Introduction: Legally, parents decide for their minors the acceptance or rejection of health services including immunizations.Illormisinformationoftenresultsincontroversiesresultinginrejection and even resistance of child immunization services. Viewed globally, vaccines arethe most cost-effective medical intervention to prevent death and disease. This study described parent’s perceptions of the benefits of child immunization, risks of lack of immunizationandsourcesofinformationonchildimmunizationinOba community.
Method: In the House-hold descriptive survey, the researcher as coordinator worked with a research supervisor and four (4) assistants in each of the wards chosen. Total of two hundred (200) parents (male and female) were administered the survey questionnaire. All the questionnaires were filled and returned.
Results: The responses of 200parents were analyzed. The generated Socio- demographic data is presented on simple tables and of frequency and percentage, while other variables were tested using X2 and presented as same. All the X2 values computed for awareness of benefits of child immunizations, risks of lack of child immunizations and sources of information on immunization were greater than critical value of X2(7.512) at 3df at 0.05 level of significance. Most parents strongly, suggested that; Demand for full immunization certificate as personal documents will increase acceptance of childimmunization.
Conclusion:Parents are significantly aware of benefits of immunization and risks of itslack or refusal as well as access to local information sources on child immunization activities. Parents suggested ways of improving acceptance of immunization needs to be harnessed and other determinants ofacceptanceofchildhealthservicesneedstobeexploredinfurtherstudies.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions/Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of study
1.7 Operational definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Conceptual Review
2.1 Concepts of Immunization, Knowledge, and Practice
2.2 Concept of Compliance
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.4 Empirical Review
2.5 Summary of Literature Reviewed
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.3 Target population
3.4 Sample Size
3.5 Sampling technique
3.6 Instruments for data collection
3.7 Validity of instrument
3.8 Reliability of Instrument
3.9 Method of data collection
3.10 Method of data analysis
3.11 Ethical consideration
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT PRESENTATION
4.1 Socio-demographic Characteristics of respondents
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Discussion of findings
1.1 Background to the study
Immunization is one of the most effective and safest ways to prevent disease and early child mortality rates. Although, about three quarters of the world’s child population is reached with the required vaccines, only half of the children in Sub-Sahara Africa (WHO/IVB, 2009) get access to basic immunization. Recently, many countries have employed a growing range of means to increase both the provision and utilization of immunization services. These experiences are in consonant with the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) of ―using a combination of approaches to reach everyone targeted for immunization (WHO/IVB, 2009).
A substantial number of children worldwide do not complete immunization schedules because neither health services nor conventional communication mechanisms regularly reach their communities (Waisbord, S. et al, 2015). In some communities, low immunization rates are associated with families living a long distance from health services, having little access or exposure to large-scale or local media, and low doctor- and nurse-patient ratios (e.g. slum-dwellers in the Philippines and South Africa, nomadic populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, and internal migrants in Brazil, Cameroon, and Mozambique among others) (Waisbord, S. et al, 2015). Anti-vaccination information and/or refusal to get children immunized is a new phenomenon in the world. Historically, people have rejected immunization due to concerns about vaccine safety as well as political, cultural, and religious reasons (Greenough, P., 2015). Today, trust and acceptance of immunization faces two new formidable challenges. Firstly, a global, fast-paced communication environment makes it possible for negative publicity and anti-immunization positions to be disseminated quickly worldwide. Localized opposition (e.g., polio campaigns in India and Nigeria), negative publicity surrounding vaccine safety (e.g., MMR vaccination in the UK), and suspected or real adverse events following immunization are more likely to attract wide media coverage, and spread through the Internet (Offit P.A., 2013; Clement, C.J., 2013). Secondly, increased democratization promotes debates about individual and community rights and choice. Today, democratization offers an environment more conducive to the emergence of challenges to government-mandated programs such as immunization (Waisbord, S., 2015).
More vaccines have become available, but most developing countries cannot afford the newer vaccines, lack well-functioning systems to deliver them, and have inadequate surveillance systems or study data to determine the burden of disease to motivate decision-makers to adequately fund them. A number of vaccines such as hepatitis B, yellow fever, and haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) are under-utilized due to inadequate funding from Ministries of Health, overstretched health systems, and weak demand from health providers and caregivers (Waisbord, S., 2015) (who lack sufficient knowledge about the efficacy of specific vaccines and are unaware of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases or the availability of vaccines).
The induction of immunity by applying vaccine in children is among the most cost-effective health interventions and awareness creation programs to reduce child mortality, morbidity, and disability in the world (WHO/AFRO, 2009-2012). This is achieved through a routine vaccination schedule for children in Nigeria which are given starting from birth, and are being completed before one year of life by all children as it obtained elsewhere (WHO, 2012). Nigerian government introduced pentavalent vaccine into her immunization schedule recently (2012).
Nigeria like many countries in Africa is making efforts to strengthen its health system especially immunization so as to reduce disease burden from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Such efforts include creating awareness of the importance of health education, provision of the vaccines and personnel through the NPHCDA, private or NGO providers’s, community based participation and the media.
1.2 Statement of problem
Do parents in Maiduguri have correct understanding of the benefits of child immunization? “Although most parents believe they are safe, up to 25% have serious misconception about vaccine safety that may lead them to refuse some or all immunizations” (AAP, 2015). In Nigeria, immunization activities are it routine, supplemental and emergency or outbreak use of vaccine for the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases have been fraught with problems. In recent times ‘‘polio controversy’’ referring to community or family block rejection, resistance and even outright opposition of immunizations are common incidents in Nigeria, particularly in the North. “According to an AAP Periodic Survey of Fellows, 79% of pediatricians have had one or more instances of parents refusing to allow their child or children to be vaccinated” (AAP, 2015).
There are signs of improvements in some health services, particularly in child immunization. The Government has taken many measures to improve immunization and to eradicate polio. In the case of polio, 2007 was the year with the lowest polio incidence since 2002 and the lowest incidence ever of type 1polio, the most virulent of all polio viruses. Despite these recent improvements, Nigeria is not likely to achieve the health related Millennium Development Goals (The world bank group, 2014). It is well known that, immunization or vaccination is the cheapest and most effective remedy against vaccine preventable infections (VPI). Parents in Oba community often reject or handle immunization activities with skepticism this might ensue from low understanding of its benefits or risks of its lack.
According to the WHO, the persistence of vaccine-preventable diseases in Nigeria can largely be attributed to the under-utilization of available vaccines (National Population Commission (NPC), 2013), and health education knowledge gaps by the mothers/caregivers which underscores low compliance with vaccination schedules; [many parents are not fully aware of the benefits of vaccination and as a result do not immunize their children against vaccine preventable diseases] (WHO, 2012). It is against this background that this study was carried out to assess problems associated with proper immunization in Oba Community of Anambra State.