grounds like femiscourt, and others. There are other pab houses such as guest house, inn, resort and motel.
i. Foo-foo:- This means founded yam or cassava that of the Southern part ofNigeria.
ii. Amala:- Food prepare in solid form like pounded yam and eaten with draw soup. It is usually common on the Yoruba speaking area ofNigeria.
iii. Draw soup:- This is like stew and is usually prepared with okoro or ogbono cut in pieces. It is very delicious and makes the eating of solid food more pleasurable.
iv. Pepper soup:- This is a traditionalNigeria food prepared with meat, and salt to taste. It is usually taken in relaxation time.
v. Eba or Garri:- It is usually in form of pounded yam but it made with boiled water.
vi. Moi-Moi:- This is a land of food made from granted beans