PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOFT SOAP FROM LOCAL POTASH (NGU) OR CAUSTIC POTASH LABORATORY OR COMMERCIAL GRADE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
This project was aimed at producing a fine high quality toilet soap at a low cost which will be of used to home and commercial purposes.
The toilet soap produced has its major components caustic potash, palm kernel oil (pKo) caustic soda and soda ash. Other additives are perfume, coaming agent, sodium tripotiphosphate (STPP), colour, ptenus, glycerine, sodium silicate and pac-R or stabilizer. And a cold process was employed in the production.
However, at the end of the production, a light pink coloured toilet soap was produced which is of a high quality smooth with pleasant aroma and high foaming quality and at affordable cost.
Finally, there is little or no different when comparing this soap to the commercial grade because of its ability to lather, mildness to skin, colour (ester and bright looking), odour, shelf-life and stability of moisture content of firmness.
The metal salts of the high molecular weight organics acids that occurs in fats as esters are called “soap” soaps are alkali salts of a fatty acid and or are detergents derived from naturally occurring oils, fats and waxed which in turns are available from vegetable sources.
Scientifically, soaps can be defined as a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compound that resulting from the interaction of fatty glyceride with a metal radical or organic base. The metal generally concerned with soap production are sodium (Na) and potassium (k), which produces water-soluble soap.
Soap belong to a class of the products that have the ability for cleaning materials/substances. It obtains the its useful cleaning characteristic from the combination of a long chaim hydrocarbon, which has good solvent action on others hydeocarbon, and its high water solubility.
Soft soap such as toilet soap, uses higher quality fat with water content reduced to about 10% or less. This soap is could and flaked, and passed through a hot air drying oven to reduce the water content prior to milling. Trace constituents are metered at the milling stage, since the soap is dried and higher pressure are required and subsequent plodding, the properties of the soft soap produced depends mainly on the alkali (potassium) and the fat/oil need. Due to this properties, it can be dissolved in water easily with high formability which makes it easy for washing soft soaps also contain additives such s perfumes, dyes, and antiseptic like sodium Tripoliphosphate (STPP).
The main difficulty with soaps is that in hard water which typically contains calcium (ca) ions, the soap propitiates as an insoluble calcium salt and this creates various problems particularly in laundering cloths. Soap contains a basic cleaning agent called a “surfactants or surface active agent”. The surface active agents consist of molecules that attach themselves to the dirt particles. The molecules pull these dirt particles out of the materials and hold them in the wash water until they are rinsed away.