STRATEGY FOR ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study identified strategies for ensuring food security in Taraba State. Specifically, the study was designed to identify the determinants of food security; examine the production patterns of food by farmers, identify the factors responsible for food insecurity: and determine the strategies of ensuring food security. The study was carried out in Taraba State of Nigeria in the year 2011. The population of the study comprises all heads of households in Taraba State. A multi stage sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. Two agricultural zones were selected using a simple random technique. These were Zing and Bali zones and they were selected using simple random sampling techniques and the process gave rise to the selection of four communities/cells per zone bringing the total number of communities/cells sampled to eight (8). From each sampled cell, a list of farmers was obtained from the farmers’ association and from the list of farmers’ households. Fifteen (15) heads of households were sampled using simple random selection techniques. The total number of respondents for the study summed up to one hundred and twenty (120). A set of interview schedule and questionnaire were used for data collection out of which 117 were found analysable. Frequency, percentage scores, mean scores, and standard deviations were used to analysed the data collected. Results from the study showed that majority (79.5%) of the respondents were males. The age limit of respondents shows that 56% were between the range of 20-29 years and the mean age was 32 years. The educational level of the respondents reveals that the farmers have enjoyed one form of education or the other with about 53.0% having OND/NCE as their highest educational qualification. Further results show that 65.8% of the respondents were single while 31.6% were married. The mean household size of farmers was 7 persons. The mean years of farming experience of the farmers was 8.4 years. The majority (59.0%) of the farmers had 1-5 years of farming experience. Majority (62.4%) of the farmers engage in trading and their main source of information was through extension agents with 47.9%. Majority (84.6%) of the farmers grew maize grains and some crops like rice, yam, guinea corn, and cassava. The monthly income of the respondents revealed that majority (58.8%) have an estimated monthly income of below N20,000. The food security analysis of the farmers revealed that the availability of food items for the respondents were as follows: maize (X = 3.09) cassava flour (X = 3.09), and rice (X = 2.90) depicting availability of the respondents to a large extent while food items from proteins were perceived to be available to a great extent. The means scores show that most of these food items are available Taraba State. On the accessibility of food in Taraba State, majority (76.9%) of the respondents accessed their food items from both farm and market while 18% of the respondents got their food items from farms only. Most (57.3%) of the respondents purchased their food items with money. The prices of the items were moderate (63.2%). The access to food by the respondents as a determinant of food security is not a problem in the entire State. The study also identified some barriers to food access in the state. It revealed that religion (59.8%), culture (64.1%), poor government policies (64.1%), geographical location (60.1%), inadequate market information (61.7%), all have more than half of the respondents agreeing to them as various barriers to their food access. In the utilization of food, carbohydrate food items were not eaten in a higher proportion during the last one day of the interview, while in the case of proteins such as beans, fish, eggs, and milk, they were eaten by the respondents on a 12 – 24 hours basis. The study also showed that the farming pattern which is mostly being practiced among respondents is mixed farming (93.2%) and mixed cropping (82.0%). This could be one of the reasons for high availability of many food items across the various respondents in the state. It is therefore recommended that subsidies should be provided on agricultural inputs by the state government, local government, and other private organizations. Also, opportunities should be provided for farmers to participate in planning and decision making in agricultural programmes and policies in the state.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –             –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification    –           –          –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication      –           –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgment       –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract          –           –             –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Contents       –               –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables –           –                  –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

List of Figures –           –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION        –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1       Background of the Study                 –           –           –           –           –           1

  1.       Statement of Problem                      –           –           –           –           1

1.3       Purpose of the Study  –           –        –           –           –           –           –           2

1.4       Significance of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW            –           –           –           6

2.1       The Concept of Food Security                   –           –           –           –           7

2.2       Trends in Food Production in Nigeria   –  –           –           –           –           9

2.3       Determinants of Food Security          –          –           –           –           –           16

2.4       Food Security Strategies         –                –           –           –           –           22

2.5       Government programmes and policies on food security   –   –           30

2.6       National budgetary allocation to agriculture  –  –           –           41

2.7       Factors Affecting Food Security        –          –           –           –           43

2.8       Conceptual Framework           –           –           –           –           –           48

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY –           –         –           –           –           52

3.1       The Study Area-         –           –           –       –           –           –           –           52

3.2       Population and sampling procedure-  –         –           –           –           55

3.3       Instrument for Data Collection –        –     –           –           –           –           55

3.4       Measurement of variables       –           –     –           –           –           56

3.5       Data Analysis              –           –           –                –           –           –           58

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION–     –           –           –           59

4.1       Socioeconomic Characteristics of Respondents          –           –           59

4.2       Food Security Status in Taraba State      –            –           –           –           65

4.3       Factors responsible for food insecurity in Taraba State   –    71

4.4       Strategies for ensuring food security in the state         –           –           73

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 76

5.1       Summary of Findings –       –           –           –           –           –           76

5.2       Conclusion      –           –                –           –           –           –           –           76

5.3        Recommendations    – –               –           –           –           –           –           78

REFERENCES       

APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Average growth rate                                                               11

Table 2: Federal government capital expenditure in Naira 42

Table 3: Taraba State budgetary allocation to agricultural sector 43

Table 4: Distribution of the respondents by socio-economic characteristics 63

Table 5: Mean and standard deviations of respondents on the availability of food items                                                                                                              66

Table 6: Percentage distribution of respondents based on food items utilized by households                                                                                               70

Table 8: Mean distribution of factors responsible for food insecurity in Taraba State                                                                                                              73

Table 9: Mean and standard deviation of strategies for ensuring food security in the state                                                                                                     75

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Conceptual framework on Strategies for Ensuring Food Security in Taraba State                                                                                                                            51

Figure 2  Taraba state administrative Map                    54

Figure 3  Percentage distribution of the respondents based on their monthly Income          64

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria has suffered from food insecurity and poverty as indicated in a recent estimate that put the number of hungry people in Nigeria at over 53 million, which is about 30 percent of the country’s total population of roughly 150 million; and 52 percent live under the poverty line (Ajayeoba, 2010). These are matters of serious concern largely because Nigeria was self sufficient in food production and was indeed a net exporter of food to other regions of the continent in the 1950s and 1960s (Ajayeoba, 2010). He stated that things changed dramatically for the worse following the global economic crisis that hit developing countries beginning from the late 1970’s onward. The discovery of crude oil and rising revenue from the country’s petroleum sector encouraged official neglect of the agricultural sector and turned Nigeria into a net importer of food. By 2009 for example the Federal Ministry of Agriculture estimated that Nigeria was spending over $3billion annually on food imports.

Although agriculture contributes 42 percent of the GDP, provides employment and a means of livelihood for more than 60 percent of the productively engaged population, it receives less than 10 percent of the annual budgetary allocations. Underfunding in this regard is central to the crisis of food production, and food security in Nigeria (Ajayeoba, 2010). This explains the persistence of poverty. According to the author, the loss of food sovereignty and the dependence on food importation is also making the country quite susceptible to fluctuations in global food crisis. This is why Nigeria was also strongly affected by the global food crisis in 2007/2008 leading to food insecurity, thus a need for food security.

Food security happens when all people at all times have access to enough food that is affordable, safe and healthy and is culturally acceptable, meets specific dietary needs, obtained in a dignified manner and produced in ways that are environmentally sound and socially just. Food security is not just a poverty issue, it is a much larger issue that involves the whole food system and affects everyone in some way (FAO, 2001). According to the World Bank (2007), the global food security crisis endangers the lives of millions of people, particularly the World’s poorest who live in countries already suffering from acute and chronic malnutrition. They further lamented that fundamental considerations are to underscore the human dimension of the crisis, monitor its impact on nutrition, health and poverty, plus its effect on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) including providing sound information and analysis to target the most vulnerable groups.

      A nation is food secured when food is available and accessible in sufficient quantity and quality for a productive livelihood for every individual. The increasing issue of food insecurity, particularly in Africa has been greatly attributed to wars, conflicts, natural disasters and bad governance.

            Globally, there is enough food for all, but more than 780 million people are chronically undernourished (FAO, 2001). Millions of people in developing world simply cannot obtain the food they need for a healthy and productive life. Much of the scholarly debate on agricultural growth and poverty in Nigeria have followed the general trend of regressing measures of poverty against agricultural output per head and a time trend (World Bank, 2009). This is based on the knowledge of agricultural production landscape in Nigeria. These resource poor farmers are also characterized by a strong dependence on agricultural labour market, little or no forms of savings or storage facilities and cultural practices adopted are highly labour intensive (Okuneye, 2002).

 The socio-economic and production characteristics of the farmers, inconsistent and unfocussed government policies, the poor infrastructural base, all interact in a synergism to asphyxiate the sector, resulting in low production, high prices of food items, inflation, underdevelopment and concomitant poverty. The place of agriculture in an agrarian society cannot be overemphasized given its importance in the life of human beings. Agriculture is expected to ensure adequate supply of food to the people. Millions of people in developing world simply cannot obtain the food they need for a healthy and productive life. Similarly, agriculture is expected to produce a high level of agricultural raw materials for the industries, save the industry and the nation from high costs of importation, produce excess for the local demand ( for food and raw materials) for export. Agriculture should continually generate employment for the people as well as a high level of returns for the farmers.

The performance of agriculture in Nigeria has not been able to match the expectation ascribed to the sector in the development process. At independence, agriculture sustained the Nigeria economy and held the promise of a vibrant agrarian economy (Akpan , 2009). In fact, according to Adeboye (1991), agriculture contributed in the 1960/61, 67% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In the 1999 – 2000, agriculture contributed between 40 –42 percent to the GDP. The Civil War (1967-70) and the emergence of petroleum in the early 1970s scuttled the production foundation of agriculture through lack of visionary planning for sustainable development. The sector is yet to regain its central role in the economy. Therefore, based on the voluminous human, material and financial resources expended on agriculture in the last 40 years, the country ought to have done much better to address the fight against the mysteries of poverty, hunger, malnutrition and ill-health.

            The Global Hunger Index, published by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2004, ranks developing countries according to their performance on three indicators: proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population, prevalence of underweight children under five and child mortality . On a scale of 0-100, with 0 indicating the absence of hunger in a given country, Nigeria’s 2008 ranking was in the 10-19 range, labelled “serious” The population segments with the highest vulnerability to food insecurity include poor farming households in the Sudan- Sahelian zone of Northern Nigeria and the humid forest zones of Southern Nigeria, and pastoralists scattered over Northern Nigeria. The Sudan-Sahelian zone is particularly drought-prone, the humid forest zones are particularly flood-prone, and pastoralists commonly face fodder and water deficits due to low rainfall situations in the North (World Food Prize, 2010).

In 2008, Nigeria introduced its National Program for Food Security (NPFS), laying out dozens of constraints to food security in Nigeria and adopting a “value chain approach” to address these constraints. The vision of the NPFS is “to ensure sustainable access, availability, and affordability of quality food to all Nigerians and to be a significant net provider of food to the global community.” Considering Nigeria’s current position as a net importer of food products, this vision will take time to be realized. The short-term objectives of the NPFS are doubling the domestic production of cassava, rice, tomato, sugar and cotton, and increasing the production of millet, wheat and poultry by 50 percent. The medium-term objectives include increased processing and storage capacity as well as development of the market and physical infrastructure required to achieve food security (World Food Prize, 2010).

STRATEGY FOR ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

PARTICIPANT FARMERS’ ACCESS TO COMPONENTS OF FADAMA III IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION.. ii

DEDICATION.. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.. iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS. v

LIST OF TABLES. vii

LIST OF FIGURES. viii

ABSTRACT.. ix

INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1.      Background information. 1

1.2.      Statement of the problem.. 7

1.3.      Purpose of the study. 8

1.4.      Significance of the study. 9

LITERATURE REVIEW… 10

2.1.      Concept and Models of Agricultural Extension. 10

2.2.      Extension Delivery Services. 15

2.3.      Trends in Agricultural Research Activities. 16

2.4.      Extension Delivery System of Fadama. 21

2.5.      Concept of Participation. 24

2.6.      Concept of Perception. 26

2.7.      Evaluation of Agricultural Programmes. 28

2.7.1.        Major Models for Programme Evaluation. 30

2.8.      Theoretical Framework. 37

2.9.      Conceptual framework. 39

METHODOLOGY.. 42

3.1.      Study area. 42

3.2.      Study population and sampling techniques. 42

3.3.      Data collection. 43

3.4.      Validity and reliability of research instrument 43

3.4.1.        Validity test 43

3.4.2.        Reliability test 44

3.5.      Measurement of variables. 44

3.6.      Data Analyses. 49

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 51

4.1.      Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. 51

4.2.      Institutional characteristics of the respondents. 57

4.3.      Socioeconomic determinants for benefiting in Fadama III 61

4.4.      Participation of the respondents in research activities offered by Fadama III 62

4.5.      Access and usefulness of agricultural technologies and research activities offered by Fadama III 64

4.6.      Respondents access to extension services. 68

4.7.      Sources of agricultural inputs available to the respondents and their perception on accessibility of the inputs  71

4.8.      Perception of the respondents on accessibility of agricultural inputs. 74

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 77

5.1.      Summary. 77

5.2.      Conclusion. 78

5.3.      Recommendation. 80

5.4.      Suggested areas for further study. 81

REFERENCES. 82

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.  Distribution of sample ………………………………………….       44

Table 2.  Percentage distribution of respondents according to Socioeconomic characteristics ……..          57

Table 3.  Percentage distribution of respondents by institutional characteristics ………………………….         61

Table 4.  Regression results for farmers’ selection into Fadama III and the proportion of Fadama User Group members that benefited from the programme. ……………………        63

Table 5.  Access to and usefulness of agricultural technologies and research activities …………………………      68

Table 6.  Percentage responses of on effectiveness and usefulness of the agricultural research offered to the farmers ………….       69

Table 7.  Respondents’ access to extension services ………..       71

Table 8.  Respondents’ sources and accessibility of major agricultural inputs …74

Table 9.  Farmers’ perception on input accessibility, timeliness, quality and quantity ……………………………………………………………………       77

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1. Fadama III Organogram (author) …………………..                        24

Fig 2: An illustration of change in project outputs as a result of project &non project outputs…………………….              31

Fig. 3: Schema for assessing the participant farmers’ access to components of Fadama III in Anambra State, Nigeria ………..                   41

Fig 4. Percentage distribution of respondents in agricultural research 64

ABSTRACT

The study determined the participant farmers’ access to components of FadamaIII in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data was collected using a multistage sampling procedure. Anambra State has 21 LGAs, out of which 20 are participating in Fadama III. One FCA was selected from each participating LGA. Ten (10) FUGs was randomly selected from each of the chosen FCA and one (1) household randomly selected from each FUG giving a total of 200 households interviewed. The Logistic Regressions Analysis was used to ascertain the socio-economic determinants for participation in Fadama III while Fadama III farmers’ involvement in research activities offered by the programme is presented using percentages, disaggregated into participants and non-participants. Results show that majority of the farmers were middle-aged, household heads with a household size of between 5 and 8 people. These farmers had completed their secondary education with a farm size of less than 1 hectare. Only 26% of the respondents have participated in the programme. Respondents’ low level of participation could be due to an inability to pay commitment funds required by user groups. Age, sex, educational level and farm size did not contribute to theBselectionof participants into Fadama III activities.Most of the farmers were not involved in the research activities. The few that were involved chose aquaculture technology that was provided by ADP using farmer-managed on-farm as the main research method. They agreed that this research activity was useful. Extension agent visited the farmers at least once in the last two years leading to technology adoption due to the extension service that was provided. The major agricultural input for the respondents was cassava cuttings sourced from the open market from a distance of 1 to 3km. The agricultural inputs were purchased from the farmers’ own funds and were perceived to be available, timely and of high quality. The farmers, therefore, did not have a satisfactory level of access to components of FadamaIII in Anambra State, Nigeria.

INTRODUCTION

1.1.       Background information

Poverty is one of the global phenomena that has left the level of food insecurity in developing countries at alarming proportions. Overwhelmingly, the majority of people living on less than $1.25 a day reside in two regions—Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa—and they account for about 80 percent of the global total of extremely poor people (United Nations, 2015). Although the decline of poverty has accelerated in the past decade, the region continues to lag behind. Nearly 60 percent of the world’s one billion extremely poor people live in just five countries: India, Nigeria, China, Bangladesh and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (United Nations, 2015).

Although Nigeria, a country in sub-Saharan Africa is blessed with abundant agro-ecological resources and diversity, it is also one of the largest food importers in sub-Saharan Africa (Idachaba, 2009). According to the World Bank (2014), Nigeria has one of the world’s highest economic growth rates, averaging 7.4% but with 2010 poverty estimates still significant at 82.2% using the poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day.

In order to deal with the problems of poverty and food security, the Federal Government of Nigeria has taken several extension initiatives over the years to attain food security. Extensionas a service has been described as the process of enabling change in individuals, communities and industries involved in the primary industry sector and in natural resource management (State Extension Leaders Network (SELN), 2006). Agricultural extension is the entire set of organisations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills, and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being (Birneret al., 2009). This can include different governmental agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), producer organisations and other farmer organisations, and private sector actors including input suppliers, purchasers of agricultural products, training organisations, and media groups (Neuchâtel Group, 1999).

Extension services are among the most important agricultural services in developing countries (Faye & Deininger, 2005). Investment in extension services is among the largest in the agricultural sector. Returns to agricultural extension in many cases exceed returns to agricultural research. Review of thesocial rate of returns to research and extension from 95 developing countries showed that the returns onagricultural extensionwere 80%, and 50% for research (Alston and Pardey. 2000). Dercon, Gilligan, Hoddinott and Woldehanna in 2008, shows that one agricultural extension visit reduced poverty by 9.8% and increased consumption growth by 7.1% in Ethiopia.

How extension services are delivered (including individual or group-based approaches, conventional extension, or farmer field schools) shows that public extension visits are a key medium for delivering information and knowledge to farmers (World Bank and IFPRI 2010). This does not, however, mean that private-sector NGOs and community-based extension service providers are not playing a role in technology dissemination and extension in many contexts. Extension services are a range of information, advice, training, and knowledge related to agriculture or livestock production, processing, and marketing. This service can be provided by governments or by a private organisation with the intent to increase farmers’ ability to improve their productivity and income. Extension services may be delivered in the form of individual or group visits, organised meetings, use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), or teaching through the use of demonstration plots, model farms, or farmer field schools (FFSs) (Birner et al. 2009).

Extension services in Nigeria have been expressed in a number of agricultural interventions targeted at poverty alleviation and food safety. Some of these interventions include: National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP-1972), Agricultural Development Projects (ADP-1974), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN-1976), River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs-1976), Green Revolution (GR-1980), Directorate for Food Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI-1986), Better Life Programme (BLP-1987), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA-1992), Family Support Programme (FSP)/ Family Economic Advancement Programme (FSP- 1994/FEAP-1996), National Fadama Development Project (NFDP I-1993), National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS-1999), National, Special Programme on Food Security (NSPFS-2002), Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP-2003) (Iwuchukwu and Igbokwe, 2012), National Fadama Development Project (FADAMA II-2005) (Nwalieji and Ajayi, 2008). National Fadama Development Project (FADAMA III-2008) (Dimelu, Emodi, and Okeke, 2014).

The National Fadama Development Project (NFDP) was established to ensure all year round production of crops in all the states of the federation through the exploitation of shallow aquifers and surface water potentials in each state using tube well, wash bore and petrol – driven pumps technology. There are claims that the projectwas successful both nationally and international(Blench and Ingawa, 2004).Bature, Sanni & Adebayo (2013) however questions this success.

According to Baba and Singh (1998), fadama lands have high potentials and agricultural values several times more than the adjacent upland. Fadama development is a typical form of small-scale practice characterised by theflexibility of farming operations, low inputs requirement, high economic values, and minimal social and environmental impact. Hence it conforms to the general criteria for sustainable development (Akinbile, Ashimolowo and Oladoja, 2006). The NFDP (Fadama) is widely being implemented in all the 36 states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), which have been categorised into the core states and the facility states. The core states include Bauchi, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Kebbi, Zamfara and Sokoto, while the remaining states and the FCT constitute the facility states (Baba and Singh, 1998). The main objective of the programme was to build on the achievements of the agricultural development projects (ADPs) (Mohan, 2002) and sustainably increase the incomes of fadama users.By increasing their incomes, the project would help reduce rural poverty, increase food security and contribute to the achievement of a key millennium development goal, food security. The programme also hoped to sustain the increase of incomes of fadama resource users by directly delivering resources to the beneficiary rural communities, efficiently and effectively, and empowering them to collectively decide on how resources are allocated and managed for their livelihood activities and to participate in the design and execution of their subprojects. The fadama projects were implemented in three phases. The Fadama I and II have been evaluated and the findings lead to design and implementation of Fadama III.

The Fadama 1 project, which was the first phase of the project focused on supplementary water supply for irrigation and other uses. According to Agbarevo and Okwoche (2014), the objectives of the Fadama1 project include:  construction of about 50,000 shallow tube wells in fadama land for small-scale irrigation; simplifying drilling technology for shallow tube wells; construction of fadama infrastructure such as roads, culverts, storage sheds, etc.; organization of fadama farmers for irrigation management, cost recovery and easy management of credit, marketing products, etc.; carrying out aquifer studies; monitoring and upgrading of irrigation technologies; and completion of environmental assessment of future fadama development activities.

Fadama I focused mainly on production but largely neglected downstream activities such as processing, preservation and conservation and rural infrastructure to ensure the efficient evacuation of farm output to markets (African Development Fund, (ADF) 2003). In addition, the project did not take into consideration other resource uses such as those for livestock and fisheries production. This resulted not only in increased conflicts between the users but also restricted benefits to only those accruing from crop production.

The Fadama II was a follow-up to the successful implementation of the National Fadama Development Project (Fadama I) over 1993-1999, with support from the World Bank. Following the widespread adoption of simple and low-cost improved irrigation technologies, farmers realised income increases from various crops of up to 65% for vegetables, 334% for wheat, and 497% for paddy rice (ADF, 2003). The economic rate of return at completion was 40% compared to an estimated 24% at appraisal (ADF, 2003). Fadama II implemented an innovative local development planning (LDP) tool and built on the success of the community-driven development mechanisms (Bature et al., 2013). The Second National Fadama Development Project was initiated to address some of the factors that militated against the full realisation of the potential benefits of agricultural production activities – some of which were thepoor development of rural infrastructure, storage, processing and marketing facilities. Others were alow investment in irrigation technology, poor organisation of fadama farmers as well as thelack of adequate techniques for greater productivity in particular. The lessons learnt in theimplementation of the First National Fadama Development Project (NFDP) were addressed (Echeme and Nwachukwu, 2010).

The first fadamaproject (Fadama I) focused exclusively on irrigation farming while bothFadama II and Fadama III are more of agricultural diversification programmes, providing financing for thediverse livelihood activities which the beneficiaries themselves identify and design, with appropriatefacilitation support (Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, FMAWR, 2009). The Fadama III operation was designed to support the financing and implementation of six main components designed to transfer financial and technical resources to the beneficiaries. The project is a comprehensive five-year action programme developed by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) in close collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) andother federal and state government ministries, local governments and key stakeholders (donors, privateoperators, NGOs) (FMAWR, 2009). The Project implementation was initially for aperiod of five years, from 2008 to 2013. The Project was anchored on the CDD approach. Community organisations decide on how the resources are to be allocated among the priorities that they themselves identify and they manage the funds. Extensive facilitation, training, and technical assistance were provided through the Project to ensure that poor rural communities, including women and vulnerable groups, especially the physically challenged, participate in the collective decision-making process. The Project helps by giving voice to the communities as well as promotes the principles of transparency and accountability in planning and management of public investments within the LGAs.

The main objective of the Third National Fadama Development Project (FADAMA III) in Nigeria is to develop a sustainable income of rural land and water resources users. It has 6 main components each of which has sub-components. The Project was designed to be coordinated by the National Fadama Coordination Office (NFCO) of the National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA), the implementing agency of the FMAWR, while the day-to-day implementation was mainly to take place at the state level (FMAWR, 2009). The Project aimed to cover an estimated 7,400 fadama community associations in 36 participating states and the FCT. Each new participating state was to implement the project activities in up to 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) while the oldFadama II states will implement in 10 additional LGAs (FMAWR, 2009). The government was to make all necessary arrangements to ensure timely mobilisation of the counterpart funds needed for project implementation.

Anambra state is a key participant in the Third National Fadama Development Project. The state did not participate inFadama II programme, therefore, the project is being implemented in 20 of the 21 LGAs of the state (.Within the period of six years, the FadamaIII is expected to have achieved its pre-determinedobjectives especially, with respect to advisory services offered by Fadama III to farmers in Anambra State. Of the $39.50 Million Advisory Services and Input SupportFund, Anambra State is one of the few States that successfully implemented the construction/rehabilitation of the Agricultural Equipment Hiring Enterprises (AEHE) centre (World Bank, 2016). The other states are Niger and Kogi states.

PARTICIPANT FARMERS’ ACCESS TO COMPONENTS OF FADAMA III IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

IMPACT OF THE RURAL FINANCE INSTITUTION BUILDING PROGRAMME ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE OF BENEFICIARIES IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of contents                                                                               vi

List of tables                                                                 viii

List of figures                                                                           ix

Abstract                                                                                  x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background information                                                                1
    1. Problem statement                                                                           5
    1. Purpose of the study                                                               7
    1. Hypothesis                                                                       7
    1. Significance of the study                                        7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Concept of rural finance                                                       9
    • Financial interventions in rural areas of Nigeria                 10
    • Paradigm shift in agricultural financing                                       21
    • Rural Finance Institution Building Programme           22
    • Concept of food security                 25
    • Constraints to utilizing rural finance services             35
    • Strategies for improving rural finance services       39
    • Concept of impact evaluation                                   44
    • Theoretical framework                                         47
    • Conceptual framework                                              56

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

  • Study area                                                            59
    • Research design                                                  60
    • Population and sampling procedure                                            60
    • Instruments for data collection                                    62
    • Measurement of variables                                            62
    • Data analysis                                                                          66

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Socio economic characteristics of the respondents          68
    • Food security status of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries 79
    • Impact of RUFIN on beneficiaries’ socioeconomic possessions 83
    • Perceived constraints to utilisation of RUFIN services             88
    • Possible strategies to improve RUFIN programme                93

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary                                                                              95
    • Conclusion                                                       99
    • Recommendations                                         99

Reference                                                                                             101

Appendix A                                                                          109

Appendix B                                                          115

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Comparing old to new paradigm for rural and agricultural finance    22

Table 2: Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents         72

Table 3: Features of RUFIN beneficiaries’ loan             75

Table 4: Influence of socio-economic factors on amount of loan obtained 77

Table 5: Influence of socio-economic factors on the numbers of loan obtained                    78

Table 6: Sources of information on agricultural activities   79

Table 7: Food security status of the respondents   80

Table 8: Difference in the food security status of RB and NRB        83

Table 9: Impact of RUFIN on beneficiaries’ socioeconomic possessions85

Table 10: Impact of RUFIN on beneficiaries’ socioeconomic life    87

Table 11: Difference in the socio-economic characteristics of RB and NRB      88

Table 12: Perceived constraints to utilisation of RUFIN services 91

Table 13: Factors constraining beneficiaries from utilizing RUFIN services 93

Table 14: Possible strategies to improve RUFIN programme  94

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Schema, showing the impact of RUFIN on the beneficiaries 58

Figure 2: Map of Anambra State          60

Figure 3: Food security status of RB and NRB         81

ABSTRACT

The overall purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of rural finance institution building programme on the socio-economic life of beneficiaries in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the food security status of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries; the impact of RUFIN on beneficiaries’ socio-economic life; ascertained the perceived problems of beneficiaries in utilising RUFIN services; and identified possible strategies for improving performance of RUFIN. The study was carried out in Awka North, Orumba North and Ayamelum LGAs of Anambra State, Nigeria. Reflexive and matching method of quasi-experimental design was used. About 60 RUFIN beneficiaries and 60 non RUFIN beneficiaries constituted the population. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. Data were collected using interview schedule. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The findings revealed that the majorities of RB and NRB were female. The mean age of RB and NRB were 42.7years and 40.3years, respectively. Also, the majorities of RB and NRB were married. About 95% and 98%of RB and NRB, respectively were literate. The average household size of 6 was obtained among RB and RNB. About 55% and 57% of RB and NRB, respectively were into farming as major occupation. The average years of farming experience for RB and NRB were 17.3 and 15.9, respectively. Average amount of loan obtained by beneficiaries was N67, 266.70 at an average payback period of one year. On the average, RB obtained loan once since programme inception. The findings revealed that sex and years of farming experience significantly influenced the amount of loan obtained while age, significantly influenced the numbers of loan obtained by beneficiaries. The result revealed that the majority relied on friends/neighbour as source of information on RUFIN. Friends/neighbour was also the most used source of information on agricultural activities by non-beneficiaries. The results show that the majority of RB and NRB were food insecure. The findings show that RB significantly differed from NRB in the nature of food eaten in the household. The result reveals that RB were better-off than NRB; though insignificantly, in the following areas: total farm size owned in hectares, total annual income from trade, number of motorcycle owned, number of radio set owned, number of mobile set owned, number of generator owned, number of fan owned, number of personal house, number of rooms occupied, number of mattress owned, number of furnished chair owned, number of association belonged, number of rabbit owned, number of pig owned, and number of livelihood means. The findings also show that non-beneficiaries were significantly better than beneficiaries in the number of poultry owned and total annual income from farm. The result further shows that there were significant differences in favour of RB in the following items: access to financial institutions for loan, level of living when compared to others in the community, access to extension services, ease in marketing farm produce, access to modern farm inputs, access to tractor services, and access to education. The findings show that small in size of loanable amount, high interest rate, unavailability of loan when needed, short period of payback, and high initial deposit were major constraints to utilisation of RUFIN services. Also, the responses of the farmers on the constraints were extracted and named loan term constraints, managerial constraints and system embedded constraints. The major possible strategies to enhancing utilisation of RUFIN services among farmers were giving farmers loan at subsidised rate, strengthening the legal backings of group activities, exposing farmers to financial literacy trainings, trainings on possible areas of income diversification, increasing the volume of loanable amount, promotion of policy on the establishment of commercial banks in rural areas, access to loan from financial institutions on a personal basis,  making loan interest free, and increase in length of payback.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background information

Rural finance encompasses the full range of financial services such as loans, savings, insurance, payment and money transfer services, offered by formal and informal financial institutions and used in rural areas by households and enterprises as a means of improving or sustaining their livelihood choices (Making Finance Work for Africa, 2008). It includes agricultural finance, which refers to financial services ranging from short, medium, and long-term loans, leasing, to crop and livestock insurance and covering the entire agricultural value chain. Agricultural finance is dedicated to financing agriculture related activities such as input supply, production, distribution, wholesale, processing and marketing (FAO, 2016).

Absence of efficiently operating rural financial institution is a serious constraint on sustainable rural economic growth in Africa (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2003). This is because two thirds of Africa’s populations are resident in rural areas and requires adequate finance for their economic activities which are mostly agriculture based (International Labour Organization, 2014). The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2004) points out that lack of access to finance in rural areas and in the agricultural value chain could be linked to slow and uneven entry of formal financial institutions into rural areas. The FAO added that, factors such as poor infrastructure and widely dispersed populations in rural areas raise transaction and information costs, thus further hindering the spread of financial services. In addition, title and property rights can be difficult to verify in rural areas, posing problems in the use of collateral to obtain fund. Subsidized lending programmes for rural recipients, seasonal nature of farmers’ income, long maturation period of farm produce, and high risk factor associated with farming have also contributed to obstructing the development of a sustainable rural banking sector (FAO, 2004).

Despite these difficulties, formal rural and agricultural finance have been making advances in Africa, with innovative financial services and improved risk management on both the client and institution sides with the sole aim of bringing buoyancy and stability to rural economy. The most promising approaches include flexible credit schemes, value-chain finance, insurance products, promotion of financial literacy and the use of new technologies like GPS mapping (FAO, 2004). Prominent examples are the introduction of index-based weather insurance schemes in Malawi, financial literacy campaigns in Ghana, the spread of mobile banking in Kenya (FAO, 2004) and the Rural Finance Institution Building Programme (RUFIN) in Nigeria (IFAD, 2008).

While it is well understood in Nigeria that financial exclusion of the rural population stunts development, fewer than 2% of rural households in Nigeria are estimated to have access to any sort of institutional finance (World Bank, 2008). A study by Obanasa and Maduekwe (2013) cites the improvement of financial systems as a key growth pillar for the agricultural sector. Lack of rural access to financial services in Nigeria not only retards rural economic growth, but also increases poverty and inequality (World Bank, 2008).  Financial access increases incomes through productive investment, helps create employment opportunities, facilitates investments in health and education, and reduces the vulnerability of the poor by helping them to smooth their income patterns over time (World Bank, 2008). 

Aside from the launching of Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) in 1966, to cater for rural development projects and programmes in Nigeria, the following are efforts by Nigerian government in achieving sustainable rural finance: establishment of the Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (NACB) in 1973, Rural Banking Programme (RBP) in 1977, People’s Bank of Nigeria (PBN) in 1989, Community Banking System (CBS) in 1990, Self-Help Groups (SHG) Linkage Programme in 1991, Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP) in 1994. Efforts made after 1990’s include: establishment of Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) in 2000 now known as Bank of Agriculture (BoA), Trust Fund Model (TFM) in 2001, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in 2001, Small and Medium Enterprises Equity Investment Scheme (SMEEIS) in 2001, Agricultural Credit Support Scheme (ACSS) in 2006 (World Bank, 2008), and RUFIN in 2006 (IFAD, 2008). Some of these programmes ended without achieving the core objective for which the programmes were launched. This is evident in the current level of poverty in the rural areas which stood at 80% as at 2012 (IFAD, 2012) as against 41% in 1985, 49% in 1992, and 51% in 1996 (Aigbokhan, 2000). The failures could be linked to incoherence and/or default in implementation of programmes policy documents. It could also be associated with lack of clarity on the extent to which evaluation have informed evidence based policy.

Evaluation refers to objective assessments of a planned, ongoing, or completed project, programme, or policy. It is the systematic review and assessment of the benefits, quality and value of a programme or activity (Ajayi, 2005). According to FAO (2003), evaluation is purposely done to determine achievements of development programmes vis-a-vis the set aims / objectives. Food and Agricultural Organization (2003) also pointed out that evaluation techniques can serve to improve implementation and efficiency of programmes after interventions have begun, provide evidence as to the cost efficiency and impact of a specific intervention within and between policy sectors. Evaluation especially continuous / on-going and stage by stage evaluation are important because they expose lapses associated with achievement of programme objectives thereby affording opportunities for adjustment.

Impact evaluation on the other hand, assesses the intended and unintended changes that can be attributed to a particular intervention after about 5 to 10 years of existence (World Bank Group, 2012). Impact evaluation is structured to answer the question: how would outcomes such as participants’ well-being could have changed if the intervention had not been undertaken? It seeks to answer cause-and-effect questions. In other words, impact evaluation looks for the changes in outcome that are directly attributable to a programme (Gertler, Martinez, Premand, Rawlings and Vermeersch, 2011).

Rural Finance Institution Building Programme which was initiated in 2006 and became effective in 2010 is currently in its impact year (RUFIN, 2011). The programme is a strategic means by which the rural micro financing sector will be developed and strengthened in order to deliver adequate, efficient and sustainable financial services to the rural poor. The objective of the programme is to develop and strengthen the performance of member-based non-bank rural finance institutions to enable them develop to sustainable Rural Microfinance Institutions (RMFIs) and establish linkages between them and formal financial institutions in Nigeria. Rural Finance Institution Building Programme lays the foundation for the long-term development of a sustainable rural financial system that will eventually operate throughout the country (FMARD, 2015; Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission [NIPC], 2015; RUFIN, 2011).

It is being financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Ford Foundation, the Federal Government of Nigeria, state governments of Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), participating banks and micro finance institutions (MFIs) in Nigeria (IFAD, 2015; RUFIN, 2010). Under the programme, the following categories of non-bank micro finance institutions i.e. cooperative societies, unions and cooperative finance agencies, neo micro finance institutions and grassroots/informal finance institutions, would be supported in the needed areas of capacity building and access to loanable funds with appropriate linkages to micro finance banks/institutions and commercial banks for credit delivery to the rural populace (FMARD, 2015; RUFIN, 2010).

Rural Finance Institution Building Programme is currently operational in 12 Nigerian states with 3 LGA from each of the states in participation (36 LGA are involved in the federation). Participating states in the north-west / north-east zone are Adamawa, Bauchi, Katsina, and Zamfara State, while Benue, Nasarawa, Lagos, and Oyo States are participating in south-west / north-central zone and Anambra, Imo, Edo, and Akwa-Ibom States are in the south-east/ south-south zone (NIPC, 2015; RUFIN, 2011).

The programme is coordinated by a central programme unit based in Abuja and is assisted by three zonal programme management units (ZPMU), which are; ZPMU in Owerri, Imo State covering south-south and south-east Zones, ZPMU in Ibadan, Oyo State covering north-central and south-west zones, and ZPMU in Bauchi State covering north-east and north-west zones. Each participating state has a programme support office and is headed by an assistant micro finance officer and assisted by a data management officer (NIPC, 2015). Rural Finance Institution Building Programme with the structure elucidated in a manner that will allow for efficiency, demands an assessment in line with the programme goal of enhancing rural livelihood in which finance is a key component.

IMPACT OF THE RURAL FINANCE INSTITUTION BUILDING PROGRAMME ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE OF BENEFICIARIES IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

FARMERS’PERCEPTION OF THE GROWTH ENHANCEMENT SUPPORT (GES) SCHEME IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the study was to determine the farmers’ perception of Growth Enhancement Support (GES) scheme in Kogi State. A total 120 copies of the questionnaires were administered to the schemes’ participants purposively selected from 12 communities of six local government areas of the State. The local government areas are Lokoja, Kogi, Ajaokuta, Adavi, Bassa and Dekina. Data was collected on both demographic and farm characteristics of the respondents. Others areas include respondents’ perceived perception of the GES scheme effectiveness, knowledge level of respondents, level of satisfaction on the scheme activities, the constraints to effective implementation of the scheme and the strategies for effective implementation of the scheme. Data collected was presented using descriptive statistics, mean scores, standard deviation, factor analysis and multiple regression models. The result of the analysis revealed that majority (78.3%) of the respondent were male and married and the farmers mean age was 42.4years. The mean farming household size was 5persons with Christian and Muslim religion being mainly practiced. About 89.2% of the respondents took farming as their major profession with the mean farming experience as 18.6 years. Majority (85.8%) of the respondents belong to social or religion organisations and have access to agriculture-related information. The major crops grown in the area include maize, cassava and rice. The respondents had a very high knowledge of the schemes’ activities and the major source of information on the scheme activities was extension agents. On the farmers’ perception of the GES, a good number of respondents have positive perception on the schemes’ operational process and are equally satisfied with some implementation processes of the scheme. However, the major constraints to effective implementation of the scheme include untimely input provision, inability to pay for the mobile phones. Factor analysis also grouped these constraints into inputs, personnel and poverty-related constraints. The suggested strategies for effective implementation of the scheme include timely input provision and early registration of participants. The hypothesis shows that access to agriculture- related information (t=-2.340:p=0.05) had a significant relationship with rural farmers’ knowledge. It was  recommended that early inputs provisions is to be ensured since farming operations are time bound, the farm inputs are to be further subsidised in such a way that everyone will be able to pay for the subsidized inputs. Other suggestions are the provision of mobile phones, creation of more redemption centres along with construction of feeder roads in order to facilitate the effective operations of the scheme. Lastly, early registration of participants, recruitment of more staff along with women encouragement for participation is to be ensured.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                     iii

Dedication                              iv

Acknowledgment                                          v

Abstracts                                                                          vi

Table of contents                                           vii

List of tables                                                                           viii

Acronyms                                                                                                                     ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                   

1.1       Background Information                                                                                1

1.2       Problem statement                                                                                          4

1.3       Purpose of the study                                                                                       5  

1.4       Hypothesis                                                                                                      5

1.5    Significance of the study                                                                                   5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE   REVIEW                                                       7

2.1.      Farmers’ perception and participation in agricultural programmes 7

2.2.      Concept of knowledge and its use                             10        

2.3.      Sources of agricultural information used by farmers              12

2.4.      Some agricultural development interventions in Nigeria and the prevailing constraints                                                                                18

2.5.      Strategies for boosting agricultural production         34

2.6.      Conceptual frame work                                       37

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                     39

3.1       Study Area                                                                                                      39

3.2       Population and Sampling Procedure             40

3.3       Instrument for data collection                                             41

3.4       Measurements of variables                                   41

3.5       Data Analysis                                                                                                  45

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                           47

4.1.1   The socio economic characteristics of respondents      47

4.1.2   Institutional characteristics of the respondents      52

4.2      Farmers perceived effectiveness of GES scheme      54

4.3.1    Farmers’ knowledge of Growth Enhancement Support (GES) scheme                     56

4.3.2    The farmers’ knowledge level on GES scheme         58

4.4       Sources of Information on Growth Enhancement Support             (GES) scheme                59

4.5       Farmers level of satisfaction in the schemes’ implementation Process                      60

4.6.      Perceived constraints to effective implementation of GES scheme 62

4.7       Strategies for effective implementation of the GES scheme  66

4.8       Test of Hypothesis                                                                                          68

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND   RECOMMENDATION   71

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         71

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      72

5.3      Recommendation                                                                                           73

REFERENCES                                                                                                        75

 LIST OF TABLES                                                                                           

Table 1:           Population and sampling procedure        41     

Table 2:           Percentage distribution of respondents by their socio-economic characteristics                                       51                                          

Table 3:           Percentage distribution of respondents according to their Institutional characteristics                                                                       54

Table 4:           Mean and standard deviation of farmers’ perceived effectiveness GES                                                                                                       56

Table 5:           Percentage distribution of respondents knowledge score 58

Table 6:           Farmers knowledge level on GES scheme                               59

Table 7:           Percentage distribution of respondents by information sources on GES                                                                                                    60

Table 8:           Farmers’ level of satisfaction in the implementation of the scheme                                                                                                    62

Table 9:           Mean and standard deviation of perceived constraints to effective implementation of the scheme                                                   64

Table 10:         Varimax rotated constraints to effective implementation of the GES scheme                                                                                        66

Table 11:         Strategies for enhancing the effective Implementation of GES                                                                                                       68

Table12:          Socio-economic and Institutional characteristics influencing Farmers’ GES knowledge                                                                           70

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:          The schema for the farmers’ perception of the GES scheme in Kogi State   38

            ACRONYMS USED IN THE STUDY

ADP                Agricultural Development Project

ATA                Agricultural Transformation Agenda  

CDD               Community Driven Development

DFRRI            Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure

DFEE               Division of Farmers’ Education Extension    

FCAs               Fadama Community Associations

FRUGs            Fadama Resource User Groups

FEAP              Family Economic Advancement Programme 

FSS                             Farm Settlement Scheme    

 FCT                Federal Capital Territory 

FGN                Federal Government of Nigeria 

FMRD             Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development  

 FAO                Food and Agricultural Organization     

ICTs                 Information and communication technologies  

IFAD              International Fund for Agricultural Development  

IIDC            International Institute for Communication and Development   

LDPs               Local Development Plans

LGA                Local Government Area   

MARA            Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs  

NAFPP           National Accelerated Food Production Programme

NALDA          National Agricultural Land Development Authority

NBS                National Bureau of Statistic

NFDP              National Fadama Development Project

NPC                National Population Commission

OFN                Operation Feed the Nation

RBDA             River Basin Development Authority

RDP                Rural Development Project  

 USDA            United States Department of Agriculture

CHAPTER ONE

   INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background Information

           The Nigerian economy has been strongly dependent on agriculture for many years, before the discovery of oil in 1956. Agricultural enterprises such as cocoa, groundnut, oil palm and cotton production accounted for a large chunk of foreign exchange earnings in Nigeria. The south-western zone of the country was renowned mainly for its cocoa production and the South East together with South-South zones were renowned for oil palm production, while the Northern part of the country was renowned for its groundnut and cotton production. Nigeria was also one of the largest exporters of oil palm and cocoa until the discovery of crude oil, which resulted in the partial neglect of the agricultural sector. Even with the decline in output, the sector has continued to contribute about 40% to Nigeria’s GDP.(Nigeria Economic Outlook Report 2010-2011 period, in National Bureau of Statistic (NBS), 2012).

      Agriculture is predominantly practised in the rural areas of the country. Most farmers in those areas could not embark on mechanized agriculture because of the high rate of poverty that is prevalent in those areas coupled with the land tenure system still being practised in most places; hence, the need for farmers in rural areas to have access to farm inputs such as fertilisers in order to ensure that soil fertility is maintained. Resources required to enhance high agricultural productivity are the provision of seeds and information on best farming practice. In view of this, in July 2012 the Federal Government of Nigeria introduced the Growth Enhancement Support (GES) scheme and this was designed to deliver government subsidised farm inputs directly to farmers via GSM phones. The GES scheme, according to Adesina (2012), is powered by e-Wallet, an electronic distribution channel, which provides an efficient and transparent system for the purchase and distribution of agricultural inputs based on a voucher system. The scheme guarantees registered farmers e-Wallet vouchers with which they can collect fertilisers, seeds and other agricultural inputs from agro-dealers at half the cost, the other half being borne by the federal government and state government in equal proportions. As part of the GES Scheme, the federal ministry of agriculture announced that the ministry would equip millions of farmers in the rural areas with mobile phones (Adesina, 2013). Adesina (2013) further stressed that the project would link farmers directly to government and vice-versa so that Government would be able to monitor the progress of farmers as well as disseminate valuable information to them.

         According to Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (2012), the GES scheme is one of the many critical components of the federal government’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). It was designed for the specific purpose of providing affordable agricultural inputs like fertilizers and hybrid seeds to farmers in order to increase yields per hectare and make them comparable to world standard. GES scheme which is an innovative scheme seeks to remove the difficulties usually associated with the distribution of fertilizer and hybrid seeds in the country, as in the past farmers complained of diversion, exorbitant cost and adulteration of various inputs which had ultimately led to low productivity, increased poverty, unemployment and lack of interest in farming.

          The scheme, according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMRD) (2012), represents a policy and pragmatic shift within the existing fertilizer market stabilization programme and puts the resource- constrained farmer at the centre through the provision of series of incentives to encourage the critical actors in the fertilizer value chain to work together to improve productivity, household food security and income of the farmer. According to Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMRD) (2012), the goals of GES include to:

  • target 5 million farmers in each year for four (4) years that will receive GES in their  mobile phones directly, totalling 20 million at the end of the 4 years;
  • provide support directly to farmers to enable them procure agricultural inputs at affordable prices and at the right time and place,
  • increase productivity of farmers across the length and breadth of the country through increased use of fertilizer i.e. 50kg/ha from 13kg/ha; and
  • change the role of Government from direct procurement and distribution of fertilizer to a facilitator of procurement, regulator of fertilizer quality and catalyst of active private sector  participation in the fertilizer value chain.

            The scheme’s approach is to target beneficiaries through the use of electronic system, and by encouraging the engagement of the private sector in the distribution and delivery of fertilizers and other critical inputs directly to farmers. The objectives of the GES scheme include to : (a) provide affordable agricultural inputs like fertilizer, hybrid seeds and agro-chemicals to farmers; (b) remove the usual complexities associated with fertilizer distribution; (c) encourage critical actors in the fertilizer value chain to work together to improve productivity; (d) enhance farmers’ income and promote food security; and (e) shifting the provision of subsidized fertilizer away from a general public to only identified genuine   small holder farmers (FMARD, 2012).      

In various states of the country, the programme commenced in July 2012 after the farmers were sensitized and registered prior to the commencement of the scheme. Thirty five states of the country had already keyed into the programme for implementation except Zamfara had already keyed into the programme with various farm inputs being redeemed to registered farmers at designated redemption centres (FMARD, 2013).

FARMERS’PERCEPTION OF THE GROWTH ENHANCEMENT SUPPORT (GES) SCHEME IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA.

CONSTRAINTS TO ORGANIZING AGRICULTURAL SHOWS IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract

The study assessed the constrains to organizing agricultural shows in Benue State, Nigeria. Specifically, it ascertained the roles of agencies involved in organsing agricultural shows; ascertained the procedures in organizing agricultural shows by the stakeholders; identified factors militating against the organization of agricultural shows; and identified strategies required for improving the organization of agricultural shows. The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 30% of the respondents from each of the five (5) agencies to obtain a sample of fifty (50) respondents. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean statistic, percentage) were used to present data while the statistical product and service solution (SPSS) version 16 was the statistical software package used for the analysis. Majority (74.0%) of the respondents were males while (26.0%) were females. Majority (70.0%) of the respondents were civil servants while (30.0%) engaged in farming. Majority (68.0%) of the respondents had 1-10 years of experience in agricultural show while 20.0% had between 11-20 years of experience in agricultural show. 80.0% and 4.0% had 21-30 and 31-40 years of agricultural show respectively. Majority (68.0%) of the respondents belonged to cooperative organizations. Farm inputs (94.0%) topped the list of rewards given to participants of agricultural shows, followed by certificates (90.0%), honours (82.0%); sponsorship to higher competition (72.0%); cash (64.0%); and study tour (32.0%). Factors militating against the organization of agricultural shows were lack of fund (M=2.78), policy inconsistency (M=2.55); lack of incentives (M=2.52); absence of political will by government (M=2.49); non involvement of farmers and their affiliate unions in decision making process (M=2.46); lack of infrastructural facilities (M=2.43); political interference in management (M=2.40); lack of farmers interest in agricultural shows (M=1.37); only lack of farmers’ interest in agricultural show was rated as having the lowest grade. The major strategies for improvement of agricultural shows as suggested by the respondents included; functional policy for agricultural shows to be held regularly (M=2.3); conception of agricultural shows by organizations with strong capital base (M=2.59); theme selection to address sensitive and topical issues (M=2.94); capacity building (M=2.17); and cost recovery measures (M=.200). It was, recommended that a major strategy for improving agricultural shows is for functional policy to be made a regular feature. There should be provision of adequate funding and timely release of funds by agencies to properly plan and organize agricultural shows. Farmers should be organized into viable associations to ensure their active participation in the organization of agricultural shows.

TABLE CONTENTS

Title page …….          …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   i

Certification …….      …….   …….   … …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   ii

Dedication …….        …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   iii

Acknowledgement     …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   iv

Abstract …….            …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   …….   v

Table of contents …….    …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   vi

List of tables …….     ….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   xiii

List of figures …….   … …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background information ……  …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    1

1.2 Problem statement ……..   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   6

1.3 Purpose of the study …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    7

1.4 Significance of the study …  …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept of agricultural shows …….….   …….   …….   …….   …….   9

2.2 Roles of agencies involved in organizing agricultural shows …….   10

2.3 Procedures in organizing agricultural shows ………….   …….   13

2.4 Importance of agricultural shows …….…….   …….   …….   18

2.5 Constraints to organization of agricultural shows ……….   …….   21

2.6 Conceptual of framework …….  ….   ……    23

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Area of study …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   26

3.2 Population ad sampling procedure …   …….   …….   …….   …….   28

3.3 Instrument of data collection …….     …….   …….   …….   …….   28

3.4 Measurement of variables …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    29

3.5 Data analysis …….           …….   ….   …….   …….   ……    …….   30

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  

4.1 Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents …….            …….      32

4.2 Roles of agencies in the organization of agricultural shows …34

4.3 Procedures necessary in organizing agricultural shows ……   36

4.4 Reward to participants of agricultural shows …   …….   …….   37

4.5 Medium of communication used to inform farmers about organization of agricultural shows ….   …….   …….   ……    …….   …….   …….   37

4.6 Constraints militating against the organization of agricultural shows 40

4.7 Strategies for improving organization for agricultural shows ……      42

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of findings …….   …….   …….   …….   …….   ……    45

5.2 Conclusion …….  …….     …….   …….   ……    …….   …..      46

5.3 Recommendations …….  ……….   …….   …….   …….   ……    …….   48

5.4 Suggestion for further study ……. ….   …….   …….   …….   ……    48

REFERENCES         

APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                                           Pages

Table 1: Population and sampling composition …….   …….   …….   28

Table 2: Percentage distribution of respondents based on socio-economic characteristics    34

Table 3: Respondents distribution on the roles of agencies in the organization of agricultural shows…….   …….   …….   …….   …….   35

Table 4: Percentage distribution of respondents according to procedures necessary for organizing agricultural shows ……….   ……    …….   37

Table 5: Percentage distribution of respondents on how best farmers are rewarded during agricultural shows ………….   …….   ……    …….   38

Table 6: Percentage distribution of respondents on medium of communication used to inform farmers about organization of agricultural shows …….   39

Table 7: Mean distribution of respondents on the constraints militating against the organization of agricultural shows …….  …….   …….   …….   41

Table 8: Suggested strategies for improving organization of agricultural shows  …….        44

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures 1: Schematic representation of constraints to organizing agricultural shows in Benue state….   …….   …….   ……..  25

Figures 2: Map of Benue state showing local government areas … 27

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Background information

            Agricultural show is a public event exhibiting equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2009). It is the display of the achievement of agricultural production and science. Van-Osdell (2008) stated that in socialist countries, agricultural show serves the interest of the whole state and all the people. Their purpose is to accelerate the development of agriculture in the technical, technological and organizational aspects on the basis of introducing the achievements of agricultural science and progressive practice into farm production. Rasmussen, (1999) reported that in capitalist states, agricultural shows pursue primarily commercial purposes and are at the same time referred to as fairs. In other words, agricultural fairs, exhibitions and shows are used inter-changeably (Wikipedia, 2013).

            The World Book Encyclopedia (2004) defined agricultural show as an event held for presenting and viewing of exhibits. Depending on the theme of the show, the exhibits may be agricultural, commercial, industrial, or artistic. Roberts (2011) opined that some agricultural shows are called expositions or exhibitions. Small shows last just a few days and involve exhibitors and visitors from a local area, while large shows run for months. They attract exhibitors and visitors from a large number of nations. Agricultural show is a major industry in the United States and Canada. More than 3,200 shows are held annually in the two countries, and they earn more than $1.7 billion for the areas in which they are held (World Encyclopedia, 2004).

            An agricultural show is one of the powerful communication techniques that is used to convey information to some persons or groups of persons (Mbata and Iwueke, 2007). For an agricultural show to communicate effectively, the exhibitor must know the target audience and must choose the medium or channel most likely to convey information to the audience. The success of an agricultural show is judged by the extent to which it informs, educates and explains methods and motivates the target audiences (Okereke, 2004). Gerald and Fuchs (2008) reported that in agricultural shows, the target audiences are usually farmers, extension workers and persons engaged in the agricultural industry. Since there is a mixed audience in any show, intended meanings can usually be conveyed by the use of simple communication techniques.

            Agricultural shows hold contests for the best breeds of crops, livestock, poultry, local crafts, farm machinery and other farm products. Most agricultural shows organize competitions for various home prepared foods. Companies exhibit and demonstrate agricultural machinery and other equipment. Farm youth groups and adult organizations also participate (Ifenkwe, 2012).

Agricultural shows and field days are temporary exhibition events that offer farmers the opportunity for study tours. Such shows serve as occasions for participants to come and see and, in addition to the optical (sight) experience gained, put other sensory organs like kinesthetic (touch), gustatory (taste), olfactory (smell) and auditory (hearing) organs into productive use (Jones and Garforth, 1997).

Agricultural shows can be divided into three general categories, primarily based on their size. The categories are; national shows, regional and state shows. National and state shows normally last for two to three days and are operated by government with permanent staff. States come together to organize regional shows. In other words, regional shows comprise many states. However, in recent years, a number of state agricultural shows are organized by non-profit organizations (World Book Encyclopedia, 2004).

Agricultural shows have a long history worldwide. The United States’ first agricultural show was held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1811 (Kniffen, 1949). Agricultural shows were often considered the principal event for many rural areas (Getz, 1991 as cited in Mihalik & Ferguson, 1994) and were historically viewed as a special entertainment excursion for families (Mihalik and Ferguson, 1994).  Williams and Bowdin (2007), supported this view as they state that important subset of these entertainment choices is that of special events or festivals, defined as away – from – home, themed celebrations lasting for a limited amount of time. Wine festivals, fall festivals, or agricultural shows are examples of special entertainment events that have their roots in agriculture. Many of these agricultural related special events are steeped in American tradition and history. Agricultural shows in U.S. were often enlivened with competitive events, including sheaf tossing, show jumping food competitions and tent pegging.

            Robertson (2011) reported that in Britain, the first agricultural show was held by Salford  – Agricultural society, Lancashire in 1768. Since the nineteenth century, agricultural shows have provided communities with an opportunity to celebrate achievements and enjoy a break from day – to – day routine. The 150 years of agricultural shows in Britain cast useful light on the changing relationship between man and the countryside (Goddard, 2011). With a combination of serious competition and light entertainment, annual shows in Britain acknowledge and rewarded the hard work and skill of primary producers and provided a venue for rural families to socialize and network. City shows also provided city people with an opportunity to engage directly with rural life and food production. The royal agricultural society show is a ground breaking initiative in innovations in agriculture. Examples of such shows include royal Launceston show in Australia, expointer show in Brazil, Fielday Hamilton in New Zealand, International agricultural show in Australia, salon international de l’ agriculture de Paris in France and many more.

            In Africa, agricultural shows will continue to play a very important role, especially in ex-British colonies including Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Ghana, South-Africa, Benin Republic  etc. (Robertson, 2011). During the colonial period, national and international agricultural shows were organized, and following independence these have continued in some countries in Africa. Federal Government of Nigeria (2002) reported that since the establishment of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture in 1965, various attempts have been made to organize national agricultural shows. These attempts include “The fifth national agric-business show 2000” coming after about eight (8) years break since there were no shows between 1992 and 1999. This was followed by “the All Nigeria Food and Agricultural Show (ANIFAS) in 2002.

            Federal Government of Nigeria (2008) reported that the first truly organized national agricultural show in the country was “the international agricultural show, 2007” held at the permanent show ground, Karu – Abuja. The show was a result of discussion held between All-Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) and the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) following the experiences gained from the 2006 United Kingdom Royal Agricultural show held in Coventry, United Kingdom. Subsequently, a joint committee of principal organizers comprising Federal Government, the National Agricultural Foundation of Nigeria and other stakeholders was established to initiate, organize, sponsor and institutionalize it as an annual event in perpetuity. The matter was adopted at the national council on agriculture and federal executive council granted its approval and formal inauguration on May 15, 2007.

            The evolution of agricultural show in Benue state is intertwined with her political history. By 1976, Benue State was created and was organizing agricultural shows at both local and zonal levels on a routine basis. Between 1976 and mid 1980’s, the state governments adopted an interventionist approach with the government engaged in activities related to organization of agricultural shows and other development programmes in the state. The introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in the mid 1980’s which had privatization and commercialization as its cardinal principles had a negative effect on the organization and management of agricultural shows in the state (Benue State of Nigeria, MOA, 2003). According to Agbara, Ejembi et al (2002), there appears to be no official reasons to account for the apparent shift of government’s interests away from the sponsorship of state agricultural shows.  

Kpelai (2003) reported that properly organized central farmers associations were virtually absent in the state. In fact, as at 2002, there were only two registered agricultural associations in the State. This did not help the cause of agriculture in general and agricultural shows in particular. The reason for this development is that when government appeared to be dragging its financial feet on sponsorship of agricultural shows, there was no well mobilized pressure group to fight against the decline (Oche, 2004). According to Ifenkwe (2012), suitable institutional framework for organizing agricultural shows are federal government through the federal ministries of agriculture, education, science and technology; state governments; federal universities of agriculture; federal and state polytechnics; federal and state colleges of education; federal and state secondary schools; state primary schools; private schools etc can organize agricultural shows focusing interest on their research, teaching and extension mandates.

CONSTRAINTS TO ORGANIZING AGRICULTURAL SHOWS IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

CHALLENGES IN ADMINISTERING THE CROSS RIVER STATE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to identify the challenges in administering the Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture, Nigeria. All the staff of the ministry constituted the population for the study. A proportionate sampling technique was used in selecting respondents, with twenty percent (20%) of respondents from each of the departments. Thus the total sample size for the study was one hundred and thirteen (113) respondents. Percentages, mean and frequency were used in the presentation and analysis of the data collected. The result of the study showed that the majority of staff (85.5%) were married and 64.5% of respondents were males; the mean age of staff was 43.85%. About 43.5% of the respondents had Bachelor of science (B.Sc) as their highest educational qualification, above average (55.3%) of the staff specialized in agricultural science related discipline. Results revealed that the State government (85.5%) was the  ministry’s major source of funding, and 80.9% indicated that fund was insufficient. They agreed the approved budget was three hundred and sixty nine million, four hundred and nineteen thousand, three hundred and sixty five hundred, forty one kobo (N 367,419,365.41) rather than a proposed budget of one billion, five hundred and sixty eight million, six hundred and twenty two thousand, eight hundred and sixty three naira, zero kobo (N1,568,622,863.00) for different departments. The ministry is understaffed by three hundred and fifty seven persons (357) and lacks infrastructure as only buildings for offices was indicated as available (71.8%) and functional (62.7%) by respondents. Major constraints identified from this result were: poor funds for purchase of equipment (M=2.18), improper and inadequate staffing (M=1.55), insufficient electricity supply (M=2.49), inadequate funding of State ministry’s interrelationship activities (M=2.54). Results also show that the State ministry had weak linkage with universities (M=1.31) and the research institutes (M=1.37). Suggestions to address the challenges are: increased budgetary allocation (54.5%), training and retraining of staff (58.2%), constant recruitment (36.4%), funding for research work and facilities (32.7%).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                                                    vi        

Table of Contents                                                                              vii

List of Tables                                                                                              x

List of Figures                                                                             xi        

Acronyms                                                                                                        xii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

            1.1       Background information                                             1

            1.2       Problem statement                                                           6

            1.3       Purpose of the study                                                                  8

            1.4       Significance of the study                                               9

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

            2.1       The Concept of agricultural administration                 10

            2.1.1    Strategic task / responsibilities in agricultural administration  11

            2.1.2    Different levels of agricultural administration      12       

            2.2       Structure of Cross River State Ministry of agriculture       13

            2.2.1    livestock department                                              14

            2.2.2    Veterinary services department                    15

            2.2.3    Fisheries department                                    18

            2.2.4    Agricultural financing                                        19

            2.2.5    Produce services                                   21

            2.2.6    Agricultural services                              22

            2.2.7    Cross River State Agricultural and Rural Empowerment Scheme  24

            2.3       Funding in the ministry of agriculture          25

            2.3.1    Sources of funding for Nigerian agriculture           26

            2.3.2    Key challenges in financing Nigerian agriculture       30

            2.4       Staffing in the ministry of agriculture                     35

            2.4.1    Categories of staffing                                                              36

            2.4.2    Staffing process                                                    37

            2.4.3    Staff promotion packages                         38

            2.5       Infrastructure in the ministry of agriculture        41

            2.5.1    Types of agricultural infrastructure                             41

            2.5.2    Innovative financing of agricultural infrastructure   46

            2.6       Linkage mechanisms of the ministry of agriculture   47  2.6.1     Challenges facing linkages in the Nigeria agricultural extension service        48

            2.7       Conceptual framework                       50

CHAPTER THREE – METHODOLOGY

            3.1       Study area                                                        53

            3.2       Population and sampling procedure                             53       

            3.3       Instrument for data collection                                     54

            3.4       Measurement of variables                            55

            3.5       Data analysis                                                57       

CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

            4.1       Socio-economic characteristics of respondents         58

            4.2       Challenges in funding the State ministry of agriculture    61

            4.2.1    Sources of funding                              61

            4.2.2    Sufficiency of State government funding to the State ministry        61

            4.2.3    Proposed and approved budget allocation in the different department         62

            4.2.4    Donor agencies supporting the ministry               64       

            4.2.5    Purchased equipment in the ministry          64

            4.2.6    Year of highest investment for purchase of equipment    65

            4.2.7    Funding challenges affecting the ministry of agriculture 66       

            4.3       Challenges in managing personnel of the ministry of agriculture   69

            4.3.1    Actual and expected staff strength     69

            4.3.2    Delay in staff promotion                     71

            4.3.3    Perceived factors affecting personnel in the State ministry    72

            4.4       Infrastructural challenges in the administration of the State ministry   75

            4.4.1    Availability and functionality of infrastructure in the State ministry             75

            4.4.2    Perceived level of infrastructure challenges     77

            4.5       Challenges to Linkage formation of the ministry with stakeholders              79       

            4.5.1    Perceived linkage strength between the state ministry and other agencies    79

            4.5.2    Issues affecting linkage between the State ministry and other agencies        81

            4.6       Staff suggested strategies for addressing challenges of the State ministry    84

            4.6.1    Strategies suggested to address funding challenges        84

            4.6.2    Strategies suggested to address personnel challenges          85

            4.6.3    Strategies for addressing infrastructure challenges of the ministry       86

            4.6.4    Suggested strategies to address linkage challenges of the ministry               86

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

            5.1       Summary of findings                                                88

            5.2       Conclusion                                                         90

            5.3       Recommendation                                                      91

                        References                                                              92

                        Appendix                                                                                                       101

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Population and sampling frame                    54

Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to socio-economic characteristics                59

Table 3: Percentage distribution difference of proposed and approved budget of departments in the State ministry of agriculture              63

Table 4: Mean distribution of respondents perceived challenges in funding the State Ministry of Agriculture                                               67

Table 5: Percentage difference of actual and expected staff strength of departments   in the  State ministry of agriculture              70

Table 6: Mean distribution of respondents’ perceived factors that affect personnel in the State ministry of agriculture             73

Table 7: Respondent percentage distribution on the availability and functionality of   Infrastructure in the State ministry of agriculture  75

Table 8: Mean distribution of perceived level of infrastructure that poses a challenge in the State ministry of agriculture            77

Table 9: Mean distribution of Perceived linkage strength between the State ministry of  agriculture and other agencies                          80       

Table 10: Mean distribution of indicators on linkage challenges between the State ministry of agriculture and other agencies      82

Table 11: Percentage distribution of respondents on strategies for addressing Infrastructure challenges of the State ministry of agriculture  86       

Table 12: Percentage distribution of respondents on suggested strategies to address Linkage challenges of the State ministry of agriculture            87

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Structure of the Cross River State Ministry of agricultural      14

Figure 2: Schema for examining the challenges in administering the Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture.                        52

Figure 3:Percentage distribution of sources of funding       61

Figure 4: Sufficiency of State government funding to the State ministry of agriculture       62

Figure 5: Percentage distribution of donor agencies  64

Figure 6: Percentage distribution of most purchased equipments 65

Figure 7: Percentage distribution of year of highest investment for equipment purchase      66

Figure 8: Percentage distribution of staff promotion delay according to number of years    71

Figure 9: Strategies suggested by staff to address funding challenges    84

Figure 10: Strategies suggested by staff to address personnel challenge  85

ACRONYMS

ADP                            Agricultural Development Programme

AEO                            Agricultural Extension Officer

AfDB                          Africa Development Bank

ATA                            Agricultural Transformation Agenda

AU                              African Union

BEDP                          Budget and Economic Planning Directorate

CAADP                      Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme

CADP                         Commercial Agriculture Development Project

CARES                       Cross River Agricultural Rural Empowerment Scheme

CBN                            Central Bank of Nigeria

CDF                            Community Development Fund

CRADP                      Cross River Agricultural Development Programme

CRCACS                    Cross River Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme

CRCADP                    Cross River Commercial Agriculture Development Programme

CRSMOA                   Cross River State Ministry Of Agriculture

CTA                            Center for Tropical Agriculture

DFID                          Department for International Development

EA                               Extension Agent

EC                               European Commission

FACET                       Fostering Agricultural Competitiveness Empowering information communication Technology

FADAMA                  Fadama development programme

FAO                            Food and Agriculture Organization

FF                                Farm Families

FGN                            Federal Government of Nigeria

FMARD                      Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

FMAWRRD               Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development

GDP                            Gross Domestic Product        

GES                            Growth Enhancement Scheme

GIS                             Geographic Information System

ICT                              Information Communication Technology

IFAD                          International Fund for Agricultural Development

JICA                           Japan International Cooperatives Agency

MDG                           Millennium Development Goal

MFI                             Micro Finance Initiative

MOA                           Ministry of Agriculture

NDDC                         Niger Delta Development commission

NEPAD                      New Partnership for Africa’s Development

NGO                           Non-Governmental Organization

NNPC                         Nigerian nation Petroleum cooperation

ODA                           Official Development Assistance

PBA                            Programme Based Approaches

PER                             Public Expenditure Reviews

PPP                             Public Private Partnership

PRA                            Participatory Rural Appraisal

PRSP                           Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

RAMP                         Rural Access Mobility Project

RTEP                          Root and Tuber Expansion Programme

SCRI                           Songhai Cross River Initiative

SIP                              Sector Investment Programme

SME                            Small and Medium size Enterprise

SPDC                          Shell Petroleum Development Company

SPV                             Special Purpose Vehicle

SWAP                         Sector Wide Approaches

USAID                 United States Agency for Independent Development JANUARY, 2015

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background Information

            To administer means to serve, to direct, to control and to manage affairs. Administering  according to Paulinadu (2005) is a rational human activity, inherent in any organization public or private. He further added that to administer involves a cooperative human effort towards achieving a common goal. In the words of Gladden (2007), administration is a long and slightly pompous word, with a humble meaning-caring for people and managing affairs. He further defines it as determined actions taken in pursuit of a conscious purpose. It is thus a goal-oriented, purposive, cooperative, joint activity undertaken by a group of people (MacQueen, 2007), which consists of only three factors: men, materials and methods.

            Willoughby (2007) divides the scope of administration into five categories. These are General Administration: which entails who is to perform the function of direction, supervision, and control; Organization: which deals with building up the structures for the actual performance of the administrative work; Personnel: stating who manages different services; Materials and supply: enlisting the tools with which the work of administration is carried on and finally Finance: making provision for the financial needs of administration.

Administration can likewise be understood as the operational performance of routine office tasks, which is usually internally oriented and reactive rather than proactive (Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition). The essence of administration, is to plan projects, “wield together” an organization for their accomplishments, keep the organization functioning smoothly and efficiently to achieve their goals within the allotted personnel, time and resources available. ).

The full institutionalization of agricultural administration in Nigeria commenced in 1900 (Federal Ministry of agriculture, Water Resources and Rural development -FMAWRRD, 1988). Following expert advice, the military government created full-fledged Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in 1966 (Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO, 1966) and with changes in government structure from regional to state and local governments, administration of agriculture in Nigeria became decentralized leading to the creation of state ministry of agriculture as well as department of agriculture in the local government areas. The state ministries and local government department of agriculture were saddled with the responsibilities of complimenting the Federal government policies on agriculture in their domain (Federal Government of Nigeria-FGN, 2001).

 The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), regulates research in agriculture, natural resources, forestry and veterinary medicine all over Nigeria. The mandate of the ministry is to be a significant net provider of food to the global community, through the promotion of agricultural development and management of national resources in a value-chain approach to achieve sustainable food security, enhance farm income and reduce poverty (http://www.fmard.gov.ng/).

The Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources is charged with empowering, reinvigorating and transforming agricultural production in the state (Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture-CRSMOA, 2012). The state government working with the federal government and other development agencies like International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), FADAMA III and the World Bank through the Commercial Agriculture Development Project (CADP) provides assistance to farmers and investors across the agricultural value chain (CRSMOA, 2012). This includes the acquisition and preparation of land, provision of inputs, and providing technical assistance through the Ministry of Agriculture’s Extension Unit ).

Cross River State Ministry of Agriculture has eleven departments: Livestock; Veterinary; Produce services; Fishery; Agricultural services; Agricultural finances; Cross  River Agricultural Rural Empowerment Scheme (CARES); Administration; Finance and supplies; Planning, Research and Statistics and finally Agricultural development programme. The livestock development services department was established to supply seed stock for sundry livestock and provide technical support to farmers in the livestock production and management; the veterinary service department was established to provide quality health care for farm and domestic animals, including pets through prophylactic and curative treatments of animals and to ensure wholesome meat products; the fisheries development department to promote fish farming as an income generating activity and provide information to the public (CRSMOA, 2012).

Furthermore, the agricultural service department was established to support and promote farming activities with a view to increasing crop production; the agricultural finance department was established to facilitate financing and marketing for agricultural enterprise and last but not the least amongst the few departments mentioned is the produce service department which was established to monitor, control and certify standards of quality post-harvest agricultural produce for export or sale in other parts of the country (CRSMOA, 2012).

            The state ministry of agriculture has in the past and present implemented several programmes and projects to actualize its set objectives. These include;

  1. Cross River Commercial Agriculture Development Project (CRCADP): It is a World Bank supported project established in 2005 aimed at improving agricultural production in Nigeria by supporting commercial agriculture production, processing and marketing outputs amongst small and medium scale commercial farmers and agro-processors with three (3) value chains of cocoa, oil palm and rice as its target.
  2. Cross River Agricultural and Rural Empowerment Scheme (CARES): This programme was established as a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) to assist government in securing finance and partnerships in the agricultural sector, so as to reduce government expenditure in the sector and also increase accountability in the execution of agricultural projects.
  3. Cross River Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme (CRCACS): This scheme was established to provide assistance to farmers and investors across the agricultural value chain by facilitating single digit loans that will help in increasing their output through the provision of soft loans to farmers and those engaged in farming activities to enhance national food security by increasing food supply thereby reducing the prices of agricultural produce in the state and country.
  4. IFAD/FGN/NDDC Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme: This is supported and funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) and the Cross River State Government. The programme is focused on reducing poverty in the nine (9) Niger Delta States of Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Abia, Imo and Ondo. The strategy is to use community development approach in improving the living standards and quality of life of rural families.
  5. Fadama Development Programme (FADAMA III): A World Bank assisted project targeted at subsistent farmers, the rural poor, pastoralists, fisher folks, processors, hunters, gatherers and other economic interest groups in the Agricultural Value Chain to sustainably increase the income of land and water users. There are about 200 of the Fadama Community Association currently existing in the state through which fund are disbursed to the target audience.
  6. Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GES): This is one of the many critical components of the Federal government’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). It was designed for the specific purpose of providing affordable agricultural inputs like fertilizers and hybrid seeds to farmers in order to increase their yields per hectare and make it comparable to world standard because in the past there were complains of diversion, exorbitant cost and adulteration of various inputs to farmers, which ultimately led to low productivity, increased poverty, unemployment and lack of interest in farming (CRSMOA, 2012).

In light of all these programmes implemented in the state for the main purpose of increased productivity, rural development, sustainable living and transformed agriculture, there has been a gradual decline in the state’s agricultural contributions to the nation’s economy, its rural dwellers and farmers. This decline in the state’s agricultural sector can largely among other things be attributed to poor administration on the part of the government.

CHALLENGES IN ADMINISTERING THE CROSS RIVER STATE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, NIGERIA


AVAILABILITY AND USE OF SWAMP RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page –    –           –           –       –           –           –           –           –           iii       

Certification-            –           –                  –           –           –           –           –           –           iv        

Dedication –  –           –           –              –           –           –           –           –           v

Acknowledgment –   –           –               –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of contents –   –           –      –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of table –            –              –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

List of figures –         –                —         —         –           –           —         –           x

Abstract-        –           –         –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

Chapter one: Introduction –           –           –           –           –           1

  1. Background information-   –             –           –                       1
    1. Problem Statement –         –           –           –           –           –           5

1.3       Purpose of the study-          –             –           –           –           –           8

1.4       Significance of the study.-  –          –           –           –           –           8

Chapter Two: Literature  Review –           –           –           –           –           10

2.0       Literature Review –  –           –           – –           –           –           –           10

2.1     Swamp rice production technologies in Nigeria- –  –           –           10

2.1.1   Rice Production Systems in Nigeria-       –           –           –           20

2.1.2   Swamp Rice varieties recommended for Farmers use        –           22

2.2      Relevant studies on swamp rice production technologies in Nigeria  25

2.3     Constraints to the use of swamp rice production technologies and 32

2.4    Strategies used by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in promoting agricultural extension service.-             –           –           38

2.5       Conceptual Framework-     –        –           –           –           –           40

Chapter Three: Methodology –   –          –           –           –           –           44

3.0       Methodology-           –       –           –           –           –           –           44

3.1       The Study Area-       –                    –           –           –           –           44

3.2       Population and sampling procedure-                 –           –           –           46

3.3       Instrument for data collection –     –      –           –           –           46

3.4       Measurement of variables –            –           –           –           47

3.5       Data  Analysis-           –           –   –           –           –           –           –           49

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion –          –           –           –           51

4.0      Results and Discussion-      –       –           –           –           –           –           51

4.1       Personal and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. 51

4.2     Institutional characteristics –                  –           –           –           –           57

4.2.1   Swamp rice  production technologies available to the farmers. -62

4.2.2   Use of available swamp rice production technologies by the farmers   64

4.2.3 Table 7: Swamp Rice Farmer’s level of use of rice production technologies.-            66

4.2.4   Perceived factors promoting the use of available swamp rice production technologies  –      –           –           –           –           –           –           66

4.2.5  Perceived constraints to the use of available swamp rice production technologies. –       –           –           –           70

4.2.6   Hypothesis –  –           –           –           –           –           –           73

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation – –          76

5.1     Summary-       –       –           –           –           –           –           –           76

Conclusion – –       –           –           –           –           –           80

Recommendations-  –                  –           –           –           —         80

References-   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           83

Appendix –    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           92

List of tables

LIST OF FIGURES

                                                 Page

Figure 1: Schema showing the availability  and use of swamp rice production technologies among farmers in Enugu state        43
Figure 2: Map showing the study area     45    
Figure 3: Respondents level of use of swamp rice production technologies    68

ABSTRACT

In spite of the use of available production technologies by swamp rice farmers, much of the world’s intensive food production is still on small land holdings. Although swamp rice contributes significantly to the food requirements of the population, its production is far below the national requirements. Hence this study was designed to assess availability and use of swamp rice production technologies among farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from 96 swamp rice farmers through the use of a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression and logit regression equation were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that (13.3%) of the respondents had no formal education, with a mean household size of 6 persons. Majority of the respondents (43.2%) borrowed their farmland and cultivated an average of 3.8 hectares of land yearly. The percentage of the respondents that belonged to at least one organization was (78.6%), while about 21.4% were not members of any organization. Majority of the respondents (60.6%) had no access to credit facilities, and 52.4% had no contact with extension agents while the average contact made by the farmers was 9.5 contacts in the past one year. Findings of the  swamp rice production technologies available to the farmers included: Rice varieties such as Nerica and Faro (95.7%), recommended seed/seedling rate (95.7%), planting with 20×20 cm or 25cm x 25cm spacing (92.0%) control weed using herbicides such as propanyl-plus (90.4%). Also, the number of respondents that were categorized as high users was 14.2% while 21% were medium users, 11.5% were categorized as low users and 3.3% did not use any production technologies. The respondents perceived the following as factors promoting level of use of  swamp rice production technologies; ability to enhance income of farmers (M = 2.52), adaptable to culture of users (M = 2.35) and access to available technologies (M = 2.28) among others. The respondent’s perceived constraints to the use of available swamp rice production technologies include pest, diseases and weeds, (M = 2.64), drought issues such as rainfall, solar radiation, (M= 2.49) and land tenure issues M = 2.46 among others. The regression results show that there was a significant relationship (f = 2.341., p< 0.05) between the socio-economic characteristics of the SR farmers and the use of available SR production technologies. Furthermore, results of the hypothesis revealed that years of farming experience (t = 0.032: P = 0.021), membership of social organization (t = 2.179: p= 0.001) number of contacts with extension workers (t = 0.965; P = 0.000) had positive significant relationship on farmers use of available swamp rice technologies. The overall finding of the study shows that the identified constraints to the use of available swamp rice production technologies should be tackled by government and non government organizations in order to enhance farmers ability to use available technologies effectively.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background information

The two major species of rice commonly cultivated are Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa, with Nigeria and Madagacar accounting for 60% of the rice land in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 2006). Nigeria is currently the highest rice producer in West Africa, producing an average of 3.2 million tons of paddy (2 million tons of milled rice) (Damola, 2010). Rice indeed is no longer a luxury food in Nigeria, and it has become a major source of calories for the urban poor. The report further adds that the poorest of urban households obtain 33 percent of their cereal-based calories from rice and therefore rice purchases represent a major component of cash expenditure on cereals.

            Swamprice (SR) is a major food crop of the world by virtue of the extent and variety of uses and its adaptability to a broad range of climatic, edaphic and cultural conditions. It is grown under shallow flood or wet paddy conditions. Swamp  production is concentrated in areas where management is convenient on flat low lands, river basins and delta areas. The crop flourishes well in humid regions of the sub tropic and temperate climates. About 90% of the world’s swamp rice is produced in tropical, semitropical areas and consumed where it is grown by small-scale farmers in low-income developing countries (Food and Agriculture Organization,   (FAO) 2008).Swamp rice is cultivated in virtually all the agro-ecological zones in Nigeria (Akande,2001). According to Damola (2010), swamp rice is relatively easy to produce and is grown for sale and for home consumption. In some areas there is a long tradition of SR growing, but for many, swamp rice has been considered a luxury food for special occasions only. With the increased availability of rice, swamp rice has become part of the everyday diet of many in Nigeria.

National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI) (2008) identifies three (3)prevalent types of swamp rice production systems in Nigeria viz rainfed lowland SR, rainfed SR and irrigated swamp rice production systems. Rainfed lowland SR production system (RLSPS): accounts for about 48% of Nigerian’s rice area. It is very common in the South Eastern part of Nigeria such as Enugu, Ebonyi etc.  The rice yield is generally high and ranges from 2-8 tons/ha and it is also estimated to contribute about 53% to national rice production source (Atala, 2009) Rainfed SR production system (RSRPS): accounts for 30% of the total rice production area with more than 1.30mm of annual rainfall. It is predominant in the southern part of Nigeria and mostly found in the flooded river valleys, which accounts for about half of total rice areas and has an average yield of 2.2 tonnes (Akpokodji, Lancon and Erenstein, 2009).  Irrigated swam price production system (ISPS) which is the most recently developed rice environment in Nigeria is common in the Northern and Southern part of Nigeria. Irrigation is supplied from rivers, wells, bore holes among others to supplement the rain for full rice crop growth. It contributes about 16% of cultivated rice land and yields range from 2-8 ton/ha thus accounting for 27% of national rice supply.  (Saka, 2010)

Other less common rice production systems include the deep water (floating rice) (Deep water swamp rice production system) which constitutes about 5% of the national rice production area. The yields are very low due to the predominant use of unimproved rice variety (Oglaberrima steud), which yields less than 1 ton /ha. It accounts for about 3% of the national rice output. Also, the tidal (mangrove) Swamp rice(TSPS) which lies between the coast line and fresh water swamps has potential for one million hectares of cultivable rice area but at present contributes less than 2% to national rice production with low rice yields of only about 1 ton/ha.  (FAO, 2009).

Consequently, rice production technologies have been developed for swamp rice farmers, but these technologies have not been fully utilized  by the farmers. Such rice production technologies  include: use of appropriate seed/ seedling varieties such as Nerica, Faro 44, 43 etc, use of appropriate seed rate such as 30 – 40kg seed per hectare, use of pre and post emergence herbicides, land preparation  technologies such as ploughing and harrowing, time of planting, appropriate spacing, pest and disease control etc. (FAN, 2007).

Nigeria is the largest swamp rice producing country in West African region and swamp rice production increased gradually over the years with area expansion to surpass major rice producing countries like Cote d’voire and Sierra Leone    .(WARDA, 2004) Unfortunately, the increase in demand in recent times has not been accompanied with a corresponding rise in production. This is attributed to wide spread poverty, dominance of the nation’s agriculture by small holders, the use of relatively primitive tools for farm operations lack of exposure to improved agricultural technologies (improved seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc) and inadequate farm mechanization aids by government (Damola, 2010).

Ani and Kwaghe (1997) observed that the process of increasing efficiency of agricultural production through agricultural modernization depends mainly on the extent to which farmers can incorporate improved agricultural practices into farming operations. This, according to Sule, Ogunwale and Atala (2006) necessarily entails shifting away from the drudgery of age-long use of traditional methods to the ‘utilization of modern production techniques so as to accomplish self sufficiency in food production and improvement of life in the rural areas. It has long been recognized by experts in this field that the only way to significantly increase the productivity of the small scale farmers in developing countries is to improve the farmer’s technological capabilities.

Technology may therefore be defined as the specialized knowledge, skills, methods and techniques required for production and distribution of goods and services. Agricultural technology can also be embodied in people, tools, crop varieties, agricultural practice, and processing equipment. Technology according to Ayoola (2001) includes the totality of how the society performs particular activities. Specifically therefore, agricultural technology consists of the nature and types of available inputs (for example, seeds, fertilizer, chemicals, tools, machines, farm power e t c.) and the way in which these inputs are combined (for example, land fertilizer ratio, labour-machine ratio).

Recent studies has shown that SR production technologies have not been able to meet the increasing demand for rice (FAO, 2002). In the West African sub region, Nigeria has experienced a well established growing demand for rice caused by rising per capita consumption and consequently the insufficient domestic production had to be complemented with enormous import both in quantity and value at various times (Saka and Lawal, 2009). According to the United State Agency for International Development (USAID) (2010), Nigeria’s rice sub sector is dominated by weak and insufficient producer-market linkage due to poor infrastructure and limited efficiency of distribution network which has resulted to low productivity and participation of farmers in the rice field.

In order to reduce the rate of rice importation, Saka and Lawal (2009) were of the opinion that disseminating improved varieties and other modern inputs as a composite package to rice farmers is very important. Nwite Igwe and Wakatsuki (2008) indicated that the adoption of rice production technologies should lead to substantial yield increase in rice production. However, this invariably underscores the important role technology stands to play in attaining the much needed growth in the rice sub sector. As a result of this, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) (1996) opined that new rice varieties that combine higher yield potential with excellent grain quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and input use efficiency are desperately needed to reduce the importation of foreign rice. Kebede (2001) indicated that growth in production can be gained through the use of technologies and allocative efficiencies of farmers in response to the changing techniques and production environment. Hence, adoption of technologies should lead to substantial yield increase.

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF SWAMP RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG FARMERS IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SAFETY AMONG PORK MARKETERS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION

Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and most parts of West Africa.  Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fat called lard.  The pig produces litters twice a year.  One litter or one birth give between eight (8) and sixteen (16) piglets.  They also eat anything that is edible when given. Although, the rearing of pig and its consumption is not popular in Moslems areas in Nigeria because of the religion.  Some people look at pigs as dirty animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings.  This is probably responsible for some people prefer meat from other animal to pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other countries such as Britain and United States of America. 
Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:  This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in southern parts of Nigeria.  It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment, and eats anything that comes it way.  The breed is a native to West Africa.
Large White:  This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria.  It is white in colour with average size, it is resistant to trypanosomiasis disease, hence found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native to America. 
Land race:  This is larger than other breeds of pig.  It has white hairs and skin.  Land race has ears which are pointing forward.  The animal has very good meat.   It originated from Norway. Duroc:  The pig has large body.  The colour is golden yellow or cherry red.  It has droopy ears.  The animal come from U.S.A. 
Large Black:  The animal is black in colour with droopy ear.  It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A. 
Chester White:  The pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than duroc.  It can produce many offspring in one birth.  It originated from Pennsylvania in U.S.A 
Tamworth:  the animal has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body.  It is a native of Ireland. 
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES (MANAGEMENT)             
There are three (3) major production strategies which are as follows: 
(1) intensive management practices  
(2)  Semi-intensive management practice and/or free range management practices.   Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of production is better than most other domestic animals.  Pigs have a high conversion rate of 1:5 of the Gross energy taken.  They are able to convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other domestic animal.  Pork carcass yields a high percentage of dressed meat and a high portion of edible parts.             
Pork is a good source of animal protein.  It is high in energy, attractive, nutritious, tasty and tender.  This is apparently due to the fact that slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development concerning pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the opportunity to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of pork meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be neglected, and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the product.             
Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the sanitary control of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of providing safe and wholesome meat for human consumption and to ensure that only apparently healthy, physiologically normal one are slaughter for human consumption and abnormal animals are separated and dealt with accordingly.    The responsibility of achieving this objectives lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority, the problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing thought that has become all too evident in the year past is that, increase in meat production alone is not the answer.  This is so, partly because such an increase is sometimes supported without appropriate pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal which should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.             
In many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the necessary information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal, meat from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international commission of codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food regulation (FAO, 2003).             
The Codex Alimentarius, has turned into the reference point for food businessmen, industrialist, traders and consumers, it is the guide for the international, national organization in charge of the products’ control for the elaboration of the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the consumers health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003).  World Health Organization has therefore endeavour to prepare a concise guideline on the subject together with colour illustration demonstrating the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs, bovines, small ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of disease carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately and dealt with accordingly.  To ensure that animal or meat (from abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess no-threat to human (WHO, 2003).STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

     The problem which the study seeks to address is the issue of consumer safety.  The concern is that meat should not predisposes man to food born diseases.  The research questions are: 
a.   To estimate the determinant of food safety. 
b.   To identify the food safety practice. 
c.   To estimate the cost of food safety.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

            The general objectives of the study is to examine the safety issues associated with pork meat marketing in the study area.  The specific objectives are: 
1.  To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers. 
2.  To identify safety practices adopted by pork seller in  the study area to guarantee consumers safety. 
3.  To estimate the determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

            This study seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and knowledge, on how to provide wholesome meat for human consumption, and the need to position the general public, inspection/health ministry and of course, the abattoir operators of their call to duties instead of the negligence that has become a course for concern, owing to disease threat and it related condition.  And also, because of deformed nature of the appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has cease the opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management history.  And on the other, the small retailers in our various  market has not meet up with their safety security measures.  This study is therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to remind them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be aware also that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to life. The wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to imbibe the spirit of food security for a better and happier living.

MODIFICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IAR GROUNDNUT SHELLER FOR SOME SELECTED VARIETIES OF PULSES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Backgrounds of the Study
Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding grains or seeds used for food, feed and sowing purposes. Pulses are crops yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and colour within a pod. In addition to their values as food and feed stuffs, pulses are also important in cropping systems for their ability to produce nitrogen and thus increase the fertility of the soil (FAO, 2011). Included in the pulses are groundnut and cowpea.Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) also known as peanut,is a member of the family papilionaceae, the largest and most important of the three divisions of leguminasae (Alonge and Adegbulugbe, 2005).The groundnut seed composed of approximately equal weight of fatty and none fatty oil; the relative amount of each depends upon its variety and maturity (Young, and Ahmed, 1982). It is one of the world‟s most popular crops cultivated throughout the tropical and sub-tropical areas where annual precipitation is between 1000 – 1200mm for optimum growth of the crop.Groundnut is the 13th most important food crop of the world (John, 2010). It is the world‟s 4th most important source of edible oil and 3rd most important source of vegetable protein (Taru et al., 2008). The crop is native to South America, Mexico, and Central America. It was first cultivated in a valley in Peru. The leading world producers of the crop are China, India, Nigeria, USA, and Senegal. Nigeria ranks third among the major producers (Abubakar and Abdulkadir, 2012). In Nigeria,agriculture was the dominant sector of the economy before independence;with groundnut cultivation as one of the vital areas of its economic built up (Ani et al, 2013). Emergence of petroleum products, poor government sustenance, and inadequate viable as well as qualitative farm machinery are some of the factors contributing toNigeria‟s declining economic buoyancy (Yusuf, 2011). The total world output of the groundnut crop in 2008 was 34.8 million metric tons out of which Nigeria accounted for 3.8million metric tons (FOA, 2008). In Nigeria, the processing of groundnut into various products is mostly done by women either for home consumption or for commercial purposes (Ibrahim et al., 2010). The most common commercial products of groundnut are; groundnut oil, groundnut cake and fried groundnut which are sold at market places or hawked on the streets. The processing of groundnut is both the source of income and employment to a large proportion of rural women in northern Nigeria(Ibrahim et al., 2010).
In developed countries groundnut processing is highly mechanized but in most developing countries, manual processing is still the norm despite the drudgery and time wastage involved (Maduako et al., 2006). The manual shelling method is achieved by applying pressure to crack the shell. In some cases, the groundnuts are first moistened with water and parked in a small sack whereby pressure is applied by beating the bag on a stone or any hard surface. Groundnut shelling machine is used to remove the shell of groundnut so as to obtain the groundnut seeds. Harvesting and shelling of groundnut are the most important and labour intensive operations in groundnut cultivation(Akcali and Onur, 1990). According to the authors, the present practice of these manual processes consumes huge amount of labor to the magnitude of 84 man-h ha-1 . During peak seasons delay in harvesting and threshing resulted in heavy loss due to non-availability of labor at peak period of harvesting. One of the solution for increasing the profit and productivity is to mechanize the operations in groundnut cultivation. For mechanizing threshing operations, power operated groundnut machinery such as; harvesters, strippers, and sheller have been developed. The adoption level is very low due to varying constraints(Akcali and Onur, 1990).
Cowpea is one of the most economically and nutritionally important indigenous African grain legumes produced throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of the world (GATE, 2008).In Africa, despite the values of cowpea, the methods involved in its production, harvesting and shelling are mostly manual. For instance, shelling is done by pounding in a mortar with a pestle or spreading the dried crop on the floor where it is beaten with a stick (Dauda, 2001). Production of cowpea on a large scale is likely to continue to increase with the adoption of improved production technology and availability of wider market. This would mean a higher demand on labour for all farming operations particularly harvesting, threshing, cleaning and grading (Irtwange, 2009). Most of the imported shelling machineries are very costly and hence beyond the reach of Nigerian small-scale farmers. Some have been found unsuitable for shelling the local varieties (Adewumi et al., 2007). If there has to be increased production of cowpea, farmers have to be provided with the means by which their products can be processed with minimum drudgery, cost and achieving good quality products. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Abubakar and Abdulkadir (2012) reported that, traditional method of shelling groundnut has proved to be inefficient, time consuming, laborious, and low output. Due to the lack of an efficient motorized machine to shell groundnut, small scale farmers generally depend upon manual shelling. These are time consuming operations and do not match the shelling requirements within a limited period of time. Manual processing is still the norm in Nigeria despite the drudgery and time wastage involved. The search for more efficient and cost effective way of shelling raised the demand for the modification of IAR groundnut shelling machine.IAR groundnut sheller was developed in 1985 and the design was based on the properties of the then variety known as Ex-Dakar. The performance of the sheller was satisfactorily optimum withthroughput capacity of 200 kg/h as reported by IAR (1987). New varieties were later developed whose acceptability in practice override, this has conspicuously affects the performance of the IAR groundnut shelling machine which is not yet modified for the new varieties. A preliminary test of the sheller was carried out using groundnut variety; SAMNUT 23, and its performance was evaluated. The results (Appendix E1) indicated a very low output capacity of 76.50 kg/h, which was determined at a combination of 160rpm and 3kg/min cylinder speed and feed rate, respectively. This could be attributed to the effects of some factors such as varietal difference, inappropriate sieve type required among others.
Cowpea cultivation is also very essential in Nigeria;it plays a key role in the agriculture and food supply of the country. Nigeria is the largest producer and consumer of cowpeas, accounting for about 45 percent of the world‟s cowpea production (GATE, 2008). However, most ofthe farmers grow it as inter crop (Rowland, 1993), though its post-harvest operations are mostly done manually due to lack of precise machinery for such operations and this curtailed its effective productivity.
1.3 Justification 
Groundnut and cowpea are of great economic benefit to mankind. Therefore, developing the pulse sheller will help to bridge the overtime disparity in its performance improvements and subsequent modifications. It will provide an avenue for improving groundnut and cowpea productivity, reduction of drudgery on such processes, and subsidize the cost of procuring groundnut and cowpea shelling machinery by the farmers. It will also help to increase the number of viable machines available for shelling of groundnut, cowpea and other related crops. Drudgery is generally conceived as physical and mental strain, fatigue, monotony and hardships experienced while doing a job(Renuka, 2007). It is certain that, if appropriate drudgery reducing machineries are made available to the rural farmers, it would contribute to more drudgery reduction in labour productivity, increased capability, and consequently red uction in greater workload thereby improving labour efficiency. According to Chima (2013),manufactured goods in agriculture are one of the preferred sectors of an economy and therefore the bedrock of economic and technological advancement. Chima (2013) further stated that, one important strategy used by China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Brazil, the nations with large populations in their quest for industrial and economic development was strong internal demand/consumption of their manufactured goods. Therefore, producing high quality products like pulse sheller will contribute meaningfully to the country‟s GDP and enhances its global competitiveness. It will also contribute in disabling the importation opportunities in the country. 
1.4 Objectives of the Study 
The aim of the study is to modify the existing IAR groundnut shelling machine for selected varieties of groundnut and cowpea crops. The objectives of the study are:-
(i) to determine the related physical and mechanical properties of the selected varieties of groundnut and cowpea 
(ii) to carry out the design analysis for the modified pulse shelling machine 
(iii) to construct and test the modified pulse shelling machine 
(iv) to evaluate and compare the performance of the modified and existing machines

INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SOURCES ON FARMERS KNOWLEDGE AND USAGE OF POULTRY DRUGS IN EDO AND DELTA STATES, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Worldwide, more chickens are kept than any other type of poultry, with over 50 billion birds being raised each year as source of meat and eggs. [Card and Leslie,1961] Traditionally, such birds would have been kept extensively in small flocks, foraging during the day and housed at night, this is still the case in developing countries, where the women often make important contributions to family livelihoods through keeping poultry, however, rising world populations and urbanization have led to the bulk of production being in larger, more intensive specialist units. These are often situated close to where the feed is grown or near to where the meat is needed, and result in cheap, safe food being made available for urban communities. (Eriksson and Larson,2008) 
The African traditional way of rearing livestock originally uses less of synthetic drugs, although the birds raised are hardy in nature. There is therefore the need for the use of veterinary knowledge of local farmers as a basis for the development of organic alternatives of livestock production.(Adler and Jerry,2012)
Indigenous knowledge has gone a long way over the years to ensure minimal livelihoods for the rural resource-poor people in Nigeria. Most small-holder farmers that desire to adopt modern practices of animal health care are constrained by lack of finance and unavailability of consultancy advice from veterinary officers in remote villages (Kolawole, 2001)

According to Eurostat,(2012) it was stated in value terms, that the EU-27’s crop output grew by 9.1 % in 2011 to EUR 203,330 million and animal output increased by 9.9% to EUR 154,057 million and recently there has been a remarkable interest in livestock production.
Poultry farming has numerous benefits; as a result many farmers prefer to invest in it. People generally establish poultry farm for the purpose of producing eggs, meat and generating high revenue from these products. Billions of chickens are being raised throughout the world as a good source of food from their eggs and meat. However, here I am shortly describing the main benefits of poultry farming. The main benefit of poultry farming is, it doesn’t require high capital for starting .It doesn’t require a big space unless you are going to start commercially. It also ensures high return of investment within a very short period. Some poultry birds like broiler chickens take shorter duration of time to mature and generating profit.
The importance of the poultry industry cannot be over emphasized, because of the vital roles it plays in human nutrition and creation of employment opportunity it provides for the teeming population. The industry if desired attention is paid by government at all levels, poultry industry can successfully absorb a large number of unemployed youth across the country currently searching for unavailable jobs. Through its chain of agro-allied activities, commercial feed aim toll milling, poultry productions processing, poultry marketing, vertinary, pharmaceuticals, hatchery operation and breeder farming. In addition, the industry if properly harnessed, can also serve as source of foreign earning, complementing the crude oil (our present main source of foreign earning) responsible for over 90% of our exports e.g. a product of the industry gives about 3.5g of the total 7.2g animals protein required for individual dietary need per day. Again, (broiler table meat chicken) is the toast of every fast food outlets across the country. This is because chicken meat is cholesterol free; compare to red meat beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison and others, which contains cholesterol (a chemical substance), responsible for the increasing rate of heart diseases amongst Nigerians in recent times. Among which to be mentioned poultry contribute to GDP and GNP of the country. 
Furthermore, poultry industry at the moment is bedeviled by enormous problems. Among which are lack of government funding, lack of credit facility, high cost of feeding ingredients, diseases, increasing cost of medications, marketing and lack of storage facility. Diseases are one of the major challenges to the industry, because of the economic importance of the disease causing organisms like bacteria, virus, fungal and protozoan, which poultry birds are susceptible to, bringing about devastating effects to both the flocks and the farmers .For instance, the outbreak of avian influenza otherwise known as bird flu, in 2005/2006, led to death of over 1.5 million birds across the country (Sahara reporter). It will be recalled that large number of poor farmers lost their means of livelihood, when their flocks were destroyed by government without compensation; yet foreign donor agencies are willing to address the problem of avian influenza stated by (WHO, 2005)
The intake of protein in Nigeria stands at 3.5g per caput per day(Ironkwe and Amefule,2008) and this is far less than the 35g per caput per day recommended by the World Health Organization (W.H.O),this shortage of animal protein consumption is partly due to the high cost of conventional meat sources like cattle, goat, sheep(Tewe,1999),it is therefore necessary to search for a cheaper alternative source of meat to meet the ever increasing demand for animal protein.
Information and communication are essential ingredients needed for effective transfer of technologies that are designed to boost agricultural production. For farmers to benefit from such technologies they must first have access to them and learn how to effectively utilize them in their farming systems and practices (Ariyo et al.2013).This is the responsibility of agricultural extension agencies all over the world. These extension agencies make use of different approaches ,means and media in transferring improved agricultural technologies to farmers. Mass media methods in agricultural information dissemination generally, are useful in reaching a wide audience at a very fast rate. They are useful sources of agricultural information to farmers and as well constitute methods of notifying farmers of new developments and emergencies. They could equally be important in stimulating farmers’ interest in new ideas and practices (Ani et al.1997). Common sources of agricultural information sources that have been used are the extension services, radio, television, magazines, newspaper and face to face communication. According to Statrasts,(2004) this information sources is seen as an institution or individuals that create or bring about message and the characteristics of a good information source are relevance, timelessness, accuracy, cost effectiveness reliability, usability exhaustiveness and aggregation level. Lately research institutions have embraced the modern sources of information such as internet especially online database, journals and articles that have made information more readily accessible, accurate and timely. These modern sources have been used within research institutions and extension service units but their effectiveness in availing information to farmers have been criticized. It is thought that the modern sources of information have social, education, economic, cultural and technical constraints which limits their effectiveness in disseminating agricultural information to farmers(Bashir,2008) It is important to disseminate agricultural information to ensure farmers have adequate knowledge and skills to address their needs and sustain production. Research institutions have a responsibility of ensuring that the information they disseminate is packaged in a way that makes it easy for the end-users to understand and to use appropriate dissemination channels that would make the information accessible to the end users (farmers),(Ghobrial and Musa,2006).
Hence, the information supply from extension, research. Education and other sources has become managed by agricultural organizations and especially disseminated to farmers so that they can make better decisions to take advantages of market opportunities and to manage continuous changes in their production systems(Demiryurek,2010) According to Davin (1976) every individual whether literate or non-literate needs information in order to make decisions thus every sector of the population engaged in agriculture needs information. The concept that information is the message has different meanings in different contexts. Luciano Floridi (2010). Thus, the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
The role of communication boarder on it’s effectiveness which is foundational to socio-economic and political development of a nation. Adekunle and Ogoto (1994), asserted that effective communication is a precondition for sustainable technology transfer in agriculture; and the feed forward- feed back mechanisms which are essential ingredients in the technology transfer process are only made possible through communication process. A good communicator or information source knows his audience, his wants, needs, message, the effective channel of communication applicable to his audience, prepares his information to be communicated carefully, speaks clearly, uses simple languages that people understand and is aware of the limitation of time. The credibility and technical competence of the communicator (extension agent) will go a long way in people (farmers) putting their trust in him as an authority of valid assertions and a reckoned officer. Hence Torimiro and Akinyemiju (2008) opined that in order to maintain good credibility extension agents need to have adequate knowledge and skill in dealing with people, and that a message is not of no value unease it is understood, accepted by the receiver and creates a motivation to act. Ekumankma and Nwankwo (2002) observed the poor exposure of farmers to appropriate agricultural information as one of the major reasons for low yield recorded by many Nigerian farmers. This have been of great concern to agricultural communicators, administrators, and policy makers in the country over the years and finds expression in the federal governments’ effort in initiating different agricultural programmes including Agricultural Development Programmes across the country in the last four decades. Uphoff (2000) and Leeuwis (2004) accreting a new societal function for extension said that emphasis/responsibilities have shifted from a function that fostered knowledge and technology transfer between farmers and researchers and among farmers themselves to include more complex tasks of altering interdependencies and co-ordination between various actors, in addition new challenges, problems and development- some of which operate at a larger scale than before (e.g. ecological degradation, globalization and knowledge society) that further complicate matters, hence the issues extension is dealing with now are concerned more broadly with rural resource management- resource in this context include not only water, land, biological process and biophysical inputs, but also human relations, forms of organizations, economic and legal institutions, knowledge or skills. Leeuwis (2004) observed that communication intervention which is seen as different communication services since they essentially define kinds of products that can be delivered by communication workers and at the same time seen as different strategies because they refer also to the way in which communication intervention is supposed to contribute to societal problem solving. Depending on one’s analysis of the problem, one may decide that improving a specific type of service is an appropriate strategy towards improving the situation. Leeuwis (2004) further opined that the term farm management communication is general communication function which can be relevant within different communication services and strategies include: raising awareness; consciousness of predefined issues; exploring views and issues; information provision and training, with corresponding roles of communication workers to include; providing (confrontational) feedback; raising questions; stimulating people to talk (active listening, active learning); translating and structuring information; and educators/trainers. Hence, effective communication can improve farmers’ value for adoption of proven technologies.
Feedback is a critical component of effective communication(Witzany,G 2012).This farmers knowledge on the usage of poultry drugs is either lagging behind in Nigeria or it is not put into practice maximally(UNIDO,CBN,2010)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Agriculture, which is production oriented is a field that is always in need of right information and at the right time.(Dileepkumar,2013),this means that both crop and livestock farmers should always be linked to the right information needed in the production process by adequate information sources. Agricultural information can also be seen as an important factor which interacts with the other production factors such as land, labour, managerial ability, the productivity of these other factors can arguably be improved by the relevant, reliable and useful information and knowledge (Demiryurek, 2010).
The problem to lack of or minimal use of drugs observed in poultry production in Nigeria could be linked to information technologies and information sources (information revolution) affecting competitiveness (Porter and Miller,1985).Part of the reason why farmers do not engage in the usage of poultry drugs is that, historically the extension services has been focused on improving production and productivity (Gebremedhi et al,2006) and abandoned the farmers after the harvest. This is why various stakeholders of agriculture need to critically analyse the information sources that are available and accessible to poultry production and also the information needs of the farmers, the structure of the organisations involved in these activities are issues that need to be explored generally(Demiryurek et al,2008) in poultry production specifically.
The problem of the usage of poultry drugs is a great one and emphasis on it cannot be too much at this time when the nations’ agriculture is undergoing transformation in the Agriculture Transformation Agenda (ATA) in the economy of this nation.

The rural/village poultry system in Nigeria typically lacks access to organized health inputs. The structure of the rural poultry production system has constrained attempts to institute health extension services. Small flock size, mixed age and species flock composition, improper housing, scavenging, among other factors have made the use of conventional schedule-oriented health inputs like medication and vaccination difficult.(Kolawole, 2001). This study here will provide answers to the questions that borders on information sources on farmers knowledge and usage of poultry drugs in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria.
Some of the specific questions this research is poised to answer are: 
What are the socio-economic characteristics of poultry farmers in Edo and Delta states?
What are the various sources of information on poultry drugs available to respondents in Edo and Delta states?
What are the respondents accesses and preferences for poultry drugs usage information source?
What are the respondents awareness for the effects of poultry drugs usage?
What are the constraints respondents faces in sourcing and adopting poultry drugs information?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to access the influence of information sources on farmers knowledge and usage of poultry drugs in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to;
identify the social economic characteristics of poultry farmers in the study area;
ascertain respondents on poultry drug information sources, access, preference and usage;
assess respondents’ knowledge on the effects of poultry drugs usage; and
examine constraints respondents face in sourcing and adop ting poultry drugs information and in application of poultry drugs.
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
There is no significant relationship between the social economic characteristics of poultry farmers and their access to various sources of information

GENDER ROLES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN RUBBER PRODUCTION IN EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Agriculture started with the early men who through the act of hunting discovered that animals caught in traps alive, and kept for future consumption, began to give birth to young ones. They also observed that the wild fruits they travel to a distance to get, and consumed that the seeds thrown around the neighborhood germinated. This is how the sense of rearing animals and cultivation of crops began (Agriculture). Agriculture is very important to every nations of the world. In Nigeria, for example, over 70% of the population earns their living through agriculture or it related occupation. In spite of this Nigeria’s population is still underfed in terms of protein giving foods which results in malnutrition especially among children. 
Agriculture is a dominant activity in the rural areas of Nigeria (Onyeabor and Alimba, 2006). According to National Institute for Socio-Economic Survey (NISER, 2003), there are about 40 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and providing employment directly or indirectly to over 71 percent of the Nigeria population. One of the major problems facing Nigeria today is the need to transform her agricultural system from one depending on traditional inputs with high productivity. This will enable her meet the rising expectations of her rural and urban area. The fact that men and women play an important role in agriculture production is an issue to be reckoned with.
Natural rubber (Heavea brasiliensis) which is traditionally native to the Amazon jungle of South America was introduced to Nigeria from England around 1895, with the first rubber estate established in Sapele in the present day Delta State in 1903. (Giroh et al., 2004). By 1925, there were already thousands of hectares of rubber estates that were predominantly owned by Europeans in Southern Nigeria. 
It should be noted that Nigeria has a very vast potential for rubber production especially in many of the southern states in the country where the vegetative and climatic conditions are suitable for its production. Aigbokaen et al., (2000), Abolagba and Giroh (2006) noted that rubber can be grown extensively in Edo, Delta, Ogun, Ondo, Abia, Anambra, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River, Imo, Ebonyi and Rivers states where the annual rainfall range between 1800mm and 2000mm per annum. Rubber is grown in Edo State and large quantities are grown in small areas like Iguorhiaki, Ehor, Irrua in Esan Central Local Government Area.
Harvesting is done when it has attained the age of 6-7 years when the trees are considered matured and have attained a girth circumference of 45cm at a height of 150cm from the ground. The situation in Nigeria presently pretends to drift from being a major exporter of rubber products into becoming a net importer in the nearest future.
Rubber contributes basically three functions in the Nigerian economy in terms of providing raw materials for agro-based industries, foreign exchange earnings and in the provision of employment. With regards to the provision of raw materials, it should be noted that the uses to which rubber can be put is almost innumerable. The latex from rubber is a vital material in the automobile industry as it is used in the manufacture of tyre, car bumpers, transmission belt, car mat, seats etc. The latex is also used for the manufacture of adhesive, baby feeding bottle teat, condom, domestic and industrial gloves, balloons, eraser among others (Abolagba et al, 2003).
Furthermore, the rubber seeds when processed produce oil alkyd resins used for paints, soap, skin cream and hair shampoo. The rubber seed cake left as residue after oil is extracted from the seed is also valuable in compounding livestock feeds (Fasina, 1998).
Technology adoption as a process that begins with awareness of the technology and progresses through a series of steps that ends in appropriate and effective usage. Technology users differ widely in their attitudes towards technology and in their skills, ranging from early adopters who will master even the most difficult technology through to people who will never adopt. Technology adoption is important because it is the vehicle that allows most people to participate in a rapidly changing world where technology has become central to our lives. The various activities involved in rubber production are carried out by men, women and youths.
Gender refers to socially assigned roles and behaviours attributable to men and women (Deji, 2011). In most societies, men and women have distinct roles with in the farming system. Gender differences in rural farming households, vary widely across cultures but certain features are common. Women tend to concentrate their agricultural activities around the homestead, primarily because of their domestic and reproductive roles. They play a critical role in food production. Post harvest activities or livestock care, Akinsanya (2002) suggested that certain activities are regarded as male or female. In some setting, a rigid division of labor exists between men and women. Household members have separate income and expenditure while in another area, division of labor and specialization of tasks are less rigid and not skewed (Solomon 1995). 
Historically, the role and responsibilities of men and women were differentiated to a large extent in the society. Ekong (2003) concluded that no tasks were gender specific except child bearing. The colonial influence in Nigeria in the 50s contributed to initial neglect of women in the agricultural sector. The extension services at that time emphasized the production of cash crops that were exported to their countries as industrial materials and men were found to be predominantly involved. At this period Olagogun (2001) suggested that men select land first hence, they select the most productive part leaving women with land that are either being over used or land that are prone to erosion or degradation, so invariably, women become victims of unproductive land. This mode of temporary land acquisition also prevents women from planting permanent crops like fruits, trees, oil-palm, cocoa, coffee, rubber and other cash crops.
Based on the aforementioned scenario, involvement of men and women in soil management practices is expected to be different. However, recently, many Nigerian women are increasable involved in soil management according to Decjene (2003), due to the fact that both male and female farmers would like to increase their production and one of the best ways of doing this is to effectively manage soil using both the traditional practices such as bush fallowing, mulching, terracing, addition of manure, crop rotation etc and improved practices such as fertilizer application, also studies had shown that some of the constraints facing male and female farmers are gender- specific according to Abera (2003), Decjene (2003) and world bank (2007). Hence, the need to assess the roles of arable crop farmers in soil management practices across gender becomes very imperative with a view to increasing food production in the study area.
Women have been shown to have minor influence in cropping patterns, they play major roles in processing and marketing farm products (Dossc Sofa Team (2007), for rubber crucial, although it is difficult to assess who make the final decision of when to harvest rubber, responses to previous surveys indicate that women play role in the decision. They know the market price more and better than men and more aware of home food requirement (Mayoux, 2011). There is the need for small scale farmers to adopt improved production technologies, varieties, methods of storage, processing and utilization of product. 
It is however, pathetic that with the enormous potential resources that can be generated from rubber production, the crop has been neglected over the years, according to Abolagba and Giroh (2006). 
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Rubber production is highly dominated by a number of small scale farmers in our rural areas and the y are mostly women who depend mostly on their traditional methods of farming. (Tanko 1993 – 1995) observed that women play role in the productive work on the farm.
According to Tanko, (1993-1995) out of 95% small scale farmers in Nigeria who actually feed the nation, 55% of them are women who still depend mostly on traditional planting materials which gives low yield and high susceptibility such as vulcanization, burning old tires in power plant releases thousands of toxins into the air. Fire trace, width of not less than 30m, weed control, manually, chemically or mechanically, establishment and maintenance of ground cover, mulching, water irrigation, pruning, regular control of pest and disease, fertilizer application. To reverse this, various institutions such as International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) have developed and distributed improved technologies of rubber tapping, collecting of latex, processing, storage and utilization of rubber and its products. 
In spite of all these, rubber yield is still low and confronted with constraints. Men and women farmers remain at the same level of production as a result of their lack of understanding of these new technologies, availability of inputs for production, ownership of land among demand. Based on this background, the following questions will be addressed. The questions are as follows:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of men and women rubber farmers’? 
What are the activities performed in rubber production?
What are the roles of men and women in rubber production?
What is the extent or adoption on rubber technologies?
What are the constraints to role performances in rubber production?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective are to examine the gender roles and technology adoption in Rubber Production in Edo State, Nigeria. This will be achieved through the following specific objectives.
To describe the socio-economic characteristics of the rubber farmers by genders in the study area.
To identify the activities performed in rubber productions 
To examine gender roles in rubber production.
To identify sources of information on rubber production 
Examine technology adoption among gender categories in rubber production.
To identify the constraints faced by men and women in rubber production. 
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There is no relationship between the socio-economic characteristics and the gender involvement in rubber production.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and adoption of rubber technology.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between the involvement of male and female in rubber production.
1.5 Justification
Several studies have been carried out on the general contribution of gender performance in Agriculture in Nigeria. However, not much work has been designed in the area of identifying the gender role played in rubber production in Edo state. 
This paper therefore provides and insight into this area by examining men and women’s role in rubber production in the study area. Sensing with the processing of latex for example, there are already open markets for men and women farmers. Locally in the study area, it is envisaged that the result of this work would be established for future assessment and evaluation.

ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION PRACTICES AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN EDO CENTRAL ZONE, EDO STATE,NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is a major sector of the Nigerian economy, providing employment for about 70% of the population. The agricultural sector is the mainstay of the economy though her development funds at present derive more from Petroleum oil and Gas exploration (Ifeanyi-obi et al., 2012). It is the principal source of food and livelihood especially in rural areas.
Agriculture in Nigeria as in most other developing countries is dominated by small scale farmers (Oladeebo, 2004). Small holder farmers constitute 80% of the farming population in the country (Awoke and Okorji, 2004). These farmers produce on subsistence level with the objectives of satisfying household food needs and little surplus for sale (Awoke et al., 2004).
Although the agricultural sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large scale enterprise levels, the country is still faced with a number of constraints. According to International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2008), the constraints include poor agricultural pricing and low fertilizer use, low access to agricultural credit, land tenure insecurity and land degradation, poverty and gender issues, low and unstable investment in agricultural research as well as poor market  access and marketing efficiency. In addition to these, climate and weather parameters have consistently been changing.
Climate refers to the average or typical weather conditions observed over a long period of time (usually over 30 years) for a give area (Spencer, 2009). The classical period is 30 years as defined by the World Metrological Organization (WMO). Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric partial count and other metrological elemental measurement in a given region. On the other hand, climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over period ranging from decades to million of years (Wikipedia, 2010).
Climate change and Agriculture are inter-related processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions affecting Agriculture. These conditions include temperature, carbon dioxide, glacial run off, precipitation and their interactions are of significant importance. These changes in climate have had negative effects on agriculture over the years with arable crops not left out. Between 1996 and 2003, world grain production has stabilized over 1.8 billion tones. From 2000 to 2003, grain stocks have been dropping, resulting in a global grain harvest that was short of consumption by 93 million of tons in 2003 (Wikipedia, 2010). There has also been a reduction in harvest of these crops.
In recent times, farmers have devised several methods and indigenous technologies to mitigate the effect of climate change. In south-western Nigeria, Research have shown various adaptive measures (Apata et al, 2009). The major adaptation technologies and innovators identified include irrigation (Fadama), Afforestation, use of drought tolerant crop varieties and organic practices in form of manuring, mulching and fallowing as well as planting- date adjustment and timely harvesting of crops. However, these measures are not free of constraint. The constraints observed included lack of finance, low level of awareness about climate change, low level of technology, high illiteracy level and difficulty in getting accurate result (Apata et al., 2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been predicted that the resultant increase in temperature due to climate change will accelerate physiological development resulting in hastened maturation and reduced yield (FAO, 2005). It is also a well known fact that the occurrence of moisture stress resulting from drought, during flowing, pollination and grain filling is harmful to most arable crops. Growing seasons are expected to become shorter as temperature increases e.g rice yield starts decreasing at over 340c. It has also been noted that food production in Africa could half by 2020 (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, extreme weather events (climate change) such as thunder storm, flood, heavy rainfall and heavy wind are detrimental to agricultural activities in crops, livestock and humans. These often lead to failure of crops and incidence of pests and diseases due to migration in response to climate change and variation. 
Nigeria is an Agrarian Economy with 75% small farmers accounting for the nation’s agricultural output (Bello, 2009). There are about 200,000 largely peasant farm families in Edo State who produce 80% of the crops consumed (www.edostate.gov.ng/commercialagriculture). Most of these farmers depend solely on the natural weather conditions for production and therefore need effective adaptive and mitigating measures to cope with these changes. The Edo state ADP and intervention programmes like National Fadama Development Project (NFDP), National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) and NGOs are in place to deliver extension services to farmers in all aspects of agriculture. However, it could not be categorically stated that they disseminate climate change adaptation and mitigation practices/information to farmers particularly on arable crops. Farmers have been using various measures over the years as coping strategies which are either indigenous or improved. It is in this light that the study investigated the climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in Edo Central Zone, Edo state by answering the following questions:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area?
Are the farmers aware of climate change issues?
In what ways is arable crop production affected by climate change?
What is the extent of usage and effectiveness of the mitigating and adaptive measures employed by the farmers?
What are the challenges faced in using these measures?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in the study area. The specific objectives of the study were to:
Examine the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area; 
Assess farmers awareness of climate change issues;
Examine the effect of climate change on arable crop production;
Examine the adaptive and mitigating measures used by the farmers, how often they are used and how effective they are; 
Identify the constraints to the use of these measures
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The importance of agricultural sector of any economy cannot be over-emphasized as food security is a major issue in developing the economy of any Nation. Food security helps to promote self-sufficiency, healthy and efficient labour force. Considering the large percentage of individuals involved in agriculture in the country, the effect of climate change on the sector which serves as a means of livelihood and source of foreign exchange, cannot be over looked. The effects of climate change requires efficient adaptive and mitigating measures. This study will shed light on climate change mitigating practices used by arable crop farmers in the study area. The study also aims at exposing the constraints to the use of these measures in the study area. Furthermore, it is hoped that the result of the study will help the Edo state Government to formulate policies that will help farmers with efficient adaptive measures and improve arable crop production in general. It is also expected that the result of the study will help the Federal Government formulate climate change policies for different agro-ecological zones of the country.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
There is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and awareness of climate change issues
There is no significant relationship between respondent socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effect of climate change
There is no significant difference between male and female respondents with respect to the perceived effect of climate change.
There is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptation practices.

PERCEPTION OF EXTENSION SERVICE DELIVERY AMONG COCO-YAM FARMERS IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Extension has been defined as a process directed to bring about changes in the behavior and life style of farmers and rural people. Farm families have seen to be helped to improve step by step (Johnson, 2003). According to Adereti and Ajayi (2005), extension can be defined as an informal out of school system of education designated to help rural people to satisfy their needs interest and desires.
Communication in agricultural extension leads to improve agricultural production of crops and livestock’s through giving relevant information about pest and diseases, also to give relevant information’s about proven agricultural technologies according to Fliese (1984), Communication is a vital issue in agriculture, conveying, improve and recommended agricultural practices through extension workers to clients in order to improve on their agricultural production and in marketing of their produce (Williams, 1989). On the other hand, agricultural extension is an out of school education for rural people. An extension agent is responsible for providing knowledge and information on particular innovations and through communication, he passes such, to farmers. (Ajayi and Gunn 2009)
According to Remison (2005). The term Coco-yam (colocasia esculentus and xanthosoma sagittifolium) is used to refer collectively to member of genus colocasia and the genus xanthosoma which are grown for food in many parts of Africa, especially the wetter parts. They are grown in small plots, often intercropped with food or cash crops. They are volunteer crops in many places and can be classified as minor crops considering the level of attention given to them by farmers. The plants of both species are similar, but the long and short petiole of colocasia is attached to the leaf blade at same point in the middle of the blade not to its edge. The plant of xanthosoma are larger and the leaves are sagittate with triangular basal lobes. They are more prolific in growth and earlier than colocosia. Some authorities refers to colocosia as old coco-yam and xanthosoma as new cocoyam. Taro originated in south central Asia from where it spread to the rest of Africa. Tannia originated in central and south America and were it was first cultivated. There, it was introduced to Africa in the nineteen century, much later than taro. Hence, it is sometimes called new cocoyam. About three quarters of world production comes from Africa and there is probably a greater production of tannia than taro.
According to Onwuere, and Sinba (1991), Law and Peter (2012). Cocoyam has the following uses: fresh corms and cormels of cocoyam can be consumed after being boiled, baked or roasted or fried in oil, boiled corms and cormels are pounded into a paste (“fufu”), similarly, to pounded yam eaten with stew or soup; cocoyam leaves are used for human food, eaten as vegetables in the various part of the world, including several countries in the tropics as it is very nutritious with 20% protein on a dry weight basis, with appreciable amounts of vitamins and minerals, leaves must not be eaten raw but boiled before consumption as it is irritating if eaten raw, corms and leaves of cocoyam can be used as animal feeds, the leaves should be converted to silage before using as a feed top prevent irritation to the animals; the corms of tannia are reserved as planting materials as the corms tend to be woody, coco yam; used as flour after processing by peeling, slicing, (fresh or cooked), drying and milling into flour, cocoyam used as poi after processing by cooking, mashing, stroning bargging (where slight fermentation occur), young shorts of cocoyam’s are sometimes balanced and eaten like asparagus, cocoyam is used for cellulous, soup a favour dish in Trinidad, is made by boiling the chopped up tannia of the leaf with okra, herm and crops, which is now being canned. The peel of cocoyam can be utilized as feed for ruminants rather than been discarded. Taro is used specially for the potentially allegic persons for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorder.
The people in Edo State consumes cocoyam as a form of dish-popularly known as “porage”. The cocoyam is produced within and all over the state, especially in areas like Iguere, Ehor, Ugiehudu, Oke, Orua, Agboinkaka, Odiguetue Iruckpen Irue etc.
As part of extension delivery, the Edo State ADP on it own has extended its communication services to farmer in some villages earlier mention where cocoyam farmers now practiced or carry out other crops. However, at Oke, Ehor, Iruekpen, Orua, Iguere which are in Orhomwon, Esan south – west and uhumwode local government areas, success has been found within the cocoyam farmers, as they now used it particularly for major cover crops for tree crops like cocoa, rubber, plantain, cola, palm, hence they have added values as the leaves of cocoyam helps in absorbing thunder lighting and acts as shade and smodar of weeds and shade for tree crops thereby assisting them in minimizing used of land, labour and capital (maintenance cultural practices in crop production), 
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Cocoyam nutritionally, haven’t seen it as very rich in carbohydrate, protein, minerals, vitamins and it high medicinal value especially when the succulent tender leaves are slice and cooks as vegetables soup for consumption, this crop as a matter of fact, serves in some other ways, such as cover crop for some permanent crops such as cola, palm oil, rubber, cocoa, in their young growth stages, haven’t know it to be an arable crop. But a lot of people under estimate it, and opts not to have considered it useful and profitable just like yam or cassava, plantain. However, because of these attributes, cocoyam has it and will fit into federal government food security programme, especially as it is obvious as noted by the growing population in the country is experiencing food defects that has caused the Nigerian government to have spent a lot of money in Nigeria industries. Therefore cocoyam as a crop should be given priority for extension, going by it value in nutritional, medicinal, industrial benefits hence questions researchers sorts to answer are:
1. What are the socio-economics characteristics?
2. Will cocoyam production technologies be introduced to farmer by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) and through what means or information sources?
3. What is the level of adoption of Agricultural Information?
4. What is the attitude of farmer towards technology information on cocoyam?
5. What constraint farmers have in adopting the technologies in cocoyam production?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study was to assess the perception of extension communication among coco yam farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. 
The specific objectives of the study were to:
examine socio-economic characteristics of cocoyam farmers in the study area;
identify cocoyam production technologies introduced to farmers by ADP, and through what information source;
determine t he level of adoption of information;
determine the attitude of farmers towards information received; and
identify constraints faced by respondents in adopting cocoyam technologies. 
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of the study is stated in the null form as follows: 
There is no significant difference between respondents, socio-economic characteristics and frequency of seeking information, technology utilization, awareness and adoption of cocoyam technologies. 
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is importance because its recommendation will be useful to government, policy makers, ADP, farmers individuals and researchers in areas of decision making and implementation with regard to cocoyam farmer’s perception on technologies utilization, sourcing and adoption. It will be a source of empirical data on level of technology utilization, hence, it enrich database of cocoyam production in Edo State, Nigeria. 

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) AMONG STAFF OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is an important economic sector, since it provides income and food for a large segment of the population in developing countries. It plays a key role in the socio-economic development of many developing countries. For Agriculture to play these key roles successfully, farmers need to be properly informed in order to take rational decisions with respect to the adoption of improved agricultural technologies.
According to FAO (2000), much information is unavailable or inaccessible particularly to poor farmers, many practical lessons have been learnt but not shared and there are few opportunities for dialogue to enable concerns to be resolved. The agricultural sector needs technologies that can make information available and easily accessible to farmers and agricultural professionals. Hence, the accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
The term Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) refer to hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, and transmission in the formats of voice, data, text, and images (World Bank ICT Glossary Guide). As such, the nature of ICTs is diverse ranging from telephones, radios, and television to more technologies such as internet technologies, mobile telephony, computers and databases. This diversity means that they can be used by people with varying degrees of skills, although the current trends towards sophisticated applications are more and more demanding on the end users. The primary purpose of ICTs is to provide an enabling environment for the generation of ideas, their dissemination and use. Through ICTs, the diffusion and sharing of knowledge is enabled through open access to information and better coordination of knowledge. ICT facilitates the creation of networks locally, regionally and globally.
Farmers require information to link various inputs at reasonable prices and also link output markets. (Adekunle et al 2004). A combination of the two may increase farmer’s income. (Arokoyo, 2005) noted that a strong extension linkage complimented by flawless information flow enhanced by the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will significantly boost agricultural production and improve rural methods in developing countries. The role of ICT is also recognized in millennium development goal no. 8 (MDG 8), which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies especially information and communication technologies in the fight against poverty. They are also required to make the world a global village.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension worker who have been trained in various disciplines in agriculture and rural development. They play the critical role of linking technology sources to technology end users, that is, the farmers. This definition goes beyond the traditional role of extension workers to include assessment and articulation of farmers’ technology needs, research and development of new technology testing and evaluation of new technology and transferring it to farmers. In particular, agricultural professionals have a crucial role to play in bridging the technology gap that exists between the existing scientific knowledge base and information and knowledge in the hands of farmers. The institutions that engage the personnel provide facilities which could enhance the performance of their duties as research and extension personnel. 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The ICTs involve the use of many electronic based communication systems such as computers, radios, televisions, Global System of Mobile communication (GSM). It is obvious that it is new in agricultural extension and rural development (Omotayo, 2005). Agricultural professionals use ICTs for data processing, access of agricultural related information for (experimentation) and dissemination to farmers. The agricultural professionals in different types of institutions no doubt have need and have been using ICTs, for various activities. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), for instance as an international institution, in order to achieve her mandates of generating proven technologies across African countries require ICTs to enhance performance of staff. This also applies to National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) and Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP) which have national and state mandates respectively. Considering the importance of ICTs to agricultural research and extension, this study therefore assessed the access and use of ICTs by the agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo State. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly seen as essential tools in development projects that can create new sources of income, make governments more transparent and accessible, improve education and health care, and overcome social exclusion and discrimination. To harness these potentials, multinational hi-tech corporations are forming public-private partnerships with governments, development institutions and civil society organization in the delivery, of ICTs to the rural masses.
Kiplangat (2003) affirms that ICTs have become a driving force in development, providing a means of narrowing the information gap between developed and developing countries and among their communities. The accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
Agriculture in Africa if revitalized properly can drive the wheels of rural economy and to some extent even the urban economy as the urban dwellers depend on rural farmers for food. Rural farmers whom the majority is small-scale farmers contribute about 80% to the region’s food basket. However, these farmers are faced with constrained market access, which includes physical access to markets and lack of information. It is difficult for the farmers to market and achieve commodity exchanges if communication is encumbered. Limited access to market due to lack of information on available markets is retarding development in rural areas. Therefore, it becomes very difficult for small-scale farmers on developing countries to penetrate the international markets. In short, the big markets determine the prices without considering the high production costs incurred by the less advantaged subsistence farmers in developing countries. 
The study, therefore, provided answers to questions such as 
What are the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals in Ibadan?
What is the level of awareness of ICTs by the agricultural professionals? 
How accessible are the ICTs tools among the agricultural professional?
What is the extent of the respondents in the use of ICTs for identified activities by the respondents?
What is the competency of the respondents in the use of ICTs?
What are the factors militating against the use of ICTs by the respondents?
What are the factors motivating the use of ICTs by the respondents?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess the access and usage of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo state. 
The specific objectives include to; 
examine the personal characteristics of the agricultural professionals; 
assess the level of awareness of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan;
determine the accessibility of ICTs tools among these professionals;
determine the extent of use of ICTs for identified activities among agricultural professionals;
determine the competence of respondents in ICTs usage; 
examine the factors militating against the use of ICTs tools; and 
examine the facto rs motivating the use of ICTs tools;
1.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and access to ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals and the use of ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and competence in the use of ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the professionals in the institutions with respect to accessibility to ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the respondents in the institutions with respect to the use for technical activities.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between professionals in the institutions with respect to competence in the use of ICTs.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study was primarily necessitated by the benefits inherent in using information and communication technology by agricultural professionals to reach the farmers. There is a need to exploit strategies for effective and timely delivery of information to farmers. 
The suggestions from the study could enhance effective and timely dissemination of improved agricultural technologies to farmers which would boost agricultural production. 
This study will be of great relevance and concern to the agricultural researchers, extension workers, policy makers and government agencies that have the mandate to improve agricultural extension delivery in the country and specifically in IITA, NIHORT and Oyo ADP. The study will be of great relevance to policy makers, as it will help in the formulation of policies concerning information dissemination in the agricultural sector, having revealed the actual information and communication technologies (ICTs) accessed and used by the agricultural professionals.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension workers who have been trained in various disciples in agriculture and rural development.

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) AMONG STAFF OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is an important economic sector, since it provides income and food for a large segment of the population in developing countries. It plays a key role in the socio-economic development of many developing countries. For Agriculture to play these key roles successfully, farmers need to be properly informed in order to take rational decisions with respect to the adoption of improved agricultural technologies.
According to FAO (2000), much information is unavailable or inaccessible particularly to poor farmers, many practical lessons have been learnt but not shared and there are few opportunities for dialogue to enable concerns to be resolved. The agricultural sector needs technologies that can make information available and easily accessible to farmers and agricultural professionals. Hence, the accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
The term Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) refer to hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, and transmission in the formats of voice, data, text, and images (World Bank ICT Glossary Guide). As such, the nature of ICTs is diverse ranging from telephones, radios, and television to more technologies such as internet technologies, mobile telephony, computers and databases. This diversity means that they can be used by people with varying degrees of skills, although the current trends towards sophisticated applications are more and more demanding on the end users. The primary purpose of ICTs is to provide an enabling environment for the generation of ideas, their dissemination and use. Through ICTs, the diffusion and sharing of knowledge is enabled through open access to information and better coordination of knowledge. ICT facilitates the creation of networks locally, regionally and globally.
Farmers require information to link various inputs at reasonable prices and also link output markets. (Adekunle et al 2004). A combination of the two may increase farmer’s income. (Arokoyo, 2005) noted that a strong extension linkage complimented by flawless information flow enhanced by the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will significantly boost agricultural production and improve rural methods in developing countries. The role of ICT is also recognized in millennium development goal no. 8 (MDG 8), which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies especially information and communication technologies in the fight against poverty. They are also required to make the world a global village.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension worker who have been trained in various disciplines in agriculture and rural development. They play the critical role of linking technology sources to technology end users, that is, the farmers. This definition goes beyond the traditional role of extension workers to include assessment and articulation of farmers’ technology needs, research and development of new technology testing and evaluation of new technology and transferring it to farmers. In particular, agricultural professionals have a crucial role to play in bridging the technology gap that exists between the existing scientific knowledge base and information and knowledge in the hands of farmers. The institutions that engage the personnel provide facilities which could enhance the performance of their duties as research and extension personnel. 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The ICTs involve the use of many electronic based communication systems such as computers, radios, televisions, Global System of Mobile communication (GSM). It is obvious that it is new in agricultural extension and rural development (Omotayo, 2005). Agricultural professionals use ICTs for data processing, access of agricultural related information for (experimentation) and dissemination to farmers. The agricultural professionals in different types of institutions no doubt have need and have been using ICTs, for various activities. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), for instance as an international institution, in order to achieve her mandates of generating proven technologies across African countries require ICTs to enhance performance of staff. This also applies to National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) and Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP) which have national and state mandates respectively. Considering the importance of ICTs to agricultural research and extension, this study therefore assessed the access and use of ICTs by the agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo State. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly seen as essential tools in development projects that can create new sources of income, make governments more transparent and accessible, improve education and health care, and overcome social exclusion and discrimination. To harness these potentials, multinational hi-tech corporations are forming public-private partnerships with governments, development institutions and civil society organization in the delivery, of ICTs to the rural masses.
Kiplangat (2003) affirms that ICTs have become a driving force in development, providing a means of narrowing the information gap between developed and developing countries and among their communities. The accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
Agriculture in Africa if revitalized properly can drive the wheels of rural economy and to some extent even the urban economy as the urban dwellers depend on rural farmers for food. Rural farmers whom the majority is small-scale farmers contribute about 80% to the region’s food basket. However, these farmers are faced with constrained market access, which includes physical access to markets and lack of information. It is difficult for the farmers to market and achieve commodity exchanges if communication is encumbered. Limited access to market due to lack of information on available markets is retarding development in rural areas. Therefore, it becomes very difficult for small-scale farmers on developing countries to penetrate the international markets. In short, the big markets determine the prices without considering the high production costs incurred by the less advantaged subsistence farmers in developing countries. 
The study, therefore, provided answers to questions such as 
What are the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals in Ibadan?
What is the level of awareness of ICTs by the agricultural professionals? 
How accessible are the ICTs tools among the agricultural professional?
What is the extent of the respondents in the use of ICTs for identified activities by the respondents?
What is the competency of the respondents in the use of ICTs?
What are the factors militating against the use of ICTs by the respondents?
What are the factors motivating the use of ICTs by the respondents?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess the access and usage of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo state. 
The specific objectives include to; 
examine the personal characteristics of the agricultural professionals; 
assess the level of awareness of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan;
determine the accessibility of ICTs tools among these professionals;
determine the extent of use of ICTs for identified activities among agricultural professionals;
determine the competence of respondents in ICTs usage; 
examine the factors militating against the use of ICTs tools; and 
examine the facto rs motivating the use of ICTs tools;
1.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and access to ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals and the use of ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and competence in the use of ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the professionals in the institutions with respect to accessibility to ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the respondents in the institutions with respect to the use for technical activities.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between professionals in the institutions with respect to competence in the use of ICTs.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study was primarily necessitated by the benefits inherent in using information and communication technology by agricultural professionals to reach the farmers. There is a need to exploit strategies for effective and timely delivery of information to farmers. 
The suggestions from the study could enhance effective and timely dissemination of improved agricultural technologies to farmers which would boost agricultural production. 
This study will be of great relevance and concern to the agricultural researchers, extension workers, policy makers and government agencies that have the mandate to improve agricultural extension delivery in the country and specifically in IITA, NIHORT and Oyo ADP. The study will be of great relevance to policy makers, as it will help in the formulation of policies concerning information dissemination in the agricultural sector, having revealed the actual information and communication technologies (ICTs) accessed and used by the agricultural professionals.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension workers who have been trained in various disciples in agriculture and rural development.

ASSESSMENT OF VALUE CHAIN INFORMATION SOURCES IN PIG PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Extension has been defined as a process directed to bring about changes in the behavior and life style of farmers and rural people. Farm families have seen to be helped to improve step by step (Johnson, 2003). According to Adereti and Ajayi (2005), extension can be defined as an informal out of school system of education designated to help rural people to satisfy their needs interest and desires.
Communication in agricultural extension leads to improve agricultural production of crops and livestock’s through giving relevant information about pest and diseases, also to give relevant information’s about proven agricultural technologies according to Fliese (1984), Communication is a vital issue in agriculture, conveying, improve and recommended agricultural practices through extension workers to clients in order to improve on their agricultural production and in marketing of their produce (Williams, 1989). On the other hand, agricultural extension is an out of school education for rural people. An extension agent is responsible for providing knowledge and information on particular innovations and through communication, he passes such, to farmers. (Ajayi and Gunn 2009)
According to Remison (2005). The term Coco-yam (colocasia esculentus and xanthosoma sagittifolium) is used to refer collectively to member of genus colocasia and the genus xanthosoma which are grown for food in many parts of Africa, especially the wetter parts. They are grown in small plots, often intercropped with food or cash crops. They are volunteer crops in many places and can be classified as minor crops considering the level of attention given to them by farmers. The plants of both species are similar, but the long and short petiole of colocasia is attached to the leaf blade at same point in the middle of the blade not to its edge. The plant of xanthosoma are larger and the leaves are sagittate with triangular basal lobes. They are more prolific in growth and earlier than colocosia. Some authorities refers to colocosia as old coco-yam and xanthosoma as new cocoyam. Taro originated in south central Asia from where it spread to the rest of Africa. Tannia originated in central and south America and were it was first cultivated. There, it was introduced to Africa in the nineteen century, much later than taro. Hence, it is sometimes called new cocoyam. About three quarters of world production comes from Africa and there is probably a greater production of tannia than taro.
According to Onwuere, and Sinba (1991), Law and Peter (2012). Cocoyam has the following uses: fresh corms and cormels of cocoyam can be consumed after being boiled, baked or roasted or fried in oil, boiled corms and cormels are pounded into a paste (“fufu”), similarly, to pounded yam eaten with stew or soup; cocoyam leaves are used for human food, eaten as vegetables in the various part of the world, including several countries in the tropics as it is very nutritious with 20% protein on a dry weight basis, with appreciable amounts of vitamins and minerals, leaves must not be eaten raw but boiled before consumption as it is irritating if eaten raw, corms and leaves of cocoyam can be used as animal feeds, the leaves should be converted to silage before using as a feed top prevent irritation to the animals; the corms of tannia are reserved as planting materials as the corms tend to be woody, coco yam; used as flour after processing by peeling, slicing, (fresh or cooked), drying and milling into flour, cocoyam used as poi after processing by cooking, mashing, stroning bargging (where slight fermentation occur), young shorts of cocoyam’s are sometimes balanced and eaten like asparagus, cocoyam is used for cellulous, soup a favour dish in Trinidad, is made by boiling the chopped up tannia of the leaf with okra, herm and crops, which is now being canned. The peel of cocoyam can be utilized as feed for ruminants rather than been discarded. Taro is used specially for the potentially allegic persons for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorder.
The people in Edo State consumes cocoyam as a form of dish-popularly known as “porage”. The cocoyam is produced within and all over the state, especially in areas like Iguere, Ehor, Ugiehudu, Oke, Orua, Agboinkaka, Odiguetue Iruckpen Irue etc.
As part of extension delivery, the Edo State ADP on it own has extended its communication services to farmer in some villages earlier mention where cocoyam farmers now practiced or carry out other crops. However, at Oke, Ehor, Iruekpen, Orua, Iguere which are in Orhomwon, Esan south – west and uhumwode local government areas, success has been found within the cocoyam farmers, as they now used it particularly for major cover crops for tree crops like cocoa, rubber, plantain, cola, palm, hence they have added values as the leaves of cocoyam helps in absorbing thunder lighting and acts as shade and smodar of weeds and shade for tree crops thereby assisting them in minimizing used of land, labour and capital (maintenance cultural practices in crop production), 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Cocoyam nutritionally, haven’t seen it as very rich in carbohydrate, protein, minerals, vitamins and it high medicinal value especially when the succulent tender leaves are slice and cooks as vegetables soup for consumption, this crop as a matter of fact, serves in some other ways, such as cover crop for some permanent crops such as cola, palm oil, rubber, cocoa, in their young growth stages, haven’t know it to be an arable crop. But a lot of people under estimate it, and opts not to have considered it useful and profitable just like yam or cassava, plantain. However, because of these attributes, cocoyam has it and will fit into federal government food security programme, especially as it is obvious as noted by the growing population in the country is experiencing food defects that has caused the Nigerian government to have spent a lot of money in Nigeria industries. Therefore cocoyam as a crop should be given priority for extension, going by it value in nutritional, medicinal, industrial benefits hence questions researchers sorts to answer are:
1. What are the socio-economics characteristics?
2. Will cocoyam production technologies be introduced to farmer by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) and through what means or information sources?
3. What is the level of adoption of Agricultural Information?
4. What is the attitude of farmer towards technology information on cocoyam?
5. What constraint farmers have in adopting the technologies in cocoyam production?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study was to assess the perception of extension communication among coco yam farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. 
The specific objectives of the study were to:
examine socio-economic characteristics of cocoyam farmers in the study area;
identify cocoyam production technologies introduced to farmers by ADP, and through what information source;
determine the level of adoption of information;
determine the attitude of farmers towards information received; and
identify constraints faced by respondents in adopting cocoyam technologies. 
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of the study is stated in the null form as follows: 
There is no significant difference between respondents, socio-economic characteristics and frequency of seeking information, technology utilization, awareness and adoption of cocoyam technologies. 
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is importance because its recommendation will be useful to government, policy makers, ADP, farmers individuals and researchers in areas of decision making and implementation with regard to cocoyam farmer’s perception on technologies utilization, sourcing and adoption. It will be a source of empirical data on level of technology utilization, hence, it enrich database of cocoyam production in Edo St ate, Nigeria. 

EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF STANDARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON YIELD OF URBAN FISH FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unsafe Food Marketing and its Economic Implication in Nigeria 
Agriculture and the food industry have remained strategic sectors of the economy of many nations. Agriculture plays a vital role in human development, growth and survival of nations. The issues of food production in terms of availability, accessibility, wholesomeness and nutrient quality has been the concern of many developing nations. “Food” is any substance or material eaten to provide nutritional support for the body and usually consists of plant or animal origin that contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins or minerals. Foods are product derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues (Whitney and Rolfes, 2005). 
Food is a commodity which contain nutrients and is thus nutritive, susceptible of satisfying appetite, thus palatable and accepted as food in the society being considered thus customary. Safety is defined as setting standards for toxicological and microbiological hazards, and instituting procedures and practices to ensure that the standards are achieved (FAO/WHO, 1991). 
Food safety therefore describes the handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness and it is also the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. This include a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards (FAO/WHO, 1992). 
Food is a necessity and accounts for significant expenditure in households all over the world. It features prominently in both national and international commerce. Food affect our biological life as well as our material interest. The task of keeping our food supply steady and safe is therefore, an important issue concerning all. Food safety is a complex and diversified subject, involving the cooperation of scientists, industrialists, agriculturalists, businessmen, administrators and consumers (FAO/WHO, 1980). 
At the heart of all food control activities is the establishment of safety, quality and labeling standards. These should be established on the broadest possible scale, in the recognition that food production and marketing is truly a global industry. A food is said to have quality if it provides sensory characteristics such as the taste, aroma, palatability and appearance.
Food quality is the multi-component measure of the extent to which the units of a food product which a seller is willing and able to offer at a price, consistently meet the requirements and expectations of consumers willing and able to buy the food product at that price. Quality of a given product may be looked at as its conformity to a given level of excellence which represent particular standards or specifications with minimum cost to the producer and is believed to be satisfactory with the consumer in general. 
Contamination of food and feeds makes them both to be unsafe for consumption and is a very serious issue everywhere. In many developing countries where the need to eat may outweigh concerns about food safety, it is a particularly serious problem with increase globalization. 
The problem with food is that although man harvests or hunts food for his own personal consumption, there are many other living organisms that try to use this food for their own use. This includes organism that range from large animals through small forms of life such as insects, down to microscopic forms of life such as bacteria. Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic burden on communities and their health systems. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Dried fish easily absorbs moisture during handling and storage especially when the relative humidity is high. This occurs when the dried fish absorbs moisture from its immediate environment, thereby resulting in increase water activity which causes mould growth and spoilage. 
There is the incidence of insect and rodent attacks on dried fish during handling which causes further contamination by micro organism. This necessitates the application of insecticides to preserve dried fish during marketing. Application of insecticide or pesticide has safety implications on the side of consumers because of possible food poisoning arising from residual action of insecticides. 
The economic impact of contaminated foods is devastating. Developing countries with limited resources lose foreign exchange as a result of rejected food exports to developed countries (FAO/WHO 1992). The economy of a nation can suffer greatly from loss of confidence from trading partners. Furthermore, victims of food borne illnesses suffer from physical and emotional distress and the cost of treatment and loss of wages are a burden to the nation. 
Effective food safety control system in developing countries can make a major contribution by reducing food losses through insect attack and contamination. The study will address the following research questions:
What are the factors militating against food safety among dried fish sellers in the study area?
What is the cost implication of food safety among dried fish marketers?
What are the possible ways of improving safety practices of dried fish?
What are the causes of dried fish poisoning in the study area?
Is dried fish marketing profitable?
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The main objective is to carry out analysis of food safety among dried fish sellers in Akure, Ondo State. The specific objectives are to:
examine the socioeconomic characteristics of dried fish sellers. 
identify the safety practices of dried fish sellers.
estimate the cost of food safety among dried fish marketers. 
identify the problems of dried fish marketing among the sellers.
1.4 Justification of the Study 
Agriculture and food security provide the springboard for health via adequacy as in quantity available with emphasis on quality depicted by nutrition and food safety.
Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. WHO estimates that food borne and water borne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually, 1.9 million of them children most of whom are in developing countries. 
In order to enhance food safety, the amount of resources used and the efficiency of production are contingent upon use of appropriate technologies, infrastructure, storage, processing, marketing and transportation.
At the end of this research, it is believed that the result of this research will not only provide useful information for participating and intending sellers and consumers of dried fish but will also provide information for future researchers, extension agents and policy makers in finding long lasting solutions to the various problems of food safety among the dried fish sellers. 

UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture with its positive impact on the Nigerian populace is faced with myriad of problems among which is low utilization of technologies. The low utilization of technologies by the farmers may be ascribed to inadequacy of information. Information, in a broad context refers to organized data recorded in various forms (Yahaya, 2003). Information could also be messages that are perceivable and recognizable value to the receiver. Information is therefore a raw resource for knowledge. In the agricultural sector, arable farmers need information about their farming activities.
Aina (1989) stated that lack of information on modern agricultural technology is a key factor limiting agricultural development in Nigeria. Low accessibility to agricultural information leads to low adoption of improved technologies, which invariably affects farmers‟ productivity and could lead to poverty (Ozowa, 2005). Utilisation of improved farm practices requires adequate information, which has to be effectively disseminated so that the clientele receives it, understands it and regards it as a valid basis for action. For instance, while it has been established that farmers use various media sources (Keregero, 1993), it is where farmers seek information that they also find information relating to agricultural practices ranging from agronomic, processing and storage, which are of tremendous importance to the success of arable farmers. The choice usually lies with the source of the message to be transmitted; it must be knowledgeable about a particular channel of communication before employing it. The undisputable fact is that different channels perform different functions in the transmission of information on farm matters (agricultural development), depending on the stage of adoption process, the characteristics of innovation, the socio – economic and personal characteristics of audience (Farinde, 1991; Njoku, 1990). Farinde (1991) and Farinde and Jibowo (1994), have established that the effectiveness of any communication channel depends most in particular on its selection as an appropriate channel or medium of communication. Hence a better way of understanding information utilization is to determine the sources of such information. The selection depends on the size and type of audience, the characteristics of methods, e.g. cost of procurement, complexity, availability and feedback potential (Farinde, 1991). Any system initiating and stimulating development has a responsibility to provide and disseminate information about its activities to make the people knowledgeable about things happening around them, and also generate in them the right attitudes and encourage the adoption of desirable value systems.
In agriculture, the role of information cannot be over emphasized in enhancing the agricultural development. Information is crucial for increasing agricultural production and improving marketing & distribution strategies (Oladele, 2006). Communication is critical to finding solution to problems of food production through facilitating research- farmer linkage using ICTs (Dauda et al., 2010). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are foundation of the new global information based economy. They are increasingly becoming the key drivers for socio-economic growth. Notably the role of information in farming is significantly meant to reduce the influences of risk and uncertainty-related factors. Bala and Sharma (2008) and Singh et al. (2011) argue that to compete the global market today, our farmers should have latest information regarding new techniques of farming, new methods of cultivation, new crops, seeds, pesticides, water management, marketing of the product, government policies regarding agriculture, export potential of their crops. Information and knowledge are very vital in agricultural development of any community, non-availability of basic agricultural knowledge and information for Arable crop producers in Edo and Delta State as a result of certain problem will enable these farmers stick to their old traditional ways of farming system hence resulting in poor crop productivity. Also in situation whereby the farmers lack access to knowledge and information that would help to foster them in achieving maximum agricultural yield, they are not only grope in the dark but are driven to big cities in search of formal employment, as the only option for survival (Munyua, 2000). Blait (1996) speculated that the least expensive input for improved agricultural development is adequate access to knowledge and information in areas of new agricultural technologies, early warning systems (drought, pests, diseases etc), improved seedlings, fertilizer, credit, market prices etc. There have been short-comings of traditional print and library based methods of providing such agricultural information to arable crop producers whom are likely low standard and relatively remote from access to information (e.g. extension stations, libraries). In the past decades, Nigeria’s agricultural sector has experienced steady decline in productivity. However, in recent time, indices has showed that the sector have started witnessing a gradual but slow growth (Oladipo, 2013). This growth was necessitated by population growth, changing climate and technology needs (Henri-Ukoha et al., 2012). These technologies are innovations such as ICT facilities, mechanized farming equipments, improved and high yielding varieties, and integrated pest management control, post harvest technologies, efficiency in land use, among others. Access to information technology is highly gotten by these and can only be made available ti them through extension workers, state and local government and community libraries (ADP, ENADEP etc) Telecommons Development Group, 2000).
Arable crops; they are crops which are cultivated on ploughed land. Agronomically arable crops can be grouped as follows:- cereal crops; e.g. maize and wheat. Legume crops; e.g. cowpea and groundnut. Root and tuber crops e.g. cassava and yam. Fibre crop; e.g. cotton and jute. Stimulant crops; e.g. tobacco. Some arable crops are prevalent in Edo and Delta State.
Maize (Zea Mays .L.); Maize is also known as “Indian crop” or “simple corn”. It is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world (Anon, 1993). Maize is produced annually than any other grain. About 50 species exist and consist of different colours, textures, grain shapes and sizes. White and yellow varieties are preferred by people in Edo and Delta State. Maize is the most important cereal crop in this region. All part of the crop can be used. Maize can be used for the following purposes:- 
As a staple human food, maize is a stable food in Edo and Delta State. It is eaten as boiled or roasted maize. Corn meal and cornflakes are examples of food products made for human consumption. Maize is however unsuitable for bread making as it is deficient in gluten.
As feed for livestock, it is the cheapest and most palatable carbonaceous feed for animals such as pigs, cattle, sheep and poultry. Most of the maize crop is fed to livestock as grain, silage or fodder on the farms where it is produced. It is relatively high in fat and starch but is low in proteins. It is therefore essential to feed it together with protein feed to provide a balanced diet.
Corn starch, corn oil, corn syrup and corn sugar are the chief industrial products obtain from maize. Corn starch, is universal food stuff. It is used for starching clothes, in the manufacture of asbestos, ceramics, dyes, plastics, oil cloths and linoleum. Corn oil is used in the manufacture of soaps, vanishes, paints and other similar products. Corn syrup is used in shoe polish and in tobacco industry. Corn sugar is used in the manufacture of jams and jellies, chemicals, dyes and explosives. 
Other minor uses include the use of stalks and leaves for making paper, paper board and wall-board. (Remison, 2004).
Cassava (Manihot Esculenta); Cassava is a perennial woody shrub with an edible root. It is the major source of dietary energy for low-income consumers in Edo and Delta State. It is rich in carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins B and C, and essential minerals. However, nutrient composition differs according to variety and age of the harvested crop and soil conditions, climate, and other environmental factors during cultivation (Remison, 2004). Cassava is a subsistence crop grown for the following purposes:-
Human consumption, Garri, a free flowing granular meal, is consumed in a variety of way. Other cassava meals include “Elubo” from cassava flour, “Fufu” which is boiled and pounded cassava. Tapioca is made from cassava, it is wet or partially dried sieve starch particles heated with continuous stirring. Tapioca is used for puddings, biscuits and confectionery.
As livestock feed, cassava chips can be used to compound animal feed because of high energy content. Its used to feed pigs & cattle. Its very affordable.
Cassava starch is also an important industrial raw material; it is used in laundering and in the manufacture of many products. Beer and other alcoholic can be made from cassava. (Remison, Ewanlen and Okaka, 2002).
Cocoyam (colocasia esculenta (L.) Taro)
(Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Tannia) 
Cocoyams are herbaceous perennial plants belonging to the family Araceae and are grown primarily for their edible roots, although all parts of the plants are edible. Its edible roots are starchy. Cocoyam can be used for the following purposes:-
Human consumption via cooking, frying, roasting or baking. Processed into flour by peeling, slicing, drying the slices and milling the dried slices. The flour is used for various food preparations.
The young leaves are used as vegetables in some places. Cooking removes the calcium oxalate, which causes acridity in the leaves and tubers. The leaves, corms and cormels can be used as animal feed. (Remison, 2004).
Yam (Dioscorea spp); Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of his starchy tuber. (Igbokwe, Onaku and Opara. 1988). Yams are primary agricultural and culturally important commodity in Edo and Delta State. Some varieties of these tubers can be stored up to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season.
Dioscorea rotundata, the ‘white yam’ and Dioscorea cayenensis, the ‘yellow yam’ are native to Africa and are preferred by Edo and Delta State Arable crop farmers. Yams can be used for various purposes:-
Mainly for human consumption as they provide a cheap source of carbohydrate. The most common forms of yam consumption are as boiled yam, pounded yam, roasted yam, fried or baked yam.
Wild species have been used as a source material for the manufacture of oral contraceptives (Remison, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Over the years, Arable crop farmers depend on indigenous or local knowledge for improved farming system. Such knowledge (indigenous or local knowledge) refers to skill and experience gained through oral tradition and practice over many generations (Norem, et al., 1988). Acquisition of such primitive skill by our rural farmers (e.g. rural farmers in Edo and Delta State) has not helped to improve agricultural produce. All that is witnessed in our rural agricultural system range from low farm yield, crop failure due to diseases, resistant plant weeds and pests that attack arable crops, old farm implements, poor quality fertilizers etc. Agricultural information are always meant to get to rural farmers through information sources like extension workers, community libraries, radio, television, film shows, agricultural pamphlets, state and local government agricultural agencies etc. Lack of useful information could lead to poverty because farmers’ productivity will be affected (Ozowa, 2005). Low accessibility to agricultural information also leads to poor communication linkage between extension farmers-research and consultations between policy makers, policy analysts, and policy beneficiaries on agricultural and rural development policy issues.
Rural farmers in their effort to access these agricultural knowledge and information from available sources, for better farming system and improved agricultural yield, are confronted with certain constraints. The present study was therefore designed to identify the constraints which hinder arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta state from accessing agricultural information for improved crop production.
The research questions now are:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State?
What are the respondent’s access, preference and frequency of use of agricultural information sources?
What are the respondent awareness level, adoption status of technologies and competent in the use of technology?
What are the motivation factors of the use of agricultural information sources?
What are the constraints the respondent’s face in arable crop farming and the use of agricultural information source?
1.3 Objectives of the study
The broad objective of the study is to access utilization of information by arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
describe the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta States;
identify information sources used by arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State;
ascertain the respondent awareness level, adoption status of technologies and competent in the use of technologies;
examine respondents’ access, preference and frequency use of agricultural information sources;
identify motivational factors for the use of Agricultural information sources; and
ascertain the constraints the respondents face in arable crop farming and the use of agricultural information sources. 
1.4 Hypotheses for the Study
There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and motivational factors for their use of agricultural information sources.
Motivational factors do not significantly affect respondents’ preference and frequency of use of ICTs agricultural information sourcing.
There is no significant relationship between respondent awareness level, adoption technology and the constraints faced in arable crop farming.
There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondent and the constraints faced in arable crop farming.
There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics and constraints faced in the use of information sources.
1.5 Justification 
This study was primarily necessitated by the advantages inherent in the roles played by arable crop farmers in the growth of agricultural economy and how effective communication of agricultural technology can enhance the productivity of arable crop farmers’ operators.
Developing technologies for arable farm operators to adopt is not enough, but effort should be geared towards making arable farm operators to understand the importance of utilization of improved technologies. To bring about agricultural development, the provision of agricultural information plays a decisive role. Presently besides the indigenous farm experience, Government designed programs contribute to provide agricultural information in order to improve the yield of arable crop producer hence giving the farmers a better life.
All development carriers like extension services, NGOs and other development agencies involved in agricultural development, especially in resettlement program, must be aware of the need to understand the constraints and factors influencing the level of the access to and utilization of agricultural information and understand the gaps to take remedial action. The importance of agriculture in the economy of Nigeria is profound. Despite the growth of industries, oil and commerce it continues to be the principal economic activity of the people of Nigeria. Thus 70% of the people are engaged in agriculture but more than 70% of these farms at subsistence level (Okubanjo, 1990; Nigeria millennium Development Report, 2004). The Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO (1993) suggested that in order to enhance agricultural development, new commodities and new methods of production must be developed. In Nigeria, there are various agencies, research institutes, agricultural universities/colleges and non-governmental organizations that generate innovations and improved farm practices or technologies (Ilevbaoje, 1998). The primary function of the dissemination component (agricultural extension, agricultural change agencies, private extension organizations, etc.) is the transformation of the agricultural sector of the national economy through promotion of rapid adoption and utilization of improved farming technologies by the utilization component – the farmers (Ilevbaoje, 1998).
According to CTA (1996), Ozowa (1997) and Conroy (2003) the quantum of agricultural technology information available in the Nigerian systems developed by research institutes and faculties of agriculture in universities is quite enormous. The problem therefore, lies with effective dissemination of information about these innovations by the dissemination agencies. Research institutes must disseminate their findings to the target group – the farmers, while receiving feed back to indicate that communication was successful. The feedback is expected to expose areas requiring modification or further enquiry. Agricultural information disseminated by different information sources need to be determined. It is imperative therefore to identify the sources of agricultural information utilized by farmers.

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY ON COCOA PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most import economic produce in Nigeria. This can be drawn out in terms of annual contribution to foreign exchange earnings, income earning, employment, internal revenue generation and as source of raw material for industry.
Nigeria is potentially one of the most economically endowed nation of the world, having abundant of resources e.g. coffee, rubber, oil palm, cocoa and other non crop product, such as petroleum.
In Nigeria, cocoa is a very important part of the cash crop family in the agricultural sector. Analysis shows that, in the 1980’s cocoa production in Nigeria was at its peak, Overtime, the output has fallen by over 50%. from 1980 to 2002 due to technical inefficiency of the agricultural sector. Tian and Guary (2000) in China has shown that there is room for increasing agricultural productivity in developing countries by improving technical efficiency of agricultural production. That every factors of production should be efficiently and effectively mobilized in cocoa production to reduce the gap between actual and potential output.
The major objective of stakeholders of cocoa produce in the state is to increase production on a sustainable basis at the farm level. Cocoa productivity levels can be enhance either by improving technical efficiency and or by improving technological application (Nkamleu et al, 2010). This aspect shows that proper farm maintenance through weeding and increased use of input like pesticides and fertilizer is considered to be the more effective way to increase production. This is because a greater part of cocoa produce is lost due to diseases, pests, and weeds (Binam et al , 2008; Dzene, 2010). Cocoa yields depends on how farmers combine their resources optimally to maximize output for cocoa produce and also optimize resource use in the industry, for cocoa to continue to play its key role in the economy.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There has been a continuous problem in the production of cocoa over the years. As a result of the lack of application technical knowhow and other economic tools. As we know, at a point in the country economic history, agricultural production was of a major priority in Nigerian. But as time went by, there has been a gradual and small fall in the output overtime. Nigeria produces a little more than half of what she used to produce in the 1970’s (CBN 2004).
In order to increase and maintain a quality and quantity production of cocoa, there is a need to improve on technical efficiency and application aspect of economic principles to production, cut down over-regulation of the sector, provide effective marketing system and invest more on the sector. This works intends to answer the following questions: What are the challenges faced by cocoa farmers; and what method to adopt to improve on cocoa production.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to ascertain the technical efficiency of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in Esan West Local Government area of Edo state.
i. Examine the socio-economic characteristics of cocoa producers.
ii. Estimate the levels of technical efficiency in cocoa production.
iii. Examine the factors that influence the level of efficiency in cocoa production. 
1.4 Justification
An interest in this study stems from the fact that cocoa production in Nigeria is reducing and Nigeria is experiencing difficulties meeting local demand for cocoa product.
This however, creates an opportunity for increased production. It therefore becomes necessary to offer information on this sub-sector of the agricultural sector in order to show the potentials of cocoa production and also to highlight the potential for boosting the Nigerian economy by concentrating on the cocoa production sector.
The study will provide the information needed for a successful cocoa enterprise which also would boost the confidence of the cocoa farmer and also could serve as guide for investors in the enterprise.

ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN DISSEMINATING AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION TO OIL PALM AND PLANTAIN FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
According to the business dictionary, information is defined as a “Data that has been verified to be accurate and timely. It is specific, organized for a purpose and presented within a context that gives its meaning and relevance which can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty .Reits (2010)defines information need as a gap in a person’s knowledge that,when experienced at the conscious level as a question, gives rise to a search for an answer .information is a fact or knowledge provided or learned as a result of research or study(smith 2001). It is the fact and knowledge needed to answer some question faced by people in their daily life
The world Encyclopedia defines information as an ordered sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as a message. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behaviour, decision or outcome e. a piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. Agriculture play an essential role in everyday human activities ranging from the provision of primary needs like food, clothing and shelter to secondary needs like construction, manufacturing etc. while much of the world is still stuck in subsistence agriculture practiced majorly in remote part of the country, a little proportion of agriculture is just being practiced under the light of civilization and modernization. That is to say, farmers in the remote part need to be constantly fed with information, idea, knowledge and skills developed from the Research Institute for better farming practice and eventual increase in yield. Information might be inform of new technology like storage facilities,better farming system like mechanization,access to credit facilities.e.t.c For Agricultural information to be effective, after the information has been conveyed from the donor,i.e Ministry of Agriculture and its subordinate like Research Institute, Agriculture Development Project (ADP) etc, to the target (farmers), a feedback from the receiver to the donor of the information must be accomplished. 
New information
Feedback 
Ministry of Agriculture
Farmers 
Agricultural information
Agric information tends to connect the Ministry of Agriculture and the farmers. It can be represented in a Venn diagram as below.
Also Agricultural information tend to connect the different Departments of Agriculture by elaborating on how judiciously individual department bye-products can be utilize by another department which will eventually increase the yield of one another. For example, Nitrogen is naturally fixed to the soil by some legumes like Callopogonium Mucunoide. Which will eventually increase the nutritive value of livestock that feed on them. While the excreta of the livestock is used as manure for crops to increase their yield. It can be represented sectorially as below.
Crop Science
Agricultural information
Animal Science 
Horticulture 
Natural
Science
Fisheries 
Soil Science 
The means of transferring Agriculture may be through Extension Agent or through mass media. Media transmit their information electronically with Television, Film, Radio, Movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles. Alternatively, print media uses a physical object as a means of sending their information such as Newspaper, Magazine, Brochures, Newsletters, books, leaflets and pamphlets. Outdoor media is also a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings like Shops/Buses. Public Speaking and event organizing e.g. Demonstration are also considered as mass media.
Mass media have been acclaimed to be a very effective medium for diffusing the scientific knowledge, innovation and technology to the masses. In a country like Nigeria, precisely Edo State, where farmers’ literacy level is low, the choice of communication medium is of vital importance. Radio for example because of its cost (low) and its affordability by virtually all classes of income earners, it can transfer modern Agricultural technology to both literate and illiterate farmers even in interior or remote areas, within short time. Television could serve as a suitable medium of dissemination of farm information and latest technical know-how. The farmers can easily understand the operations, technology and instruction through television. The print media widened the scope of communication. It is cheap and farmers can afford to buy and read them at their convenience. It is a permanent medium in that the message are imprinted permanently with high storage value which makes them suitable for reference and research. 
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as the specific name implies is naturally found along the guinea gulf of West Africa which include countries like Cameroon, Cote d’vore, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, and the equatorial region of Angola and the Congo (FAO)1986. Oil palm is a perennial crop that originated in the South America and Asia in the 16th and 17th Century respectively. It is one of the most productive oil crop and its products ranked high in the list of world’s leading agricultural commodities. Oil palm gives the highest output value compared to major oil seeds like rapeseed, soya bean and sunflower. Rhett (2006) predicted that a single hectare of oil palm may yield 50000 kilograms of crude oil or nearly 6000 litres of crude oil, while soya bean generate only 446 litres per hectare. 
Oil palm serves social, economic and environmental purposes. The product which include palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel caked, the palm frond, palm kernel shell etc. These products particularly palm oil is becoming an increasingly important agricultural products for most tropical countries around the world as crude oil prices top $70/barrel. Basiron (2007) observed that palm oil is now the major source of sustainable and renewable raw material for the world’s food, chemical and bio fuel industries. Palm oil can be consumed domestically or serve as raw material for many Agro-based industries for the production of soap, margarine and other ally industries. After the oil has been extracted from the palm kernel, the remains known as the palm kernel cake is used as livestock feed. Also a refreshing drink generally known as palm wine can be tapped from the oil palm tree. 
Organic farming has made us realize that the oil palm fruit bunches after being burnt to ashes is good for improving soil alkalinity as against the use of inorganic chemicals which can easily contaminate the edaphic environment and underground water table.
An oil palm tree produces at an economic level for 25 years after which the yield diminishes but if well maintained has a life span of over 35 years. Palm oil became the principal cargo for export in the early 90’s in Nigeria. Nigeria became the largest exporter of palm oil in the world and in 1934 until the country was surpassed by Malaysia and now Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil. Between 1961 and 1965 world oil palm production was 1.5 million tons, with Nigeria accounting for 43% However, since then, oil palm production in Nigeria has eventually been stagnated. But today, world oil palm production amounts to 14.4 million tons, with Nigeria accounting for only 7%. Kei et al., (1997).
In Nigeria, oil palm production comes from dispersed small holders who harvest semi wild plants and use manual processing techniques. These small holders are spread over on estimated area of 1.65 million hectored in the southern part of Nigeria that is to say palm oil production is majorly carried out in the south along the Niger Delta Area which include states like Edo, Ondo, Delta, Rivers, Imo e.t.c. Udom (1986).Agronomic studies shows planting plantain amidst oil palm plantation is economical i.e. the plantain can be harvested and m arketed in the shorting pending the time the oil palm will be ready for harvesting. This makes plantain a good choice of intercropping in oil palm plantain. 
Plantain (Musa spp) occupies a strategic position for rapid food production in Nigeria. It is ranked third among starchy staples. The consumption of plantain has risen tremendously in Nigeria in recent years because of the rapidly increasing urbanization and the great demand for easy and convenient foods by the non-farming urban populations. Besides being the staple for many people in more humid regions, plantain is a delicacy and favored snack for people. A growing industry, mainly plantains chips, is believed to be responsible for the high demand being experienced now in Nigeria. Plantain production in Nigeria has witnessed a steady risk for more than 20years. As at 2004, Nigeria produced 2.103 million tons harvested from 389,000 ha production (FAO, 2006). Plantain is a major source of carbohydrate for more than 50 million Nigerians. In the country, all stages of the fruit (from immature to overripe) are used as a source of food in one form of the other. The immature fruits are peeled, sliced, peeled and made into powder and consumed as plantain fufu. The mature fruits (Ripe or Unripe) are consumed boiled, steamed, batch, pounded, roasted, or sliced into drips. Overripe plantains are processed into beer or spiced with chili pepper, fried with palm oil and served as snack (dodo-Ikire). Industrially, plantain fruit serves as composite in the making of baby food (‘Babena’ and “soyamusa’), bread, biscuit and others (Ogazi, 1996,Akyeampong, 1999). 
The fruits are produced all year around, the, major harvest comes in the dry season (November to February), when most other starchy staples are unavailable or difficult to harvest. Thus, it plays an important role in bridging the hunger gap (Wilson 1986). In Nigeria, plantain peels are used as feed for livestock. While the dried peels are used for soap production. The dried leaves, sheath and petioles are used as tying materials, sponges and roofing material.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In Nigeria, the importance of oil palm and plantain industry cannot be underrated based on the vital role they play in human nutrition, source of employment and income generation at large. International Potash Institution (1957) identified the principal product of oil palm to be the palm fruit, which is processed to obtain three main commercial products which include palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel cake. The use of these product which may be locally for consumption by human and livestock or industrially as raw materials for industries like soap, margarine industries etc. while plantain, a major source of carbohydrate for more than 50 million Nigerians (Ogazi, 1996), the unripe plantain is also a major source of iron, and also a delicacy for diabetic patient. However, oil palm and plantain farmers are faced with some problems which have tremendously reduced their produce. Such problems include; Land tenure system problem, Fund problems, Problem of improved planting materials and Pest and disease 
The agricultural role of mass media in disseminating agricultural information, innovations and idea in the study area has never been recognized, despite the fact that researchers are still trying to bridge the gap between the research stations and these rural farmers (oil Palm and plantain farmers). This has consequently marginalized agriculture and farming family which resulted to low productivity in spite of the efforts of the mass media in communicating agricultural information to the farmers. 
This research therefore, attempts to address some of the following research questions. 
Do socio-economic characteristics of the farmers have any influence on the sources of information through mass media?
What are the available mass media that have been used to communicate extension delivery services to the oil palm and plantain farmers? 
To which extent are these sources relevant to the oil palm and plantain farmer? 
What are the problems the oil palm and plantain farmers face in accessing the mass media sources? 
What are the factors that constrain respondents from using mass media. 
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the roles of mass media in disseminating agricultural information to oil palm and plantain farmers in Edo State while the specific objectives are to: 
Examine the socio-economic characteristic of the oil palm and plantain farmers. 
Examine the farmers’ accessibility to mass media.
Ascertain mass media type through which respondents sought agricultural information. 
Ascertain respondents’ preference for particular type of mass media. 
Ascertain respondent perceived role of mass media as information source. 
Examine factors that constrain respondents’ use of mass media as information source. 
Identify the problems limiting farmers from cultivating oil palm and plantain. 
1.4 Research Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between respondents’ access to mass media and their perception of relevance of mass media as information source.
1.5 Significance of Study 
It has been ascertained that mass media play an important role in transmitting information to large number of audience simultaneously. Yet, Okwu and Obinne (2000) have identified the main problem of agriculture in Nigeria as that of transfer of new technology, information, innovations to farmers and not lack of them Per se. It is known that mass media have been making useful contributions to agricultural technology, information and innovations adoption. This study seeks to establish the clear evidence of utilization by both oil palm and plantain farmers in Edo State. 
Hence, the recommendations from this study will be useful to policy makers, researchers, ADPs and other stakeholders in Agricultural Development Agencies. This study will provide information which would be useful in solving the problem posed by oil palm and plantain farmers.