ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SAFETY AMONG PORK MARKETERS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION

Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and most parts of West Africa.  Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fat called lard.  The pig produces litters twice a year.  One litter or one birth give between eight (8) and sixteen (16) piglets.  They also eat anything that is edible when given. Although, the rearing of pig and its consumption is not popular in Moslems areas in Nigeria because of the religion.  Some people look at pigs as dirty animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings.  This is probably responsible for some people prefer meat from other animal to pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other countries such as Britain and United States of America. 
Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:  This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in southern parts of Nigeria.  It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment, and eats anything that comes it way.  The breed is a native to West Africa.
Large White:  This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria.  It is white in colour with average size, it is resistant to trypanosomiasis disease, hence found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native to America. 
Land race:  This is larger than other breeds of pig.  It has white hairs and skin.  Land race has ears which are pointing forward.  The animal has very good meat.   It originated from Norway. Duroc:  The pig has large body.  The colour is golden yellow or cherry red.  It has droopy ears.  The animal come from U.S.A. 
Large Black:  The animal is black in colour with droopy ear.  It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A. 
Chester White:  The pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than duroc.  It can produce many offspring in one birth.  It originated from Pennsylvania in U.S.A 
Tamworth:  the animal has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body.  It is a native of Ireland. 
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES (MANAGEMENT)             
There are three (3) major production strategies which are as follows: 
(1) intensive management practices  
(2)  Semi-intensive management practice and/or free range management practices.   Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of production is better than most other domestic animals.  Pigs have a high conversion rate of 1:5 of the Gross energy taken.  They are able to convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other domestic animal.  Pork carcass yields a high percentage of dressed meat and a high portion of edible parts.             
Pork is a good source of animal protein.  It is high in energy, attractive, nutritious, tasty and tender.  This is apparently due to the fact that slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development concerning pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the opportunity to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of pork meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be neglected, and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the product.             
Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the sanitary control of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of providing safe and wholesome meat for human consumption and to ensure that only apparently healthy, physiologically normal one are slaughter for human consumption and abnormal animals are separated and dealt with accordingly.    The responsibility of achieving this objectives lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority, the problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing thought that has become all too evident in the year past is that, increase in meat production alone is not the answer.  This is so, partly because such an increase is sometimes supported without appropriate pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal which should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.             
In many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the necessary information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal, meat from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international commission of codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food regulation (FAO, 2003).             
The Codex Alimentarius, has turned into the reference point for food businessmen, industrialist, traders and consumers, it is the guide for the international, national organization in charge of the products’ control for the elaboration of the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the consumers health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003).  World Health Organization has therefore endeavour to prepare a concise guideline on the subject together with colour illustration demonstrating the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs, bovines, small ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of disease carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately and dealt with accordingly.  To ensure that animal or meat (from abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess no-threat to human (WHO, 2003).STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

     The problem which the study seeks to address is the issue of consumer safety.  The concern is that meat should not predisposes man to food born diseases.  The research questions are: 
a.   To estimate the determinant of food safety. 
b.   To identify the food safety practice. 
c.   To estimate the cost of food safety.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

            The general objectives of the study is to examine the safety issues associated with pork meat marketing in the study area.  The specific objectives are: 
1.  To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers. 
2.  To identify safety practices adopted by pork seller in  the study area to guarantee consumers safety. 
3.  To estimate the determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

            This study seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and knowledge, on how to provide wholesome meat for human consumption, and the need to position the general public, inspection/health ministry and of course, the abattoir operators of their call to duties instead of the negligence that has become a course for concern, owing to disease threat and it related condition.  And also, because of deformed nature of the appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has cease the opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management history.  And on the other, the small retailers in our various  market has not meet up with their safety security measures.  This study is therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to remind them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be aware also that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to life. The wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to imbibe the spirit of food security for a better and happier living.

MODIFICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IAR GROUNDNUT SHELLER FOR SOME SELECTED VARIETIES OF PULSES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Backgrounds of the Study
Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding grains or seeds used for food, feed and sowing purposes. Pulses are crops yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and colour within a pod. In addition to their values as food and feed stuffs, pulses are also important in cropping systems for their ability to produce nitrogen and thus increase the fertility of the soil (FAO, 2011). Included in the pulses are groundnut and cowpea.Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) also known as peanut,is a member of the family papilionaceae, the largest and most important of the three divisions of leguminasae (Alonge and Adegbulugbe, 2005).The groundnut seed composed of approximately equal weight of fatty and none fatty oil; the relative amount of each depends upon its variety and maturity (Young, and Ahmed, 1982). It is one of the world‟s most popular crops cultivated throughout the tropical and sub-tropical areas where annual precipitation is between 1000 – 1200mm for optimum growth of the crop.Groundnut is the 13th most important food crop of the world (John, 2010). It is the world‟s 4th most important source of edible oil and 3rd most important source of vegetable protein (Taru et al., 2008). The crop is native to South America, Mexico, and Central America. It was first cultivated in a valley in Peru. The leading world producers of the crop are China, India, Nigeria, USA, and Senegal. Nigeria ranks third among the major producers (Abubakar and Abdulkadir, 2012). In Nigeria,agriculture was the dominant sector of the economy before independence;with groundnut cultivation as one of the vital areas of its economic built up (Ani et al, 2013). Emergence of petroleum products, poor government sustenance, and inadequate viable as well as qualitative farm machinery are some of the factors contributing toNigeria‟s declining economic buoyancy (Yusuf, 2011). The total world output of the groundnut crop in 2008 was 34.8 million metric tons out of which Nigeria accounted for 3.8million metric tons (FOA, 2008). In Nigeria, the processing of groundnut into various products is mostly done by women either for home consumption or for commercial purposes (Ibrahim et al., 2010). The most common commercial products of groundnut are; groundnut oil, groundnut cake and fried groundnut which are sold at market places or hawked on the streets. The processing of groundnut is both the source of income and employment to a large proportion of rural women in northern Nigeria(Ibrahim et al., 2010).
In developed countries groundnut processing is highly mechanized but in most developing countries, manual processing is still the norm despite the drudgery and time wastage involved (Maduako et al., 2006). The manual shelling method is achieved by applying pressure to crack the shell. In some cases, the groundnuts are first moistened with water and parked in a small sack whereby pressure is applied by beating the bag on a stone or any hard surface. Groundnut shelling machine is used to remove the shell of groundnut so as to obtain the groundnut seeds. Harvesting and shelling of groundnut are the most important and labour intensive operations in groundnut cultivation(Akcali and Onur, 1990). According to the authors, the present practice of these manual processes consumes huge amount of labor to the magnitude of 84 man-h ha-1 . During peak seasons delay in harvesting and threshing resulted in heavy loss due to non-availability of labor at peak period of harvesting. One of the solution for increasing the profit and productivity is to mechanize the operations in groundnut cultivation. For mechanizing threshing operations, power operated groundnut machinery such as; harvesters, strippers, and sheller have been developed. The adoption level is very low due to varying constraints(Akcali and Onur, 1990).
Cowpea is one of the most economically and nutritionally important indigenous African grain legumes produced throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of the world (GATE, 2008).In Africa, despite the values of cowpea, the methods involved in its production, harvesting and shelling are mostly manual. For instance, shelling is done by pounding in a mortar with a pestle or spreading the dried crop on the floor where it is beaten with a stick (Dauda, 2001). Production of cowpea on a large scale is likely to continue to increase with the adoption of improved production technology and availability of wider market. This would mean a higher demand on labour for all farming operations particularly harvesting, threshing, cleaning and grading (Irtwange, 2009). Most of the imported shelling machineries are very costly and hence beyond the reach of Nigerian small-scale farmers. Some have been found unsuitable for shelling the local varieties (Adewumi et al., 2007). If there has to be increased production of cowpea, farmers have to be provided with the means by which their products can be processed with minimum drudgery, cost and achieving good quality products. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Abubakar and Abdulkadir (2012) reported that, traditional method of shelling groundnut has proved to be inefficient, time consuming, laborious, and low output. Due to the lack of an efficient motorized machine to shell groundnut, small scale farmers generally depend upon manual shelling. These are time consuming operations and do not match the shelling requirements within a limited period of time. Manual processing is still the norm in Nigeria despite the drudgery and time wastage involved. The search for more efficient and cost effective way of shelling raised the demand for the modification of IAR groundnut shelling machine.IAR groundnut sheller was developed in 1985 and the design was based on the properties of the then variety known as Ex-Dakar. The performance of the sheller was satisfactorily optimum withthroughput capacity of 200 kg/h as reported by IAR (1987). New varieties were later developed whose acceptability in practice override, this has conspicuously affects the performance of the IAR groundnut shelling machine which is not yet modified for the new varieties. A preliminary test of the sheller was carried out using groundnut variety; SAMNUT 23, and its performance was evaluated. The results (Appendix E1) indicated a very low output capacity of 76.50 kg/h, which was determined at a combination of 160rpm and 3kg/min cylinder speed and feed rate, respectively. This could be attributed to the effects of some factors such as varietal difference, inappropriate sieve type required among others.
Cowpea cultivation is also very essential in Nigeria;it plays a key role in the agriculture and food supply of the country. Nigeria is the largest producer and consumer of cowpeas, accounting for about 45 percent of the world‟s cowpea production (GATE, 2008). However, most ofthe farmers grow it as inter crop (Rowland, 1993), though its post-harvest operations are mostly done manually due to lack of precise machinery for such operations and this curtailed its effective productivity.
1.3 Justification 
Groundnut and cowpea are of great economic benefit to mankind. Therefore, developing the pulse sheller will help to bridge the overtime disparity in its performance improvements and subsequent modifications. It will provide an avenue for improving groundnut and cowpea productivity, reduction of drudgery on such processes, and subsidize the cost of procuring groundnut and cowpea shelling machinery by the farmers. It will also help to increase the number of viable machines available for shelling of groundnut, cowpea and other related crops. Drudgery is generally conceived as physical and mental strain, fatigue, monotony and hardships experienced while doing a job(Renuka, 2007). It is certain that, if appropriate drudgery reducing machineries are made available to the rural farmers, it would contribute to more drudgery reduction in labour productivity, increased capability, and consequently red uction in greater workload thereby improving labour efficiency. According to Chima (2013),manufactured goods in agriculture are one of the preferred sectors of an economy and therefore the bedrock of economic and technological advancement. Chima (2013) further stated that, one important strategy used by China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Brazil, the nations with large populations in their quest for industrial and economic development was strong internal demand/consumption of their manufactured goods. Therefore, producing high quality products like pulse sheller will contribute meaningfully to the country‟s GDP and enhances its global competitiveness. It will also contribute in disabling the importation opportunities in the country. 
1.4 Objectives of the Study 
The aim of the study is to modify the existing IAR groundnut shelling machine for selected varieties of groundnut and cowpea crops. The objectives of the study are:-
(i) to determine the related physical and mechanical properties of the selected varieties of groundnut and cowpea 
(ii) to carry out the design analysis for the modified pulse shelling machine 
(iii) to construct and test the modified pulse shelling machine 
(iv) to evaluate and compare the performance of the modified and existing machines

INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SOURCES ON FARMERS KNOWLEDGE AND USAGE OF POULTRY DRUGS IN EDO AND DELTA STATES, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Worldwide, more chickens are kept than any other type of poultry, with over 50 billion birds being raised each year as source of meat and eggs. [Card and Leslie,1961] Traditionally, such birds would have been kept extensively in small flocks, foraging during the day and housed at night, this is still the case in developing countries, where the women often make important contributions to family livelihoods through keeping poultry, however, rising world populations and urbanization have led to the bulk of production being in larger, more intensive specialist units. These are often situated close to where the feed is grown or near to where the meat is needed, and result in cheap, safe food being made available for urban communities. (Eriksson and Larson,2008) 
The African traditional way of rearing livestock originally uses less of synthetic drugs, although the birds raised are hardy in nature. There is therefore the need for the use of veterinary knowledge of local farmers as a basis for the development of organic alternatives of livestock production.(Adler and Jerry,2012)
Indigenous knowledge has gone a long way over the years to ensure minimal livelihoods for the rural resource-poor people in Nigeria. Most small-holder farmers that desire to adopt modern practices of animal health care are constrained by lack of finance and unavailability of consultancy advice from veterinary officers in remote villages (Kolawole, 2001)

According to Eurostat,(2012) it was stated in value terms, that the EU-27’s crop output grew by 9.1 % in 2011 to EUR 203,330 million and animal output increased by 9.9% to EUR 154,057 million and recently there has been a remarkable interest in livestock production.
Poultry farming has numerous benefits; as a result many farmers prefer to invest in it. People generally establish poultry farm for the purpose of producing eggs, meat and generating high revenue from these products. Billions of chickens are being raised throughout the world as a good source of food from their eggs and meat. However, here I am shortly describing the main benefits of poultry farming. The main benefit of poultry farming is, it doesn’t require high capital for starting .It doesn’t require a big space unless you are going to start commercially. It also ensures high return of investment within a very short period. Some poultry birds like broiler chickens take shorter duration of time to mature and generating profit.
The importance of the poultry industry cannot be over emphasized, because of the vital roles it plays in human nutrition and creation of employment opportunity it provides for the teeming population. The industry if desired attention is paid by government at all levels, poultry industry can successfully absorb a large number of unemployed youth across the country currently searching for unavailable jobs. Through its chain of agro-allied activities, commercial feed aim toll milling, poultry productions processing, poultry marketing, vertinary, pharmaceuticals, hatchery operation and breeder farming. In addition, the industry if properly harnessed, can also serve as source of foreign earning, complementing the crude oil (our present main source of foreign earning) responsible for over 90% of our exports e.g. a product of the industry gives about 3.5g of the total 7.2g animals protein required for individual dietary need per day. Again, (broiler table meat chicken) is the toast of every fast food outlets across the country. This is because chicken meat is cholesterol free; compare to red meat beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison and others, which contains cholesterol (a chemical substance), responsible for the increasing rate of heart diseases amongst Nigerians in recent times. Among which to be mentioned poultry contribute to GDP and GNP of the country. 
Furthermore, poultry industry at the moment is bedeviled by enormous problems. Among which are lack of government funding, lack of credit facility, high cost of feeding ingredients, diseases, increasing cost of medications, marketing and lack of storage facility. Diseases are one of the major challenges to the industry, because of the economic importance of the disease causing organisms like bacteria, virus, fungal and protozoan, which poultry birds are susceptible to, bringing about devastating effects to both the flocks and the farmers .For instance, the outbreak of avian influenza otherwise known as bird flu, in 2005/2006, led to death of over 1.5 million birds across the country (Sahara reporter). It will be recalled that large number of poor farmers lost their means of livelihood, when their flocks were destroyed by government without compensation; yet foreign donor agencies are willing to address the problem of avian influenza stated by (WHO, 2005)
The intake of protein in Nigeria stands at 3.5g per caput per day(Ironkwe and Amefule,2008) and this is far less than the 35g per caput per day recommended by the World Health Organization (W.H.O),this shortage of animal protein consumption is partly due to the high cost of conventional meat sources like cattle, goat, sheep(Tewe,1999),it is therefore necessary to search for a cheaper alternative source of meat to meet the ever increasing demand for animal protein.
Information and communication are essential ingredients needed for effective transfer of technologies that are designed to boost agricultural production. For farmers to benefit from such technologies they must first have access to them and learn how to effectively utilize them in their farming systems and practices (Ariyo et al.2013).This is the responsibility of agricultural extension agencies all over the world. These extension agencies make use of different approaches ,means and media in transferring improved agricultural technologies to farmers. Mass media methods in agricultural information dissemination generally, are useful in reaching a wide audience at a very fast rate. They are useful sources of agricultural information to farmers and as well constitute methods of notifying farmers of new developments and emergencies. They could equally be important in stimulating farmers’ interest in new ideas and practices (Ani et al.1997). Common sources of agricultural information sources that have been used are the extension services, radio, television, magazines, newspaper and face to face communication. According to Statrasts,(2004) this information sources is seen as an institution or individuals that create or bring about message and the characteristics of a good information source are relevance, timelessness, accuracy, cost effectiveness reliability, usability exhaustiveness and aggregation level. Lately research institutions have embraced the modern sources of information such as internet especially online database, journals and articles that have made information more readily accessible, accurate and timely. These modern sources have been used within research institutions and extension service units but their effectiveness in availing information to farmers have been criticized. It is thought that the modern sources of information have social, education, economic, cultural and technical constraints which limits their effectiveness in disseminating agricultural information to farmers(Bashir,2008) It is important to disseminate agricultural information to ensure farmers have adequate knowledge and skills to address their needs and sustain production. Research institutions have a responsibility of ensuring that the information they disseminate is packaged in a way that makes it easy for the end-users to understand and to use appropriate dissemination channels that would make the information accessible to the end users (farmers),(Ghobrial and Musa,2006).
Hence, the information supply from extension, research. Education and other sources has become managed by agricultural organizations and especially disseminated to farmers so that they can make better decisions to take advantages of market opportunities and to manage continuous changes in their production systems(Demiryurek,2010) According to Davin (1976) every individual whether literate or non-literate needs information in order to make decisions thus every sector of the population engaged in agriculture needs information. The concept that information is the message has different meanings in different contexts. Luciano Floridi (2010). Thus, the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
The role of communication boarder on it’s effectiveness which is foundational to socio-economic and political development of a nation. Adekunle and Ogoto (1994), asserted that effective communication is a precondition for sustainable technology transfer in agriculture; and the feed forward- feed back mechanisms which are essential ingredients in the technology transfer process are only made possible through communication process. A good communicator or information source knows his audience, his wants, needs, message, the effective channel of communication applicable to his audience, prepares his information to be communicated carefully, speaks clearly, uses simple languages that people understand and is aware of the limitation of time. The credibility and technical competence of the communicator (extension agent) will go a long way in people (farmers) putting their trust in him as an authority of valid assertions and a reckoned officer. Hence Torimiro and Akinyemiju (2008) opined that in order to maintain good credibility extension agents need to have adequate knowledge and skill in dealing with people, and that a message is not of no value unease it is understood, accepted by the receiver and creates a motivation to act. Ekumankma and Nwankwo (2002) observed the poor exposure of farmers to appropriate agricultural information as one of the major reasons for low yield recorded by many Nigerian farmers. This have been of great concern to agricultural communicators, administrators, and policy makers in the country over the years and finds expression in the federal governments’ effort in initiating different agricultural programmes including Agricultural Development Programmes across the country in the last four decades. Uphoff (2000) and Leeuwis (2004) accreting a new societal function for extension said that emphasis/responsibilities have shifted from a function that fostered knowledge and technology transfer between farmers and researchers and among farmers themselves to include more complex tasks of altering interdependencies and co-ordination between various actors, in addition new challenges, problems and development- some of which operate at a larger scale than before (e.g. ecological degradation, globalization and knowledge society) that further complicate matters, hence the issues extension is dealing with now are concerned more broadly with rural resource management- resource in this context include not only water, land, biological process and biophysical inputs, but also human relations, forms of organizations, economic and legal institutions, knowledge or skills. Leeuwis (2004) observed that communication intervention which is seen as different communication services since they essentially define kinds of products that can be delivered by communication workers and at the same time seen as different strategies because they refer also to the way in which communication intervention is supposed to contribute to societal problem solving. Depending on one’s analysis of the problem, one may decide that improving a specific type of service is an appropriate strategy towards improving the situation. Leeuwis (2004) further opined that the term farm management communication is general communication function which can be relevant within different communication services and strategies include: raising awareness; consciousness of predefined issues; exploring views and issues; information provision and training, with corresponding roles of communication workers to include; providing (confrontational) feedback; raising questions; stimulating people to talk (active listening, active learning); translating and structuring information; and educators/trainers. Hence, effective communication can improve farmers’ value for adoption of proven technologies.
Feedback is a critical component of effective communication(Witzany,G 2012).This farmers knowledge on the usage of poultry drugs is either lagging behind in Nigeria or it is not put into practice maximally(UNIDO,CBN,2010)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Agriculture, which is production oriented is a field that is always in need of right information and at the right time.(Dileepkumar,2013),this means that both crop and livestock farmers should always be linked to the right information needed in the production process by adequate information sources. Agricultural information can also be seen as an important factor which interacts with the other production factors such as land, labour, managerial ability, the productivity of these other factors can arguably be improved by the relevant, reliable and useful information and knowledge (Demiryurek, 2010).
The problem to lack of or minimal use of drugs observed in poultry production in Nigeria could be linked to information technologies and information sources (information revolution) affecting competitiveness (Porter and Miller,1985).Part of the reason why farmers do not engage in the usage of poultry drugs is that, historically the extension services has been focused on improving production and productivity (Gebremedhi et al,2006) and abandoned the farmers after the harvest. This is why various stakeholders of agriculture need to critically analyse the information sources that are available and accessible to poultry production and also the information needs of the farmers, the structure of the organisations involved in these activities are issues that need to be explored generally(Demiryurek et al,2008) in poultry production specifically.
The problem of the usage of poultry drugs is a great one and emphasis on it cannot be too much at this time when the nations’ agriculture is undergoing transformation in the Agriculture Transformation Agenda (ATA) in the economy of this nation.

The rural/village poultry system in Nigeria typically lacks access to organized health inputs. The structure of the rural poultry production system has constrained attempts to institute health extension services. Small flock size, mixed age and species flock composition, improper housing, scavenging, among other factors have made the use of conventional schedule-oriented health inputs like medication and vaccination difficult.(Kolawole, 2001). This study here will provide answers to the questions that borders on information sources on farmers knowledge and usage of poultry drugs in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria.
Some of the specific questions this research is poised to answer are: 
What are the socio-economic characteristics of poultry farmers in Edo and Delta states?
What are the various sources of information on poultry drugs available to respondents in Edo and Delta states?
What are the respondents accesses and preferences for poultry drugs usage information source?
What are the respondents awareness for the effects of poultry drugs usage?
What are the constraints respondents faces in sourcing and adopting poultry drugs information?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to access the influence of information sources on farmers knowledge and usage of poultry drugs in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to;
identify the social economic characteristics of poultry farmers in the study area;
ascertain respondents on poultry drug information sources, access, preference and usage;
assess respondents’ knowledge on the effects of poultry drugs usage; and
examine constraints respondents face in sourcing and adop ting poultry drugs information and in application of poultry drugs.
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
There is no significant relationship between the social economic characteristics of poultry farmers and their access to various sources of information

GENDER ROLES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN RUBBER PRODUCTION IN EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Agriculture started with the early men who through the act of hunting discovered that animals caught in traps alive, and kept for future consumption, began to give birth to young ones. They also observed that the wild fruits they travel to a distance to get, and consumed that the seeds thrown around the neighborhood germinated. This is how the sense of rearing animals and cultivation of crops began (Agriculture). Agriculture is very important to every nations of the world. In Nigeria, for example, over 70% of the population earns their living through agriculture or it related occupation. In spite of this Nigeria’s population is still underfed in terms of protein giving foods which results in malnutrition especially among children. 
Agriculture is a dominant activity in the rural areas of Nigeria (Onyeabor and Alimba, 2006). According to National Institute for Socio-Economic Survey (NISER, 2003), there are about 40 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and providing employment directly or indirectly to over 71 percent of the Nigeria population. One of the major problems facing Nigeria today is the need to transform her agricultural system from one depending on traditional inputs with high productivity. This will enable her meet the rising expectations of her rural and urban area. The fact that men and women play an important role in agriculture production is an issue to be reckoned with.
Natural rubber (Heavea brasiliensis) which is traditionally native to the Amazon jungle of South America was introduced to Nigeria from England around 1895, with the first rubber estate established in Sapele in the present day Delta State in 1903. (Giroh et al., 2004). By 1925, there were already thousands of hectares of rubber estates that were predominantly owned by Europeans in Southern Nigeria. 
It should be noted that Nigeria has a very vast potential for rubber production especially in many of the southern states in the country where the vegetative and climatic conditions are suitable for its production. Aigbokaen et al., (2000), Abolagba and Giroh (2006) noted that rubber can be grown extensively in Edo, Delta, Ogun, Ondo, Abia, Anambra, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River, Imo, Ebonyi and Rivers states where the annual rainfall range between 1800mm and 2000mm per annum. Rubber is grown in Edo State and large quantities are grown in small areas like Iguorhiaki, Ehor, Irrua in Esan Central Local Government Area.
Harvesting is done when it has attained the age of 6-7 years when the trees are considered matured and have attained a girth circumference of 45cm at a height of 150cm from the ground. The situation in Nigeria presently pretends to drift from being a major exporter of rubber products into becoming a net importer in the nearest future.
Rubber contributes basically three functions in the Nigerian economy in terms of providing raw materials for agro-based industries, foreign exchange earnings and in the provision of employment. With regards to the provision of raw materials, it should be noted that the uses to which rubber can be put is almost innumerable. The latex from rubber is a vital material in the automobile industry as it is used in the manufacture of tyre, car bumpers, transmission belt, car mat, seats etc. The latex is also used for the manufacture of adhesive, baby feeding bottle teat, condom, domestic and industrial gloves, balloons, eraser among others (Abolagba et al, 2003).
Furthermore, the rubber seeds when processed produce oil alkyd resins used for paints, soap, skin cream and hair shampoo. The rubber seed cake left as residue after oil is extracted from the seed is also valuable in compounding livestock feeds (Fasina, 1998).
Technology adoption as a process that begins with awareness of the technology and progresses through a series of steps that ends in appropriate and effective usage. Technology users differ widely in their attitudes towards technology and in their skills, ranging from early adopters who will master even the most difficult technology through to people who will never adopt. Technology adoption is important because it is the vehicle that allows most people to participate in a rapidly changing world where technology has become central to our lives. The various activities involved in rubber production are carried out by men, women and youths.
Gender refers to socially assigned roles and behaviours attributable to men and women (Deji, 2011). In most societies, men and women have distinct roles with in the farming system. Gender differences in rural farming households, vary widely across cultures but certain features are common. Women tend to concentrate their agricultural activities around the homestead, primarily because of their domestic and reproductive roles. They play a critical role in food production. Post harvest activities or livestock care, Akinsanya (2002) suggested that certain activities are regarded as male or female. In some setting, a rigid division of labor exists between men and women. Household members have separate income and expenditure while in another area, division of labor and specialization of tasks are less rigid and not skewed (Solomon 1995). 
Historically, the role and responsibilities of men and women were differentiated to a large extent in the society. Ekong (2003) concluded that no tasks were gender specific except child bearing. The colonial influence in Nigeria in the 50s contributed to initial neglect of women in the agricultural sector. The extension services at that time emphasized the production of cash crops that were exported to their countries as industrial materials and men were found to be predominantly involved. At this period Olagogun (2001) suggested that men select land first hence, they select the most productive part leaving women with land that are either being over used or land that are prone to erosion or degradation, so invariably, women become victims of unproductive land. This mode of temporary land acquisition also prevents women from planting permanent crops like fruits, trees, oil-palm, cocoa, coffee, rubber and other cash crops.
Based on the aforementioned scenario, involvement of men and women in soil management practices is expected to be different. However, recently, many Nigerian women are increasable involved in soil management according to Decjene (2003), due to the fact that both male and female farmers would like to increase their production and one of the best ways of doing this is to effectively manage soil using both the traditional practices such as bush fallowing, mulching, terracing, addition of manure, crop rotation etc and improved practices such as fertilizer application, also studies had shown that some of the constraints facing male and female farmers are gender- specific according to Abera (2003), Decjene (2003) and world bank (2007). Hence, the need to assess the roles of arable crop farmers in soil management practices across gender becomes very imperative with a view to increasing food production in the study area.
Women have been shown to have minor influence in cropping patterns, they play major roles in processing and marketing farm products (Dossc Sofa Team (2007), for rubber crucial, although it is difficult to assess who make the final decision of when to harvest rubber, responses to previous surveys indicate that women play role in the decision. They know the market price more and better than men and more aware of home food requirement (Mayoux, 2011). There is the need for small scale farmers to adopt improved production technologies, varieties, methods of storage, processing and utilization of product. 
It is however, pathetic that with the enormous potential resources that can be generated from rubber production, the crop has been neglected over the years, according to Abolagba and Giroh (2006). 
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Rubber production is highly dominated by a number of small scale farmers in our rural areas and the y are mostly women who depend mostly on their traditional methods of farming. (Tanko 1993 – 1995) observed that women play role in the productive work on the farm.
According to Tanko, (1993-1995) out of 95% small scale farmers in Nigeria who actually feed the nation, 55% of them are women who still depend mostly on traditional planting materials which gives low yield and high susceptibility such as vulcanization, burning old tires in power plant releases thousands of toxins into the air. Fire trace, width of not less than 30m, weed control, manually, chemically or mechanically, establishment and maintenance of ground cover, mulching, water irrigation, pruning, regular control of pest and disease, fertilizer application. To reverse this, various institutions such as International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) have developed and distributed improved technologies of rubber tapping, collecting of latex, processing, storage and utilization of rubber and its products. 
In spite of all these, rubber yield is still low and confronted with constraints. Men and women farmers remain at the same level of production as a result of their lack of understanding of these new technologies, availability of inputs for production, ownership of land among demand. Based on this background, the following questions will be addressed. The questions are as follows:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of men and women rubber farmers’? 
What are the activities performed in rubber production?
What are the roles of men and women in rubber production?
What is the extent or adoption on rubber technologies?
What are the constraints to role performances in rubber production?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective are to examine the gender roles and technology adoption in Rubber Production in Edo State, Nigeria. This will be achieved through the following specific objectives.
To describe the socio-economic characteristics of the rubber farmers by genders in the study area.
To identify the activities performed in rubber productions 
To examine gender roles in rubber production.
To identify sources of information on rubber production 
Examine technology adoption among gender categories in rubber production.
To identify the constraints faced by men and women in rubber production. 
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There is no relationship between the socio-economic characteristics and the gender involvement in rubber production.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and adoption of rubber technology.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between the involvement of male and female in rubber production.
1.5 Justification
Several studies have been carried out on the general contribution of gender performance in Agriculture in Nigeria. However, not much work has been designed in the area of identifying the gender role played in rubber production in Edo state. 
This paper therefore provides and insight into this area by examining men and women’s role in rubber production in the study area. Sensing with the processing of latex for example, there are already open markets for men and women farmers. Locally in the study area, it is envisaged that the result of this work would be established for future assessment and evaluation.

ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION PRACTICES AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN EDO CENTRAL ZONE, EDO STATE,NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is a major sector of the Nigerian economy, providing employment for about 70% of the population. The agricultural sector is the mainstay of the economy though her development funds at present derive more from Petroleum oil and Gas exploration (Ifeanyi-obi et al., 2012). It is the principal source of food and livelihood especially in rural areas.
Agriculture in Nigeria as in most other developing countries is dominated by small scale farmers (Oladeebo, 2004). Small holder farmers constitute 80% of the farming population in the country (Awoke and Okorji, 2004). These farmers produce on subsistence level with the objectives of satisfying household food needs and little surplus for sale (Awoke et al., 2004).
Although the agricultural sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large scale enterprise levels, the country is still faced with a number of constraints. According to International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2008), the constraints include poor agricultural pricing and low fertilizer use, low access to agricultural credit, land tenure insecurity and land degradation, poverty and gender issues, low and unstable investment in agricultural research as well as poor market  access and marketing efficiency. In addition to these, climate and weather parameters have consistently been changing.
Climate refers to the average or typical weather conditions observed over a long period of time (usually over 30 years) for a give area (Spencer, 2009). The classical period is 30 years as defined by the World Metrological Organization (WMO). Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric partial count and other metrological elemental measurement in a given region. On the other hand, climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over period ranging from decades to million of years (Wikipedia, 2010).
Climate change and Agriculture are inter-related processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions affecting Agriculture. These conditions include temperature, carbon dioxide, glacial run off, precipitation and their interactions are of significant importance. These changes in climate have had negative effects on agriculture over the years with arable crops not left out. Between 1996 and 2003, world grain production has stabilized over 1.8 billion tones. From 2000 to 2003, grain stocks have been dropping, resulting in a global grain harvest that was short of consumption by 93 million of tons in 2003 (Wikipedia, 2010). There has also been a reduction in harvest of these crops.
In recent times, farmers have devised several methods and indigenous technologies to mitigate the effect of climate change. In south-western Nigeria, Research have shown various adaptive measures (Apata et al, 2009). The major adaptation technologies and innovators identified include irrigation (Fadama), Afforestation, use of drought tolerant crop varieties and organic practices in form of manuring, mulching and fallowing as well as planting- date adjustment and timely harvesting of crops. However, these measures are not free of constraint. The constraints observed included lack of finance, low level of awareness about climate change, low level of technology, high illiteracy level and difficulty in getting accurate result (Apata et al., 2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been predicted that the resultant increase in temperature due to climate change will accelerate physiological development resulting in hastened maturation and reduced yield (FAO, 2005). It is also a well known fact that the occurrence of moisture stress resulting from drought, during flowing, pollination and grain filling is harmful to most arable crops. Growing seasons are expected to become shorter as temperature increases e.g rice yield starts decreasing at over 340c. It has also been noted that food production in Africa could half by 2020 (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, extreme weather events (climate change) such as thunder storm, flood, heavy rainfall and heavy wind are detrimental to agricultural activities in crops, livestock and humans. These often lead to failure of crops and incidence of pests and diseases due to migration in response to climate change and variation. 
Nigeria is an Agrarian Economy with 75% small farmers accounting for the nation’s agricultural output (Bello, 2009). There are about 200,000 largely peasant farm families in Edo State who produce 80% of the crops consumed (www.edostate.gov.ng/commercialagriculture). Most of these farmers depend solely on the natural weather conditions for production and therefore need effective adaptive and mitigating measures to cope with these changes. The Edo state ADP and intervention programmes like National Fadama Development Project (NFDP), National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) and NGOs are in place to deliver extension services to farmers in all aspects of agriculture. However, it could not be categorically stated that they disseminate climate change adaptation and mitigation practices/information to farmers particularly on arable crops. Farmers have been using various measures over the years as coping strategies which are either indigenous or improved. It is in this light that the study investigated the climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in Edo Central Zone, Edo state by answering the following questions:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area?
Are the farmers aware of climate change issues?
In what ways is arable crop production affected by climate change?
What is the extent of usage and effectiveness of the mitigating and adaptive measures employed by the farmers?
What are the challenges faced in using these measures?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in the study area. The specific objectives of the study were to:
Examine the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area; 
Assess farmers awareness of climate change issues;
Examine the effect of climate change on arable crop production;
Examine the adaptive and mitigating measures used by the farmers, how often they are used and how effective they are; 
Identify the constraints to the use of these measures
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The importance of agricultural sector of any economy cannot be over-emphasized as food security is a major issue in developing the economy of any Nation. Food security helps to promote self-sufficiency, healthy and efficient labour force. Considering the large percentage of individuals involved in agriculture in the country, the effect of climate change on the sector which serves as a means of livelihood and source of foreign exchange, cannot be over looked. The effects of climate change requires efficient adaptive and mitigating measures. This study will shed light on climate change mitigating practices used by arable crop farmers in the study area. The study also aims at exposing the constraints to the use of these measures in the study area. Furthermore, it is hoped that the result of the study will help the Edo state Government to formulate policies that will help farmers with efficient adaptive measures and improve arable crop production in general. It is also expected that the result of the study will help the Federal Government formulate climate change policies for different agro-ecological zones of the country.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
There is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and awareness of climate change issues
There is no significant relationship between respondent socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effect of climate change
There is no significant difference between male and female respondents with respect to the perceived effect of climate change.
There is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptation practices.

PERCEPTION OF EXTENSION SERVICE DELIVERY AMONG COCO-YAM FARMERS IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Extension has been defined as a process directed to bring about changes in the behavior and life style of farmers and rural people. Farm families have seen to be helped to improve step by step (Johnson, 2003). According to Adereti and Ajayi (2005), extension can be defined as an informal out of school system of education designated to help rural people to satisfy their needs interest and desires.
Communication in agricultural extension leads to improve agricultural production of crops and livestock’s through giving relevant information about pest and diseases, also to give relevant information’s about proven agricultural technologies according to Fliese (1984), Communication is a vital issue in agriculture, conveying, improve and recommended agricultural practices through extension workers to clients in order to improve on their agricultural production and in marketing of their produce (Williams, 1989). On the other hand, agricultural extension is an out of school education for rural people. An extension agent is responsible for providing knowledge and information on particular innovations and through communication, he passes such, to farmers. (Ajayi and Gunn 2009)
According to Remison (2005). The term Coco-yam (colocasia esculentus and xanthosoma sagittifolium) is used to refer collectively to member of genus colocasia and the genus xanthosoma which are grown for food in many parts of Africa, especially the wetter parts. They are grown in small plots, often intercropped with food or cash crops. They are volunteer crops in many places and can be classified as minor crops considering the level of attention given to them by farmers. The plants of both species are similar, but the long and short petiole of colocasia is attached to the leaf blade at same point in the middle of the blade not to its edge. The plant of xanthosoma are larger and the leaves are sagittate with triangular basal lobes. They are more prolific in growth and earlier than colocosia. Some authorities refers to colocosia as old coco-yam and xanthosoma as new cocoyam. Taro originated in south central Asia from where it spread to the rest of Africa. Tannia originated in central and south America and were it was first cultivated. There, it was introduced to Africa in the nineteen century, much later than taro. Hence, it is sometimes called new cocoyam. About three quarters of world production comes from Africa and there is probably a greater production of tannia than taro.
According to Onwuere, and Sinba (1991), Law and Peter (2012). Cocoyam has the following uses: fresh corms and cormels of cocoyam can be consumed after being boiled, baked or roasted or fried in oil, boiled corms and cormels are pounded into a paste (“fufu”), similarly, to pounded yam eaten with stew or soup; cocoyam leaves are used for human food, eaten as vegetables in the various part of the world, including several countries in the tropics as it is very nutritious with 20% protein on a dry weight basis, with appreciable amounts of vitamins and minerals, leaves must not be eaten raw but boiled before consumption as it is irritating if eaten raw, corms and leaves of cocoyam can be used as animal feeds, the leaves should be converted to silage before using as a feed top prevent irritation to the animals; the corms of tannia are reserved as planting materials as the corms tend to be woody, coco yam; used as flour after processing by peeling, slicing, (fresh or cooked), drying and milling into flour, cocoyam used as poi after processing by cooking, mashing, stroning bargging (where slight fermentation occur), young shorts of cocoyam’s are sometimes balanced and eaten like asparagus, cocoyam is used for cellulous, soup a favour dish in Trinidad, is made by boiling the chopped up tannia of the leaf with okra, herm and crops, which is now being canned. The peel of cocoyam can be utilized as feed for ruminants rather than been discarded. Taro is used specially for the potentially allegic persons for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorder.
The people in Edo State consumes cocoyam as a form of dish-popularly known as “porage”. The cocoyam is produced within and all over the state, especially in areas like Iguere, Ehor, Ugiehudu, Oke, Orua, Agboinkaka, Odiguetue Iruckpen Irue etc.
As part of extension delivery, the Edo State ADP on it own has extended its communication services to farmer in some villages earlier mention where cocoyam farmers now practiced or carry out other crops. However, at Oke, Ehor, Iruekpen, Orua, Iguere which are in Orhomwon, Esan south – west and uhumwode local government areas, success has been found within the cocoyam farmers, as they now used it particularly for major cover crops for tree crops like cocoa, rubber, plantain, cola, palm, hence they have added values as the leaves of cocoyam helps in absorbing thunder lighting and acts as shade and smodar of weeds and shade for tree crops thereby assisting them in minimizing used of land, labour and capital (maintenance cultural practices in crop production), 
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Cocoyam nutritionally, haven’t seen it as very rich in carbohydrate, protein, minerals, vitamins and it high medicinal value especially when the succulent tender leaves are slice and cooks as vegetables soup for consumption, this crop as a matter of fact, serves in some other ways, such as cover crop for some permanent crops such as cola, palm oil, rubber, cocoa, in their young growth stages, haven’t know it to be an arable crop. But a lot of people under estimate it, and opts not to have considered it useful and profitable just like yam or cassava, plantain. However, because of these attributes, cocoyam has it and will fit into federal government food security programme, especially as it is obvious as noted by the growing population in the country is experiencing food defects that has caused the Nigerian government to have spent a lot of money in Nigeria industries. Therefore cocoyam as a crop should be given priority for extension, going by it value in nutritional, medicinal, industrial benefits hence questions researchers sorts to answer are:
1. What are the socio-economics characteristics?
2. Will cocoyam production technologies be introduced to farmer by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) and through what means or information sources?
3. What is the level of adoption of Agricultural Information?
4. What is the attitude of farmer towards technology information on cocoyam?
5. What constraint farmers have in adopting the technologies in cocoyam production?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study was to assess the perception of extension communication among coco yam farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. 
The specific objectives of the study were to:
examine socio-economic characteristics of cocoyam farmers in the study area;
identify cocoyam production technologies introduced to farmers by ADP, and through what information source;
determine t he level of adoption of information;
determine the attitude of farmers towards information received; and
identify constraints faced by respondents in adopting cocoyam technologies. 
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of the study is stated in the null form as follows: 
There is no significant difference between respondents, socio-economic characteristics and frequency of seeking information, technology utilization, awareness and adoption of cocoyam technologies. 
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is importance because its recommendation will be useful to government, policy makers, ADP, farmers individuals and researchers in areas of decision making and implementation with regard to cocoyam farmer’s perception on technologies utilization, sourcing and adoption. It will be a source of empirical data on level of technology utilization, hence, it enrich database of cocoyam production in Edo State, Nigeria. 

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) AMONG STAFF OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is an important economic sector, since it provides income and food for a large segment of the population in developing countries. It plays a key role in the socio-economic development of many developing countries. For Agriculture to play these key roles successfully, farmers need to be properly informed in order to take rational decisions with respect to the adoption of improved agricultural technologies.
According to FAO (2000), much information is unavailable or inaccessible particularly to poor farmers, many practical lessons have been learnt but not shared and there are few opportunities for dialogue to enable concerns to be resolved. The agricultural sector needs technologies that can make information available and easily accessible to farmers and agricultural professionals. Hence, the accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
The term Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) refer to hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, and transmission in the formats of voice, data, text, and images (World Bank ICT Glossary Guide). As such, the nature of ICTs is diverse ranging from telephones, radios, and television to more technologies such as internet technologies, mobile telephony, computers and databases. This diversity means that they can be used by people with varying degrees of skills, although the current trends towards sophisticated applications are more and more demanding on the end users. The primary purpose of ICTs is to provide an enabling environment for the generation of ideas, their dissemination and use. Through ICTs, the diffusion and sharing of knowledge is enabled through open access to information and better coordination of knowledge. ICT facilitates the creation of networks locally, regionally and globally.
Farmers require information to link various inputs at reasonable prices and also link output markets. (Adekunle et al 2004). A combination of the two may increase farmer’s income. (Arokoyo, 2005) noted that a strong extension linkage complimented by flawless information flow enhanced by the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will significantly boost agricultural production and improve rural methods in developing countries. The role of ICT is also recognized in millennium development goal no. 8 (MDG 8), which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies especially information and communication technologies in the fight against poverty. They are also required to make the world a global village.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension worker who have been trained in various disciplines in agriculture and rural development. They play the critical role of linking technology sources to technology end users, that is, the farmers. This definition goes beyond the traditional role of extension workers to include assessment and articulation of farmers’ technology needs, research and development of new technology testing and evaluation of new technology and transferring it to farmers. In particular, agricultural professionals have a crucial role to play in bridging the technology gap that exists between the existing scientific knowledge base and information and knowledge in the hands of farmers. The institutions that engage the personnel provide facilities which could enhance the performance of their duties as research and extension personnel. 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The ICTs involve the use of many electronic based communication systems such as computers, radios, televisions, Global System of Mobile communication (GSM). It is obvious that it is new in agricultural extension and rural development (Omotayo, 2005). Agricultural professionals use ICTs for data processing, access of agricultural related information for (experimentation) and dissemination to farmers. The agricultural professionals in different types of institutions no doubt have need and have been using ICTs, for various activities. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), for instance as an international institution, in order to achieve her mandates of generating proven technologies across African countries require ICTs to enhance performance of staff. This also applies to National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) and Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP) which have national and state mandates respectively. Considering the importance of ICTs to agricultural research and extension, this study therefore assessed the access and use of ICTs by the agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo State. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly seen as essential tools in development projects that can create new sources of income, make governments more transparent and accessible, improve education and health care, and overcome social exclusion and discrimination. To harness these potentials, multinational hi-tech corporations are forming public-private partnerships with governments, development institutions and civil society organization in the delivery, of ICTs to the rural masses.
Kiplangat (2003) affirms that ICTs have become a driving force in development, providing a means of narrowing the information gap between developed and developing countries and among their communities. The accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
Agriculture in Africa if revitalized properly can drive the wheels of rural economy and to some extent even the urban economy as the urban dwellers depend on rural farmers for food. Rural farmers whom the majority is small-scale farmers contribute about 80% to the region’s food basket. However, these farmers are faced with constrained market access, which includes physical access to markets and lack of information. It is difficult for the farmers to market and achieve commodity exchanges if communication is encumbered. Limited access to market due to lack of information on available markets is retarding development in rural areas. Therefore, it becomes very difficult for small-scale farmers on developing countries to penetrate the international markets. In short, the big markets determine the prices without considering the high production costs incurred by the less advantaged subsistence farmers in developing countries. 
The study, therefore, provided answers to questions such as 
What are the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals in Ibadan?
What is the level of awareness of ICTs by the agricultural professionals? 
How accessible are the ICTs tools among the agricultural professional?
What is the extent of the respondents in the use of ICTs for identified activities by the respondents?
What is the competency of the respondents in the use of ICTs?
What are the factors militating against the use of ICTs by the respondents?
What are the factors motivating the use of ICTs by the respondents?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess the access and usage of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo state. 
The specific objectives include to; 
examine the personal characteristics of the agricultural professionals; 
assess the level of awareness of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan;
determine the accessibility of ICTs tools among these professionals;
determine the extent of use of ICTs for identified activities among agricultural professionals;
determine the competence of respondents in ICTs usage; 
examine the factors militating against the use of ICTs tools; and 
examine the facto rs motivating the use of ICTs tools;
1.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and access to ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals and the use of ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and competence in the use of ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the professionals in the institutions with respect to accessibility to ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the respondents in the institutions with respect to the use for technical activities.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between professionals in the institutions with respect to competence in the use of ICTs.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study was primarily necessitated by the benefits inherent in using information and communication technology by agricultural professionals to reach the farmers. There is a need to exploit strategies for effective and timely delivery of information to farmers. 
The suggestions from the study could enhance effective and timely dissemination of improved agricultural technologies to farmers which would boost agricultural production. 
This study will be of great relevance and concern to the agricultural researchers, extension workers, policy makers and government agencies that have the mandate to improve agricultural extension delivery in the country and specifically in IITA, NIHORT and Oyo ADP. The study will be of great relevance to policy makers, as it will help in the formulation of policies concerning information dissemination in the agricultural sector, having revealed the actual information and communication technologies (ICTs) accessed and used by the agricultural professionals.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension workers who have been trained in various disciples in agriculture and rural development.

ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) AMONG STAFF OF AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is an important economic sector, since it provides income and food for a large segment of the population in developing countries. It plays a key role in the socio-economic development of many developing countries. For Agriculture to play these key roles successfully, farmers need to be properly informed in order to take rational decisions with respect to the adoption of improved agricultural technologies.
According to FAO (2000), much information is unavailable or inaccessible particularly to poor farmers, many practical lessons have been learnt but not shared and there are few opportunities for dialogue to enable concerns to be resolved. The agricultural sector needs technologies that can make information available and easily accessible to farmers and agricultural professionals. Hence, the accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
The term Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) refer to hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, and transmission in the formats of voice, data, text, and images (World Bank ICT Glossary Guide). As such, the nature of ICTs is diverse ranging from telephones, radios, and television to more technologies such as internet technologies, mobile telephony, computers and databases. This diversity means that they can be used by people with varying degrees of skills, although the current trends towards sophisticated applications are more and more demanding on the end users. The primary purpose of ICTs is to provide an enabling environment for the generation of ideas, their dissemination and use. Through ICTs, the diffusion and sharing of knowledge is enabled through open access to information and better coordination of knowledge. ICT facilitates the creation of networks locally, regionally and globally.
Farmers require information to link various inputs at reasonable prices and also link output markets. (Adekunle et al 2004). A combination of the two may increase farmer’s income. (Arokoyo, 2005) noted that a strong extension linkage complimented by flawless information flow enhanced by the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will significantly boost agricultural production and improve rural methods in developing countries. The role of ICT is also recognized in millennium development goal no. 8 (MDG 8), which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies especially information and communication technologies in the fight against poverty. They are also required to make the world a global village.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension worker who have been trained in various disciplines in agriculture and rural development. They play the critical role of linking technology sources to technology end users, that is, the farmers. This definition goes beyond the traditional role of extension workers to include assessment and articulation of farmers’ technology needs, research and development of new technology testing and evaluation of new technology and transferring it to farmers. In particular, agricultural professionals have a crucial role to play in bridging the technology gap that exists between the existing scientific knowledge base and information and knowledge in the hands of farmers. The institutions that engage the personnel provide facilities which could enhance the performance of their duties as research and extension personnel. 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The ICTs involve the use of many electronic based communication systems such as computers, radios, televisions, Global System of Mobile communication (GSM). It is obvious that it is new in agricultural extension and rural development (Omotayo, 2005). Agricultural professionals use ICTs for data processing, access of agricultural related information for (experimentation) and dissemination to farmers. The agricultural professionals in different types of institutions no doubt have need and have been using ICTs, for various activities. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), for instance as an international institution, in order to achieve her mandates of generating proven technologies across African countries require ICTs to enhance performance of staff. This also applies to National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) and Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP) which have national and state mandates respectively. Considering the importance of ICTs to agricultural research and extension, this study therefore assessed the access and use of ICTs by the agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo State. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly seen as essential tools in development projects that can create new sources of income, make governments more transparent and accessible, improve education and health care, and overcome social exclusion and discrimination. To harness these potentials, multinational hi-tech corporations are forming public-private partnerships with governments, development institutions and civil society organization in the delivery, of ICTs to the rural masses.
Kiplangat (2003) affirms that ICTs have become a driving force in development, providing a means of narrowing the information gap between developed and developing countries and among their communities. The accessibility to information which is made readily available by ICTs has helped in molding our altitudes towards life as there is more information about certain aspects of life including the agricultural sector (Spore, 2004). 
Agriculture in Africa if revitalized properly can drive the wheels of rural economy and to some extent even the urban economy as the urban dwellers depend on rural farmers for food. Rural farmers whom the majority is small-scale farmers contribute about 80% to the region’s food basket. However, these farmers are faced with constrained market access, which includes physical access to markets and lack of information. It is difficult for the farmers to market and achieve commodity exchanges if communication is encumbered. Limited access to market due to lack of information on available markets is retarding development in rural areas. Therefore, it becomes very difficult for small-scale farmers on developing countries to penetrate the international markets. In short, the big markets determine the prices without considering the high production costs incurred by the less advantaged subsistence farmers in developing countries. 
The study, therefore, provided answers to questions such as 
What are the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals in Ibadan?
What is the level of awareness of ICTs by the agricultural professionals? 
How accessible are the ICTs tools among the agricultural professional?
What is the extent of the respondents in the use of ICTs for identified activities by the respondents?
What is the competency of the respondents in the use of ICTs?
What are the factors militating against the use of ICTs by the respondents?
What are the factors motivating the use of ICTs by the respondents?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study was to assess the access and usage of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan, Oyo state. 
The specific objectives include to; 
examine the personal characteristics of the agricultural professionals; 
assess the level of awareness of ICTs among agricultural professionals in Ibadan;
determine the accessibility of ICTs tools among these professionals;
determine the extent of use of ICTs for identified activities among agricultural professionals;
determine the competence of respondents in ICTs usage; 
examine the factors militating against the use of ICTs tools; and 
examine the facto rs motivating the use of ICTs tools;
1.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and access to ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of agricultural professionals and the use of ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the personal characteristics of respondents and competence in the use of ICTs.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the professionals in the institutions with respect to accessibility to ICTs. 
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the respondents in the institutions with respect to the use for technical activities.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between professionals in the institutions with respect to competence in the use of ICTs.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study was primarily necessitated by the benefits inherent in using information and communication technology by agricultural professionals to reach the farmers. There is a need to exploit strategies for effective and timely delivery of information to farmers. 
The suggestions from the study could enhance effective and timely dissemination of improved agricultural technologies to farmers which would boost agricultural production. 
This study will be of great relevance and concern to the agricultural researchers, extension workers, policy makers and government agencies that have the mandate to improve agricultural extension delivery in the country and specifically in IITA, NIHORT and Oyo ADP. The study will be of great relevance to policy makers, as it will help in the formulation of policies concerning information dissemination in the agricultural sector, having revealed the actual information and communication technologies (ICTs) accessed and used by the agricultural professionals.
Agricultural professionals are scientists, researchers and extension workers who have been trained in various disciples in agriculture and rural development.

ASSESSMENT OF VALUE CHAIN INFORMATION SOURCES IN PIG PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Extension has been defined as a process directed to bring about changes in the behavior and life style of farmers and rural people. Farm families have seen to be helped to improve step by step (Johnson, 2003). According to Adereti and Ajayi (2005), extension can be defined as an informal out of school system of education designated to help rural people to satisfy their needs interest and desires.
Communication in agricultural extension leads to improve agricultural production of crops and livestock’s through giving relevant information about pest and diseases, also to give relevant information’s about proven agricultural technologies according to Fliese (1984), Communication is a vital issue in agriculture, conveying, improve and recommended agricultural practices through extension workers to clients in order to improve on their agricultural production and in marketing of their produce (Williams, 1989). On the other hand, agricultural extension is an out of school education for rural people. An extension agent is responsible for providing knowledge and information on particular innovations and through communication, he passes such, to farmers. (Ajayi and Gunn 2009)
According to Remison (2005). The term Coco-yam (colocasia esculentus and xanthosoma sagittifolium) is used to refer collectively to member of genus colocasia and the genus xanthosoma which are grown for food in many parts of Africa, especially the wetter parts. They are grown in small plots, often intercropped with food or cash crops. They are volunteer crops in many places and can be classified as minor crops considering the level of attention given to them by farmers. The plants of both species are similar, but the long and short petiole of colocasia is attached to the leaf blade at same point in the middle of the blade not to its edge. The plant of xanthosoma are larger and the leaves are sagittate with triangular basal lobes. They are more prolific in growth and earlier than colocosia. Some authorities refers to colocosia as old coco-yam and xanthosoma as new cocoyam. Taro originated in south central Asia from where it spread to the rest of Africa. Tannia originated in central and south America and were it was first cultivated. There, it was introduced to Africa in the nineteen century, much later than taro. Hence, it is sometimes called new cocoyam. About three quarters of world production comes from Africa and there is probably a greater production of tannia than taro.
According to Onwuere, and Sinba (1991), Law and Peter (2012). Cocoyam has the following uses: fresh corms and cormels of cocoyam can be consumed after being boiled, baked or roasted or fried in oil, boiled corms and cormels are pounded into a paste (“fufu”), similarly, to pounded yam eaten with stew or soup; cocoyam leaves are used for human food, eaten as vegetables in the various part of the world, including several countries in the tropics as it is very nutritious with 20% protein on a dry weight basis, with appreciable amounts of vitamins and minerals, leaves must not be eaten raw but boiled before consumption as it is irritating if eaten raw, corms and leaves of cocoyam can be used as animal feeds, the leaves should be converted to silage before using as a feed top prevent irritation to the animals; the corms of tannia are reserved as planting materials as the corms tend to be woody, coco yam; used as flour after processing by peeling, slicing, (fresh or cooked), drying and milling into flour, cocoyam used as poi after processing by cooking, mashing, stroning bargging (where slight fermentation occur), young shorts of cocoyam’s are sometimes balanced and eaten like asparagus, cocoyam is used for cellulous, soup a favour dish in Trinidad, is made by boiling the chopped up tannia of the leaf with okra, herm and crops, which is now being canned. The peel of cocoyam can be utilized as feed for ruminants rather than been discarded. Taro is used specially for the potentially allegic persons for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorder.
The people in Edo State consumes cocoyam as a form of dish-popularly known as “porage”. The cocoyam is produced within and all over the state, especially in areas like Iguere, Ehor, Ugiehudu, Oke, Orua, Agboinkaka, Odiguetue Iruckpen Irue etc.
As part of extension delivery, the Edo State ADP on it own has extended its communication services to farmer in some villages earlier mention where cocoyam farmers now practiced or carry out other crops. However, at Oke, Ehor, Iruekpen, Orua, Iguere which are in Orhomwon, Esan south – west and uhumwode local government areas, success has been found within the cocoyam farmers, as they now used it particularly for major cover crops for tree crops like cocoa, rubber, plantain, cola, palm, hence they have added values as the leaves of cocoyam helps in absorbing thunder lighting and acts as shade and smodar of weeds and shade for tree crops thereby assisting them in minimizing used of land, labour and capital (maintenance cultural practices in crop production), 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Cocoyam nutritionally, haven’t seen it as very rich in carbohydrate, protein, minerals, vitamins and it high medicinal value especially when the succulent tender leaves are slice and cooks as vegetables soup for consumption, this crop as a matter of fact, serves in some other ways, such as cover crop for some permanent crops such as cola, palm oil, rubber, cocoa, in their young growth stages, haven’t know it to be an arable crop. But a lot of people under estimate it, and opts not to have considered it useful and profitable just like yam or cassava, plantain. However, because of these attributes, cocoyam has it and will fit into federal government food security programme, especially as it is obvious as noted by the growing population in the country is experiencing food defects that has caused the Nigerian government to have spent a lot of money in Nigeria industries. Therefore cocoyam as a crop should be given priority for extension, going by it value in nutritional, medicinal, industrial benefits hence questions researchers sorts to answer are:
1. What are the socio-economics characteristics?
2. Will cocoyam production technologies be introduced to farmer by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) and through what means or information sources?
3. What is the level of adoption of Agricultural Information?
4. What is the attitude of farmer towards technology information on cocoyam?
5. What constraint farmers have in adopting the technologies in cocoyam production?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study was to assess the perception of extension communication among coco yam farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. 
The specific objectives of the study were to:
examine socio-economic characteristics of cocoyam farmers in the study area;
identify cocoyam production technologies introduced to farmers by ADP, and through what information source;
determine the level of adoption of information;
determine the attitude of farmers towards information received; and
identify constraints faced by respondents in adopting cocoyam technologies. 
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of the study is stated in the null form as follows: 
There is no significant difference between respondents, socio-economic characteristics and frequency of seeking information, technology utilization, awareness and adoption of cocoyam technologies. 
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is importance because its recommendation will be useful to government, policy makers, ADP, farmers individuals and researchers in areas of decision making and implementation with regard to cocoyam farmer’s perception on technologies utilization, sourcing and adoption. It will be a source of empirical data on level of technology utilization, hence, it enrich database of cocoyam production in Edo St ate, Nigeria. 

EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF STANDARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON YIELD OF URBAN FISH FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unsafe Food Marketing and its Economic Implication in Nigeria 
Agriculture and the food industry have remained strategic sectors of the economy of many nations. Agriculture plays a vital role in human development, growth and survival of nations. The issues of food production in terms of availability, accessibility, wholesomeness and nutrient quality has been the concern of many developing nations. “Food” is any substance or material eaten to provide nutritional support for the body and usually consists of plant or animal origin that contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins or minerals. Foods are product derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues (Whitney and Rolfes, 2005). 
Food is a commodity which contain nutrients and is thus nutritive, susceptible of satisfying appetite, thus palatable and accepted as food in the society being considered thus customary. Safety is defined as setting standards for toxicological and microbiological hazards, and instituting procedures and practices to ensure that the standards are achieved (FAO/WHO, 1991). 
Food safety therefore describes the handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness and it is also the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. This include a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards (FAO/WHO, 1992). 
Food is a necessity and accounts for significant expenditure in households all over the world. It features prominently in both national and international commerce. Food affect our biological life as well as our material interest. The task of keeping our food supply steady and safe is therefore, an important issue concerning all. Food safety is a complex and diversified subject, involving the cooperation of scientists, industrialists, agriculturalists, businessmen, administrators and consumers (FAO/WHO, 1980). 
At the heart of all food control activities is the establishment of safety, quality and labeling standards. These should be established on the broadest possible scale, in the recognition that food production and marketing is truly a global industry. A food is said to have quality if it provides sensory characteristics such as the taste, aroma, palatability and appearance.
Food quality is the multi-component measure of the extent to which the units of a food product which a seller is willing and able to offer at a price, consistently meet the requirements and expectations of consumers willing and able to buy the food product at that price. Quality of a given product may be looked at as its conformity to a given level of excellence which represent particular standards or specifications with minimum cost to the producer and is believed to be satisfactory with the consumer in general. 
Contamination of food and feeds makes them both to be unsafe for consumption and is a very serious issue everywhere. In many developing countries where the need to eat may outweigh concerns about food safety, it is a particularly serious problem with increase globalization. 
The problem with food is that although man harvests or hunts food for his own personal consumption, there are many other living organisms that try to use this food for their own use. This includes organism that range from large animals through small forms of life such as insects, down to microscopic forms of life such as bacteria. Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic burden on communities and their health systems. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Dried fish easily absorbs moisture during handling and storage especially when the relative humidity is high. This occurs when the dried fish absorbs moisture from its immediate environment, thereby resulting in increase water activity which causes mould growth and spoilage. 
There is the incidence of insect and rodent attacks on dried fish during handling which causes further contamination by micro organism. This necessitates the application of insecticides to preserve dried fish during marketing. Application of insecticide or pesticide has safety implications on the side of consumers because of possible food poisoning arising from residual action of insecticides. 
The economic impact of contaminated foods is devastating. Developing countries with limited resources lose foreign exchange as a result of rejected food exports to developed countries (FAO/WHO 1992). The economy of a nation can suffer greatly from loss of confidence from trading partners. Furthermore, victims of food borne illnesses suffer from physical and emotional distress and the cost of treatment and loss of wages are a burden to the nation. 
Effective food safety control system in developing countries can make a major contribution by reducing food losses through insect attack and contamination. The study will address the following research questions:
What are the factors militating against food safety among dried fish sellers in the study area?
What is the cost implication of food safety among dried fish marketers?
What are the possible ways of improving safety practices of dried fish?
What are the causes of dried fish poisoning in the study area?
Is dried fish marketing profitable?
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The main objective is to carry out analysis of food safety among dried fish sellers in Akure, Ondo State. The specific objectives are to:
examine the socioeconomic characteristics of dried fish sellers. 
identify the safety practices of dried fish sellers.
estimate the cost of food safety among dried fish marketers. 
identify the problems of dried fish marketing among the sellers.
1.4 Justification of the Study 
Agriculture and food security provide the springboard for health via adequacy as in quantity available with emphasis on quality depicted by nutrition and food safety.
Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. WHO estimates that food borne and water borne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually, 1.9 million of them children most of whom are in developing countries. 
In order to enhance food safety, the amount of resources used and the efficiency of production are contingent upon use of appropriate technologies, infrastructure, storage, processing, marketing and transportation.
At the end of this research, it is believed that the result of this research will not only provide useful information for participating and intending sellers and consumers of dried fish but will also provide information for future researchers, extension agents and policy makers in finding long lasting solutions to the various problems of food safety among the dried fish sellers. 

UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture with its positive impact on the Nigerian populace is faced with myriad of problems among which is low utilization of technologies. The low utilization of technologies by the farmers may be ascribed to inadequacy of information. Information, in a broad context refers to organized data recorded in various forms (Yahaya, 2003). Information could also be messages that are perceivable and recognizable value to the receiver. Information is therefore a raw resource for knowledge. In the agricultural sector, arable farmers need information about their farming activities.
Aina (1989) stated that lack of information on modern agricultural technology is a key factor limiting agricultural development in Nigeria. Low accessibility to agricultural information leads to low adoption of improved technologies, which invariably affects farmers‟ productivity and could lead to poverty (Ozowa, 2005). Utilisation of improved farm practices requires adequate information, which has to be effectively disseminated so that the clientele receives it, understands it and regards it as a valid basis for action. For instance, while it has been established that farmers use various media sources (Keregero, 1993), it is where farmers seek information that they also find information relating to agricultural practices ranging from agronomic, processing and storage, which are of tremendous importance to the success of arable farmers. The choice usually lies with the source of the message to be transmitted; it must be knowledgeable about a particular channel of communication before employing it. The undisputable fact is that different channels perform different functions in the transmission of information on farm matters (agricultural development), depending on the stage of adoption process, the characteristics of innovation, the socio – economic and personal characteristics of audience (Farinde, 1991; Njoku, 1990). Farinde (1991) and Farinde and Jibowo (1994), have established that the effectiveness of any communication channel depends most in particular on its selection as an appropriate channel or medium of communication. Hence a better way of understanding information utilization is to determine the sources of such information. The selection depends on the size and type of audience, the characteristics of methods, e.g. cost of procurement, complexity, availability and feedback potential (Farinde, 1991). Any system initiating and stimulating development has a responsibility to provide and disseminate information about its activities to make the people knowledgeable about things happening around them, and also generate in them the right attitudes and encourage the adoption of desirable value systems.
In agriculture, the role of information cannot be over emphasized in enhancing the agricultural development. Information is crucial for increasing agricultural production and improving marketing & distribution strategies (Oladele, 2006). Communication is critical to finding solution to problems of food production through facilitating research- farmer linkage using ICTs (Dauda et al., 2010). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are foundation of the new global information based economy. They are increasingly becoming the key drivers for socio-economic growth. Notably the role of information in farming is significantly meant to reduce the influences of risk and uncertainty-related factors. Bala and Sharma (2008) and Singh et al. (2011) argue that to compete the global market today, our farmers should have latest information regarding new techniques of farming, new methods of cultivation, new crops, seeds, pesticides, water management, marketing of the product, government policies regarding agriculture, export potential of their crops. Information and knowledge are very vital in agricultural development of any community, non-availability of basic agricultural knowledge and information for Arable crop producers in Edo and Delta State as a result of certain problem will enable these farmers stick to their old traditional ways of farming system hence resulting in poor crop productivity. Also in situation whereby the farmers lack access to knowledge and information that would help to foster them in achieving maximum agricultural yield, they are not only grope in the dark but are driven to big cities in search of formal employment, as the only option for survival (Munyua, 2000). Blait (1996) speculated that the least expensive input for improved agricultural development is adequate access to knowledge and information in areas of new agricultural technologies, early warning systems (drought, pests, diseases etc), improved seedlings, fertilizer, credit, market prices etc. There have been short-comings of traditional print and library based methods of providing such agricultural information to arable crop producers whom are likely low standard and relatively remote from access to information (e.g. extension stations, libraries). In the past decades, Nigeria’s agricultural sector has experienced steady decline in productivity. However, in recent time, indices has showed that the sector have started witnessing a gradual but slow growth (Oladipo, 2013). This growth was necessitated by population growth, changing climate and technology needs (Henri-Ukoha et al., 2012). These technologies are innovations such as ICT facilities, mechanized farming equipments, improved and high yielding varieties, and integrated pest management control, post harvest technologies, efficiency in land use, among others. Access to information technology is highly gotten by these and can only be made available ti them through extension workers, state and local government and community libraries (ADP, ENADEP etc) Telecommons Development Group, 2000).
Arable crops; they are crops which are cultivated on ploughed land. Agronomically arable crops can be grouped as follows:- cereal crops; e.g. maize and wheat. Legume crops; e.g. cowpea and groundnut. Root and tuber crops e.g. cassava and yam. Fibre crop; e.g. cotton and jute. Stimulant crops; e.g. tobacco. Some arable crops are prevalent in Edo and Delta State.
Maize (Zea Mays .L.); Maize is also known as “Indian crop” or “simple corn”. It is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world (Anon, 1993). Maize is produced annually than any other grain. About 50 species exist and consist of different colours, textures, grain shapes and sizes. White and yellow varieties are preferred by people in Edo and Delta State. Maize is the most important cereal crop in this region. All part of the crop can be used. Maize can be used for the following purposes:- 
As a staple human food, maize is a stable food in Edo and Delta State. It is eaten as boiled or roasted maize. Corn meal and cornflakes are examples of food products made for human consumption. Maize is however unsuitable for bread making as it is deficient in gluten.
As feed for livestock, it is the cheapest and most palatable carbonaceous feed for animals such as pigs, cattle, sheep and poultry. Most of the maize crop is fed to livestock as grain, silage or fodder on the farms where it is produced. It is relatively high in fat and starch but is low in proteins. It is therefore essential to feed it together with protein feed to provide a balanced diet.
Corn starch, corn oil, corn syrup and corn sugar are the chief industrial products obtain from maize. Corn starch, is universal food stuff. It is used for starching clothes, in the manufacture of asbestos, ceramics, dyes, plastics, oil cloths and linoleum. Corn oil is used in the manufacture of soaps, vanishes, paints and other similar products. Corn syrup is used in shoe polish and in tobacco industry. Corn sugar is used in the manufacture of jams and jellies, chemicals, dyes and explosives. 
Other minor uses include the use of stalks and leaves for making paper, paper board and wall-board. (Remison, 2004).
Cassava (Manihot Esculenta); Cassava is a perennial woody shrub with an edible root. It is the major source of dietary energy for low-income consumers in Edo and Delta State. It is rich in carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins B and C, and essential minerals. However, nutrient composition differs according to variety and age of the harvested crop and soil conditions, climate, and other environmental factors during cultivation (Remison, 2004). Cassava is a subsistence crop grown for the following purposes:-
Human consumption, Garri, a free flowing granular meal, is consumed in a variety of way. Other cassava meals include “Elubo” from cassava flour, “Fufu” which is boiled and pounded cassava. Tapioca is made from cassava, it is wet or partially dried sieve starch particles heated with continuous stirring. Tapioca is used for puddings, biscuits and confectionery.
As livestock feed, cassava chips can be used to compound animal feed because of high energy content. Its used to feed pigs & cattle. Its very affordable.
Cassava starch is also an important industrial raw material; it is used in laundering and in the manufacture of many products. Beer and other alcoholic can be made from cassava. (Remison, Ewanlen and Okaka, 2002).
Cocoyam (colocasia esculenta (L.) Taro)
(Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Tannia) 
Cocoyams are herbaceous perennial plants belonging to the family Araceae and are grown primarily for their edible roots, although all parts of the plants are edible. Its edible roots are starchy. Cocoyam can be used for the following purposes:-
Human consumption via cooking, frying, roasting or baking. Processed into flour by peeling, slicing, drying the slices and milling the dried slices. The flour is used for various food preparations.
The young leaves are used as vegetables in some places. Cooking removes the calcium oxalate, which causes acridity in the leaves and tubers. The leaves, corms and cormels can be used as animal feed. (Remison, 2004).
Yam (Dioscorea spp); Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of his starchy tuber. (Igbokwe, Onaku and Opara. 1988). Yams are primary agricultural and culturally important commodity in Edo and Delta State. Some varieties of these tubers can be stored up to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season.
Dioscorea rotundata, the ‘white yam’ and Dioscorea cayenensis, the ‘yellow yam’ are native to Africa and are preferred by Edo and Delta State Arable crop farmers. Yams can be used for various purposes:-
Mainly for human consumption as they provide a cheap source of carbohydrate. The most common forms of yam consumption are as boiled yam, pounded yam, roasted yam, fried or baked yam.
Wild species have been used as a source material for the manufacture of oral contraceptives (Remison, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Over the years, Arable crop farmers depend on indigenous or local knowledge for improved farming system. Such knowledge (indigenous or local knowledge) refers to skill and experience gained through oral tradition and practice over many generations (Norem, et al., 1988). Acquisition of such primitive skill by our rural farmers (e.g. rural farmers in Edo and Delta State) has not helped to improve agricultural produce. All that is witnessed in our rural agricultural system range from low farm yield, crop failure due to diseases, resistant plant weeds and pests that attack arable crops, old farm implements, poor quality fertilizers etc. Agricultural information are always meant to get to rural farmers through information sources like extension workers, community libraries, radio, television, film shows, agricultural pamphlets, state and local government agricultural agencies etc. Lack of useful information could lead to poverty because farmers’ productivity will be affected (Ozowa, 2005). Low accessibility to agricultural information also leads to poor communication linkage between extension farmers-research and consultations between policy makers, policy analysts, and policy beneficiaries on agricultural and rural development policy issues.
Rural farmers in their effort to access these agricultural knowledge and information from available sources, for better farming system and improved agricultural yield, are confronted with certain constraints. The present study was therefore designed to identify the constraints which hinder arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta state from accessing agricultural information for improved crop production.
The research questions now are:
What are the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State?
What are the respondent’s access, preference and frequency of use of agricultural information sources?
What are the respondent awareness level, adoption status of technologies and competent in the use of technology?
What are the motivation factors of the use of agricultural information sources?
What are the constraints the respondent’s face in arable crop farming and the use of agricultural information source?
1.3 Objectives of the study
The broad objective of the study is to access utilization of information by arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
describe the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta States;
identify information sources used by arable crop farmers in Edo and Delta State;
ascertain the respondent awareness level, adoption status of technologies and competent in the use of technologies;
examine respondents’ access, preference and frequency use of agricultural information sources;
identify motivational factors for the use of Agricultural information sources; and
ascertain the constraints the respondents face in arable crop farming and the use of agricultural information sources. 
1.4 Hypotheses for the Study
There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and motivational factors for their use of agricultural information sources.
Motivational factors do not significantly affect respondents’ preference and frequency of use of ICTs agricultural information sourcing.
There is no significant relationship between respondent awareness level, adoption technology and the constraints faced in arable crop farming.
There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondent and the constraints faced in arable crop farming.
There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics and constraints faced in the use of information sources.
1.5 Justification 
This study was primarily necessitated by the advantages inherent in the roles played by arable crop farmers in the growth of agricultural economy and how effective communication of agricultural technology can enhance the productivity of arable crop farmers’ operators.
Developing technologies for arable farm operators to adopt is not enough, but effort should be geared towards making arable farm operators to understand the importance of utilization of improved technologies. To bring about agricultural development, the provision of agricultural information plays a decisive role. Presently besides the indigenous farm experience, Government designed programs contribute to provide agricultural information in order to improve the yield of arable crop producer hence giving the farmers a better life.
All development carriers like extension services, NGOs and other development agencies involved in agricultural development, especially in resettlement program, must be aware of the need to understand the constraints and factors influencing the level of the access to and utilization of agricultural information and understand the gaps to take remedial action. The importance of agriculture in the economy of Nigeria is profound. Despite the growth of industries, oil and commerce it continues to be the principal economic activity of the people of Nigeria. Thus 70% of the people are engaged in agriculture but more than 70% of these farms at subsistence level (Okubanjo, 1990; Nigeria millennium Development Report, 2004). The Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO (1993) suggested that in order to enhance agricultural development, new commodities and new methods of production must be developed. In Nigeria, there are various agencies, research institutes, agricultural universities/colleges and non-governmental organizations that generate innovations and improved farm practices or technologies (Ilevbaoje, 1998). The primary function of the dissemination component (agricultural extension, agricultural change agencies, private extension organizations, etc.) is the transformation of the agricultural sector of the national economy through promotion of rapid adoption and utilization of improved farming technologies by the utilization component – the farmers (Ilevbaoje, 1998).
According to CTA (1996), Ozowa (1997) and Conroy (2003) the quantum of agricultural technology information available in the Nigerian systems developed by research institutes and faculties of agriculture in universities is quite enormous. The problem therefore, lies with effective dissemination of information about these innovations by the dissemination agencies. Research institutes must disseminate their findings to the target group – the farmers, while receiving feed back to indicate that communication was successful. The feedback is expected to expose areas requiring modification or further enquiry. Agricultural information disseminated by different information sources need to be determined. It is imperative therefore to identify the sources of agricultural information utilized by farmers.

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY ON COCOA PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most import economic produce in Nigeria. This can be drawn out in terms of annual contribution to foreign exchange earnings, income earning, employment, internal revenue generation and as source of raw material for industry.
Nigeria is potentially one of the most economically endowed nation of the world, having abundant of resources e.g. coffee, rubber, oil palm, cocoa and other non crop product, such as petroleum.
In Nigeria, cocoa is a very important part of the cash crop family in the agricultural sector. Analysis shows that, in the 1980’s cocoa production in Nigeria was at its peak, Overtime, the output has fallen by over 50%. from 1980 to 2002 due to technical inefficiency of the agricultural sector. Tian and Guary (2000) in China has shown that there is room for increasing agricultural productivity in developing countries by improving technical efficiency of agricultural production. That every factors of production should be efficiently and effectively mobilized in cocoa production to reduce the gap between actual and potential output.
The major objective of stakeholders of cocoa produce in the state is to increase production on a sustainable basis at the farm level. Cocoa productivity levels can be enhance either by improving technical efficiency and or by improving technological application (Nkamleu et al, 2010). This aspect shows that proper farm maintenance through weeding and increased use of input like pesticides and fertilizer is considered to be the more effective way to increase production. This is because a greater part of cocoa produce is lost due to diseases, pests, and weeds (Binam et al , 2008; Dzene, 2010). Cocoa yields depends on how farmers combine their resources optimally to maximize output for cocoa produce and also optimize resource use in the industry, for cocoa to continue to play its key role in the economy.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There has been a continuous problem in the production of cocoa over the years. As a result of the lack of application technical knowhow and other economic tools. As we know, at a point in the country economic history, agricultural production was of a major priority in Nigerian. But as time went by, there has been a gradual and small fall in the output overtime. Nigeria produces a little more than half of what she used to produce in the 1970’s (CBN 2004).
In order to increase and maintain a quality and quantity production of cocoa, there is a need to improve on technical efficiency and application aspect of economic principles to production, cut down over-regulation of the sector, provide effective marketing system and invest more on the sector. This works intends to answer the following questions: What are the challenges faced by cocoa farmers; and what method to adopt to improve on cocoa production.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to ascertain the technical efficiency of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in Esan West Local Government area of Edo state.
i. Examine the socio-economic characteristics of cocoa producers.
ii. Estimate the levels of technical efficiency in cocoa production.
iii. Examine the factors that influence the level of efficiency in cocoa production. 
1.4 Justification
An interest in this study stems from the fact that cocoa production in Nigeria is reducing and Nigeria is experiencing difficulties meeting local demand for cocoa product.
This however, creates an opportunity for increased production. It therefore becomes necessary to offer information on this sub-sector of the agricultural sector in order to show the potentials of cocoa production and also to highlight the potential for boosting the Nigerian economy by concentrating on the cocoa production sector.
The study will provide the information needed for a successful cocoa enterprise which also would boost the confidence of the cocoa farmer and also could serve as guide for investors in the enterprise.

ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN DISSEMINATING AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION TO OIL PALM AND PLANTAIN FARMERS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
According to the business dictionary, information is defined as a “Data that has been verified to be accurate and timely. It is specific, organized for a purpose and presented within a context that gives its meaning and relevance which can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty .Reits (2010)defines information need as a gap in a person’s knowledge that,when experienced at the conscious level as a question, gives rise to a search for an answer .information is a fact or knowledge provided or learned as a result of research or study(smith 2001). It is the fact and knowledge needed to answer some question faced by people in their daily life
The world Encyclopedia defines information as an ordered sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as a message. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behaviour, decision or outcome e. a piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. Agriculture play an essential role in everyday human activities ranging from the provision of primary needs like food, clothing and shelter to secondary needs like construction, manufacturing etc. while much of the world is still stuck in subsistence agriculture practiced majorly in remote part of the country, a little proportion of agriculture is just being practiced under the light of civilization and modernization. That is to say, farmers in the remote part need to be constantly fed with information, idea, knowledge and skills developed from the Research Institute for better farming practice and eventual increase in yield. Information might be inform of new technology like storage facilities,better farming system like mechanization,access to credit facilities.e.t.c For Agricultural information to be effective, after the information has been conveyed from the donor,i.e Ministry of Agriculture and its subordinate like Research Institute, Agriculture Development Project (ADP) etc, to the target (farmers), a feedback from the receiver to the donor of the information must be accomplished. 
New information
Feedback 
Ministry of Agriculture
Farmers 
Agricultural information
Agric information tends to connect the Ministry of Agriculture and the farmers. It can be represented in a Venn diagram as below.
Also Agricultural information tend to connect the different Departments of Agriculture by elaborating on how judiciously individual department bye-products can be utilize by another department which will eventually increase the yield of one another. For example, Nitrogen is naturally fixed to the soil by some legumes like Callopogonium Mucunoide. Which will eventually increase the nutritive value of livestock that feed on them. While the excreta of the livestock is used as manure for crops to increase their yield. It can be represented sectorially as below.
Crop Science
Agricultural information
Animal Science 
Horticulture 
Natural
Science
Fisheries 
Soil Science 
The means of transferring Agriculture may be through Extension Agent or through mass media. Media transmit their information electronically with Television, Film, Radio, Movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles. Alternatively, print media uses a physical object as a means of sending their information such as Newspaper, Magazine, Brochures, Newsletters, books, leaflets and pamphlets. Outdoor media is also a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings like Shops/Buses. Public Speaking and event organizing e.g. Demonstration are also considered as mass media.
Mass media have been acclaimed to be a very effective medium for diffusing the scientific knowledge, innovation and technology to the masses. In a country like Nigeria, precisely Edo State, where farmers’ literacy level is low, the choice of communication medium is of vital importance. Radio for example because of its cost (low) and its affordability by virtually all classes of income earners, it can transfer modern Agricultural technology to both literate and illiterate farmers even in interior or remote areas, within short time. Television could serve as a suitable medium of dissemination of farm information and latest technical know-how. The farmers can easily understand the operations, technology and instruction through television. The print media widened the scope of communication. It is cheap and farmers can afford to buy and read them at their convenience. It is a permanent medium in that the message are imprinted permanently with high storage value which makes them suitable for reference and research. 
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as the specific name implies is naturally found along the guinea gulf of West Africa which include countries like Cameroon, Cote d’vore, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, and the equatorial region of Angola and the Congo (FAO)1986. Oil palm is a perennial crop that originated in the South America and Asia in the 16th and 17th Century respectively. It is one of the most productive oil crop and its products ranked high in the list of world’s leading agricultural commodities. Oil palm gives the highest output value compared to major oil seeds like rapeseed, soya bean and sunflower. Rhett (2006) predicted that a single hectare of oil palm may yield 50000 kilograms of crude oil or nearly 6000 litres of crude oil, while soya bean generate only 446 litres per hectare. 
Oil palm serves social, economic and environmental purposes. The product which include palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel caked, the palm frond, palm kernel shell etc. These products particularly palm oil is becoming an increasingly important agricultural products for most tropical countries around the world as crude oil prices top $70/barrel. Basiron (2007) observed that palm oil is now the major source of sustainable and renewable raw material for the world’s food, chemical and bio fuel industries. Palm oil can be consumed domestically or serve as raw material for many Agro-based industries for the production of soap, margarine and other ally industries. After the oil has been extracted from the palm kernel, the remains known as the palm kernel cake is used as livestock feed. Also a refreshing drink generally known as palm wine can be tapped from the oil palm tree. 
Organic farming has made us realize that the oil palm fruit bunches after being burnt to ashes is good for improving soil alkalinity as against the use of inorganic chemicals which can easily contaminate the edaphic environment and underground water table.
An oil palm tree produces at an economic level for 25 years after which the yield diminishes but if well maintained has a life span of over 35 years. Palm oil became the principal cargo for export in the early 90’s in Nigeria. Nigeria became the largest exporter of palm oil in the world and in 1934 until the country was surpassed by Malaysia and now Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil. Between 1961 and 1965 world oil palm production was 1.5 million tons, with Nigeria accounting for 43% However, since then, oil palm production in Nigeria has eventually been stagnated. But today, world oil palm production amounts to 14.4 million tons, with Nigeria accounting for only 7%. Kei et al., (1997).
In Nigeria, oil palm production comes from dispersed small holders who harvest semi wild plants and use manual processing techniques. These small holders are spread over on estimated area of 1.65 million hectored in the southern part of Nigeria that is to say palm oil production is majorly carried out in the south along the Niger Delta Area which include states like Edo, Ondo, Delta, Rivers, Imo e.t.c. Udom (1986).Agronomic studies shows planting plantain amidst oil palm plantation is economical i.e. the plantain can be harvested and m arketed in the shorting pending the time the oil palm will be ready for harvesting. This makes plantain a good choice of intercropping in oil palm plantain. 
Plantain (Musa spp) occupies a strategic position for rapid food production in Nigeria. It is ranked third among starchy staples. The consumption of plantain has risen tremendously in Nigeria in recent years because of the rapidly increasing urbanization and the great demand for easy and convenient foods by the non-farming urban populations. Besides being the staple for many people in more humid regions, plantain is a delicacy and favored snack for people. A growing industry, mainly plantains chips, is believed to be responsible for the high demand being experienced now in Nigeria. Plantain production in Nigeria has witnessed a steady risk for more than 20years. As at 2004, Nigeria produced 2.103 million tons harvested from 389,000 ha production (FAO, 2006). Plantain is a major source of carbohydrate for more than 50 million Nigerians. In the country, all stages of the fruit (from immature to overripe) are used as a source of food in one form of the other. The immature fruits are peeled, sliced, peeled and made into powder and consumed as plantain fufu. The mature fruits (Ripe or Unripe) are consumed boiled, steamed, batch, pounded, roasted, or sliced into drips. Overripe plantains are processed into beer or spiced with chili pepper, fried with palm oil and served as snack (dodo-Ikire). Industrially, plantain fruit serves as composite in the making of baby food (‘Babena’ and “soyamusa’), bread, biscuit and others (Ogazi, 1996,Akyeampong, 1999). 
The fruits are produced all year around, the, major harvest comes in the dry season (November to February), when most other starchy staples are unavailable or difficult to harvest. Thus, it plays an important role in bridging the hunger gap (Wilson 1986). In Nigeria, plantain peels are used as feed for livestock. While the dried peels are used for soap production. The dried leaves, sheath and petioles are used as tying materials, sponges and roofing material.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In Nigeria, the importance of oil palm and plantain industry cannot be underrated based on the vital role they play in human nutrition, source of employment and income generation at large. International Potash Institution (1957) identified the principal product of oil palm to be the palm fruit, which is processed to obtain three main commercial products which include palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel cake. The use of these product which may be locally for consumption by human and livestock or industrially as raw materials for industries like soap, margarine industries etc. while plantain, a major source of carbohydrate for more than 50 million Nigerians (Ogazi, 1996), the unripe plantain is also a major source of iron, and also a delicacy for diabetic patient. However, oil palm and plantain farmers are faced with some problems which have tremendously reduced their produce. Such problems include; Land tenure system problem, Fund problems, Problem of improved planting materials and Pest and disease 
The agricultural role of mass media in disseminating agricultural information, innovations and idea in the study area has never been recognized, despite the fact that researchers are still trying to bridge the gap between the research stations and these rural farmers (oil Palm and plantain farmers). This has consequently marginalized agriculture and farming family which resulted to low productivity in spite of the efforts of the mass media in communicating agricultural information to the farmers. 
This research therefore, attempts to address some of the following research questions. 
Do socio-economic characteristics of the farmers have any influence on the sources of information through mass media?
What are the available mass media that have been used to communicate extension delivery services to the oil palm and plantain farmers? 
To which extent are these sources relevant to the oil palm and plantain farmer? 
What are the problems the oil palm and plantain farmers face in accessing the mass media sources? 
What are the factors that constrain respondents from using mass media. 
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the roles of mass media in disseminating agricultural information to oil palm and plantain farmers in Edo State while the specific objectives are to: 
Examine the socio-economic characteristic of the oil palm and plantain farmers. 
Examine the farmers’ accessibility to mass media.
Ascertain mass media type through which respondents sought agricultural information. 
Ascertain respondents’ preference for particular type of mass media. 
Ascertain respondent perceived role of mass media as information source. 
Examine factors that constrain respondents’ use of mass media as information source. 
Identify the problems limiting farmers from cultivating oil palm and plantain. 
1.4 Research Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between respondents’ access to mass media and their perception of relevance of mass media as information source.
1.5 Significance of Study 
It has been ascertained that mass media play an important role in transmitting information to large number of audience simultaneously. Yet, Okwu and Obinne (2000) have identified the main problem of agriculture in Nigeria as that of transfer of new technology, information, innovations to farmers and not lack of them Per se. It is known that mass media have been making useful contributions to agricultural technology, information and innovations adoption. This study seeks to establish the clear evidence of utilization by both oil palm and plantain farmers in Edo State. 
Hence, the recommendations from this study will be useful to policy makers, researchers, ADPs and other stakeholders in Agricultural Development Agencies. This study will provide information which would be useful in solving the problem posed by oil palm and plantain farmers.

ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AND POVERTY STATUS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN EHIME MBANO

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Food security is a concept that has evolved during the 1990s far beyond a traditional focus on the supply of food at the national level. This concept has been given general definitions in time past but in recent times, there has been a divergence of ideas on what food security really means. food security is  defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. The committee on world food security defined it as physical and economic access to adequate food by all household members without undue risk of losing the access. However, the definition adopted by the countries attending the world food summit of 1996, and reconfirmed in 2002, accepts the USAID’S concept which has three key elements viz; food availability, food access and food utilization. However, a fourth concept is increasingly becoming accepted namely, “the risks that can disrupt anyone of the first three factors” There are therefore four major elements of food security. They are food availability, food access, food utilization and not loosing such access. Availability, access and utilization are hierarchical in nature. Food availability is necessary but not sufficient for food accessibility and access is necessary but not sufficient for utilization. In a larger sense, two broad groups of factors determine food security. These are supply side factors and demand side factors. The supply-side factors are those that determine food supply or food availability. In other words, they are determinants of physical access to food at national, household and intra-household levels. The demand side factors on the other hand are factors that determine the degree of access of countries, households and individuals to available food. They are, in other words, determinants of economic access to food or determinants of entitlement to available food.  Food insecurity or lack of access to nutritionally adequate diet in a household or country can take various forms. For example, chronic food insecurity exists when food supplies are persistently insufficient to supply adequate nutrient for all individuals. Transitory food insecurity occurs when there is a temporary decline in access to adequate food because of instability in food production, food price increases or income shortfalls.   We may distinguish between national food security and household food security. This distinction is necessary because an aggregate supply of food, from domestic sources or import or both, are prerequisite but certainly not a sufficient condition for a food secure situation in a country. In other words, adequate availability of food in Nigeria on a per capita basis does not necessarily translate to sufficient and adequate food for every citizen. Food security at household level is a subset of the national level and it requires that all individuals and households have access to sufficient food either by producing it themselves or by generatingsufficient income to demand for it. The research intends to profer an analysis of food security and poverty status among holds in Ehime Mbano.     
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
The problem confronting the research is an analysis of food security and poverty status among household in Ehime Mbano.     
1.3   RESEARCH    QUESTION
1    What is the nature of food security? 
2   What is the challenge of poverty status among household  on food security?    
3   What is the challenge of poverty on food security in Ehime Mbano?   
1.4   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To proffer an analysis of food security and poverty status among household  
2.  To determine food security and poverty status among household in Ehime Mbano    
1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall project the level of food security and poverty among household with a view to proffer measures to mitigate and eliminate food insecurity and poverty among households.  
1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1      H0   Poverty level among household in Ehime Mbano is low          
H1   Poverty level among household in Ehime Mbano is high   
2      H0   Food security in Ehime Mbano is low        
H1   Food  security in Ehime Mbano is high   
3            H0    Effect of poverty on food security  in Ehime Mbano is low 
H1    Effect of poverty on food security in Ehime Mbano is high     
1.7      SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research is an analysis of food security and poverty status among households in Ehime Mbano   
1.8      DEFINITION OF TERMS
FOOD SECURITY 
Food security is defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. The committee on world food security defined it as physical and economic access to adequate food by all household members without undue risk of losing the access. However, the definition adopted by the countries attending the world food summit of 1996, and reconfirmed in 2002, accepts the USAID’S concept which has three key elements viz; food availability, food access and food utilization     
FOOD INSECURITY DEFINED
Food insecurity or lack of access to nutritionally adequate diet in a household or country can take various forms. For example, chronic food insecurity exists when food supplies are persistently insufficient to supply adequate nutrient for all individuals. Transitory food insecurity occurs when there is a temporary decline in access to adequate food because of instability in food production, food price increases or income shortfalls.

ANALYSIS OF SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AMONG CASSAVA PROCESSORS IN YEWA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria, agriculture has remained the largest sector of the economy. It generates employment for about 70% of the population and contributes about 40% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) with crop accounting for 80%, livestock 13%, forestry 3% and fishery 4%. Agriculture accounts for over 70% of the non-oil export and provides over 80% of the food needs of the country (Adegboye,2004). Nigeria has a total land area of 98.3milion hectares, but at present, only about 34 million hectares or 48% are under cultivation. Agriculture in Nigeria is practiced at subsistent level and is characterized by numerous farmers operating several scattered small and fragmented plots of land using traditional methods such as land rotation, bush burning with the use of crude implements like hoes and cutlasses.   According to Olawepo (2010), the majority of the rural populace in Nigeria either depends entirely on farming and farming activities for survival and generation of income, or depends on other non-farming activities to supplement their main source of income. Over 90% of the country’s local food production comes from small-scale farms. About 60% of the population earnstheir living from these small farms which are usually of the size of about 0.10-5.99 hectares (Olawepo,2010). It could then be seen that most farmers have limited resources, a factor that limits their productivity, income, savings and investment. In the midst of all these, farmers have resulted to a number of means to enhance their production and also to improve their well-being socio-economically. These options includes pooling their resources and working together as members of cooperative societies, through the use of loan and other services from microfinance or community banks; making daily, weekly or monthly contributions through the formation of small savings and thrift groups like Ajo-dida and Esusu or employing the method of risk diversification by engaging in the trading of other non-agricultural goods or in processing or value addition of agricultural produceinto finished goods with longer shelf-life as agro-processors – those into the process of producing or sourcing for agricultural produce and converting them into finished goods for consumption.   In Nigeria, where rural farmers account for over 80% of the farmers in the country and produce 95% of the domestic food production in the country (Olashore,1998; Yusuf,2000), majority of rural households are small-scale farmers and as such, a significant part of their non-farm income comes from small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Rural entrepreneurs are characterized by poor access to credit, poor savings rate, risk and uncertainty, poor weather condition, focusing of information on technology and not on pricing. The inability of rural entrepreneurs to access credit has restricted their potential to expand their enterprises especially in diversifying into non-farm activities and end up with low income and hence, poor savings (Albu and Scott,2001). This has led to low standard of living and inability to break the vicious cycle of poverty for the rural dwellers.   Savings is normally considered in economics as disposable income minus personal consumption expenditure. It could also be regarded as income that is not consumedimmediately by the purchase of goods and services. According to Azhar (1995),savings may be made in kind such as jewelry, land, livestock or dowry. It may still be in the form of currency notes deposited in banks or more often be hoarded. Savings are very imperative for supporting and developing rural industries. They provide several benefits for households. Directly, saving could be used for investment. Indirectly, saving indicates repayment ability, also increase credit rating and as collateral in the credit market (Brata,1999). Savings is both a risk management strategy and determinant of magnitude of investment but its determinants and mobilization strategy are controversial issues in literature (Mkpado and Arene,2010). Ayanwale and Bamire (2000) claimed that saving behaviours of farmers in developing countries is less dependent on the absolute level of aggregate income, but more dependent on other factors on the relationship between current and expected income, the nature of business, household size, wealth and demographic factors like age. Adeyemo and Akala(1992),for instance, showed that there is a high degree of responsiveness of savings to change among fishermen in the riverine areas of Nigeria. On the other hand, investment could be considered as an act of laying out money in return for a future financial reward or the sacrifice of something now for the prospect of later benefits (Ajayi,1998). According to Olofin (2001), investment is any form of producer durable that is capable of contributing to the production of goods and services. Investment spending or expenditure to him would be any form of outlay, either by individuals or corporate units as firms or institutions such as government, for the purchase of such durables. Therefore, investment in their context refers to the purchase of real tangible assets such as machines, factories or stock of goods and services for further use as opposed to present consumption. Investment is a process of exchanging income for assets or converting forms into productive economic unit based for higher return or higher rate of economic value in future period for the purpose of gaining income. Odoemenem(1991),however, was of the view that small scale farmers invested their savings in two major areas; the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. Investment in the agricultural sector or farm activity includes the purchase of fertilizer and chemicals hired labour and buying more land for farming while non-agricultural sector are mainly centered on education, trade expansion, building houses, dowry obligation and purchase of durable assets. In line with the above concepts, savings and investment in the rural economy appear to be in monetized and non-monetized forms. This could be attributed to the subsistent nature of the economy. This further implies that for any meaningful investment to be obtained, a sound saving mobilization has to be pursued. Although, when the increments and funds are spent on household expenditure, farming economy and economy growth tend to be jeopardized,adequate integration of savings and investment programmes into development strategies are capable of improving resource allocation, promoting equitable distribution of income and reducing credit delivery and recovering cost. The government, armed with the awareness of the contribution of savings and investment strategies among farmer cooperatives, agro-processors and SMEs to the economy, have been encouraged to establish programmes involved in loan schemes such as Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Cooperative Federation of Nigeria (CFN), Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) amongst others.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are several problems that affect the level of savings and investment strategies of agro-processors. While acknowledging that socio-economic characteristics of the agro-processors may vary from one occupation to another, recent studies like Adeyemo and Bamire (2005) suggest that socio-economic characteristics such as age, sex, farming experience, household size…etc, affect the level of savings and investment strategies among agro-processors.  One of the problems confronting the development of the agricultural sector in Nigeria could be attributed to inadequate savings and investment by the small scale farmers (and agro-processors). Despite this problem, policy makers have not really drawn up adequate and comprehensive rural savings scheme that will ginger the farmers to invest their capital productively (Ogwanighie,1997). Many farmers (andagro-processors) in Nigeria have not been able to finance their businesses due to poor access to credit, poor savings rate , risk and uncertainty, poor weather condition among other difficulties, thereby resulting to other means of mobilizing savings and funds for investment such as cooperatives and other informal financial institutions. Odoemenem, et al. (2005) observed that farmers make use of informal financial sectors to mobilize savings to develop their rural communities. They further observed that rural farmers make use of informal financial institutions because they give them access to loans they cannot get from formal financial institutions due to lack of collateral. Though, this sector has its own prevalent problems such as inadequate capital base for operation, poor record keeping, crude accounting system, gross mismanagement; farmers still prefer them to banks. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest among development economists, governments and international donor organizations to increase financial savings in developing countries, particularly in rural areas and among poor households. However, a large number of developing countries are unable to mobilize the potential savings of the non-corporate sector because the structure of their financial institutions, financial instruments and financial policies are not sound (Reardon,2000). In view of this, with major focus on cassava processors (those into fufu production), the questions of interest in this study are; ·        What are the socio-economic characteristics of the cassava processors in the study area? ·        What is the investment pattern of the cassava processors in the study area? ·        What are the existing income levels of the cassava processors in the study area? ·        What is the savings rate of the cassava processors in the study area? ·        What are the determinants of savings and investment among the cassava processors in the study area? This study attempts to provide answers to the questions identified.    
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to analyze or assess the savings and investment strategies of cassava processors using Yewa North Local Government Area as a study case. The specific objectives are to; ·        describe the socio-economic characteristics of the cassava processors in the study area. ·        describe the investment pattern of the cassava processors. ·        estimate the income level of the cassava processors. ·        determine the savings rate among the respondents. ·        estimate the determinants of savings and investment strategies among the respondents. 
1.4. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The justification of this study is centered on the importance of savings and investment and also the essence of savings and investment strategies as it concerns the cassava processors’ businesses. In developing countries, especially Nigeria, investments in agricultural production and its related activities have not been given expected priority, even among the farmers who come together as a group to assist each other, either through cooperatives or other informal means; and this can be attributed to some factors. Ayanwale and Bamire (2000) claimed that the saving behavior of cooperative farmers (cassava processors inclusive) in developing countries is less dependent on the absolute level of aggregate income and more dependent on the relationship between current and expected income, the nature of the business, household size, wealth and demographic variables among other related factors. However, Adeyemo and Bamire (2005) examined the pattern of savings and investment among cooperative farmers (or cassava processors in this case) in Southwestern Nigeria and reported that income, loan repayment and amount of money borrowed are significant variables that influenced saving pattern. This research study is set to help clear the air on savings and investment among farmers as well as cassava processors and also the determinants of the savings and investment strategies with regards to the available infrastructure on the study.   Information from this research study on the analysis of savings and investment strategies among cassava processors could help policy makers and credit agencies for effective and efficient credit services delivery of loan schemes that could increase the production of agricultural produce and value-added finished goods as well as the general well-being of the cassava processors. 
1.5. PLAN OF THE STUDY
This research study was divided into five chapters, with each chapter for a definite purpose. Chapter One consisted of the introduction which includes the background of the study, problem statement and research questions, objectives of the study, justification of the study and plan of the study respectively. Chapter Two covered the literature review and theoretical background. Chapter Three entailed the methodology and procedures that was involved in carrying out the research study. Chapter Four involved the empirical findings and the results of the findings. Chapter Five featured the summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendation.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOOD SAFETY AMONG PORK MARKETERS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION

Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and most parts of West Africa.  Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fat called lard.  The pig produces litters twice a year.  One litter or one birth give between eight (8) and sixteen (16) piglets.  They also eat anything that is edible when given. Although, the rearing of pig and its consumption is not popular in Moslems areas in Nigeria because of the religion.  Some people look at pigs as dirty animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings.  This is probably responsible for some people prefer meat from other animal to pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other countries such as Britain and United States of America. 
Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:  This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in southern parts of Nigeria.  It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment, and eats anything that comes it way.  The breed is a native to West Africa.
Large White:  This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria.  It is white in colour with average size, it is resistant to trypanosomiasis disease, hence found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native to America. 
Land race:  This is larger than other breeds of pig.  It has white hairs and skin.  Land race has ears which are pointing forward.  The animal has very good meat.   It originated from Norway. Duroc:  The pig has large body.  The colour is golden yellow or cherry red.  It has droopy ears.  The animal come from U.S.A. 
Large Black:  The animal is black in colour with droopy ear.  It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A. 
Chester White:  The pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than duroc.  It can produce many offspring in one birth.  It originated from Pennsylvania in U.S.A 
Tamworth:  the animal has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body.  It is a native of Ireland. 
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES (MANAGEMENT)             
There are three (3) major production strategies which are as follows: 
(1) intensive management practices  
(2)  Semi-intensive management practice and/or free range management practices.   Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of production is better than most other domestic animals.  Pigs have a high conversion rate of 1:5 of the Gross energy taken.  They are able to convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other domestic animal.  Pork carcass yields a high percentage of dressed meat and a high portion of edible parts.             
Pork is a good source of animal protein.  It is high in energy, attractive, nutritious, tasty and tender.  This is apparently due to the fact that slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development concerning pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the opportunity to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of pork meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be neglected, and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the product.             
Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the sanitary control of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of providing safe and wholesome meat for human consumption and to ensure that only apparently healthy, physiologically normal one are slaughter for human consumption and abnormal animals are separated and dealt with accordingly.    The responsibility of achieving this objectives lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority, the problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing thought that has become all too evident in the year past is that, increase in meat production alone is not the answer.  This is so, partly because such an increase is sometimes supported without appropriate pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal which should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.             
In many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the necessary information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal, meat from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international commission of codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food regulation (FAO, 2003).             
The Codex Alimentarius, has turned into the reference point for food businessmen, industrialist, traders and consumers, it is the guide for the international, national organization in charge of the products’ control for the elaboration of the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the consumers health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003).  World Health Organization has therefore endeavour to prepare a concise guideline on the subject together with colour illustration demonstrating the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs, bovines, small ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of disease carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately and dealt with accordingly.  To ensure that animal or meat (from abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess no-threat to human (WHO, 2003).STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

     The problem which the study seeks to address is the issue of consumer safety.  The concern is that meat should not predisposes man to food born diseases.  The research questions are: 
a.   To estimate the determinant of food safety. 
b.   To identify the food safety practice. 
c.   To estimate the cost of food safety.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

            The general objectives of the study is to examine the safety issues associated with pork meat marketing in the study area.  The specific objectives are: 
1.  To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers. 
2.  To identify safety practices adopted by pork seller in  the study area to guarantee consumers safety. 
3.  To estimate the determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

            This study seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and knowledge, on how to provide wholesome meat for human consumption, and the need to position the general public, inspection/health ministry and of course, the abattoir operators of their call to duties instead of the negligence that has become a course for concern, owing to disease threat and it related condition.  And also, because of deformed nature of the appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has cease the opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management history.  And on the other, the small retailers in our various  market has not meet up with their safety security measures.  This study is therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to remind them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be aware also that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to life. The wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to imbibe the spirit of food security for a better and happier living.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PROCESSING AND MARKETING OF CASHEW PRODUCTS IN UDENU LOCAL AREA, ENUGU STATE


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cashew, known as Anacardium occidental is a native of Brazil and was introduced to Mozambique and then India in the sixteenth century by the Portuguese, as a means of controlling coastal erosion. It was spread within these countries with the aid of elephants that ate the bright cashew fruits along with the attached nut. The nut was too hard to digest and was later expelled with the droppings. It was not until the nineteenth century that plantations were developed and the tree then spread to a number of other countries in africa, Asia and Latin America.(Herringtton and coulter,2004). Cashew processing using manual techniques, was started in India in the first half of the twentieth century. It was exported from there to the wealthy western markets, particularly the United States. In the 1960s some of the producing countries in East Africa began to process nuts domestically rather than sending them to India for processing. This allowed them to benefit from the sale of both processed nuts and the extracted cashew nut shell liquid. Cashew kernels are ranked as  either the second or third most expensive nut trade in the United States. The four main producing regions in the world are India, Nigeria, Brazil and Tanzania. World production of cashew nut grew rapidly during 1950s and 1960s, reaching a peak of 624000 tonnes of raw nuts in 1973. Three countries India, Mozambique and Tanzania accounted for the majority of this production while smaller industries have developed in Brazil, Kenya and several other African countries. There was a total decline in world production, which continued till 1980s (The clipper, 2004). The reason for the decline is due to the decreased production in Mozambique and Tanzanian, since production in Mozambique during the late 1980s and 1990s, production picked up and continued to increase gradually.(Jaffee and Morton,2006). In 2000, to be precise, world cashew production exceeds 1.2 million tones. Asia and Africa countries produced 0.6 million and 0.4 million tones respectively (Herrington and Coulter 2004). Africans overall production steadily increased during the 1950s and 1960s until mid 1970s when it was the prime producer of cashew nuts. Then, in 1975, the production started to decline throughout the continent due to combination of some factors based on biological, political and agronomic basis(Andrighetti et al,1998). 
1.2   PROBLEM STATEMENT
Recent study found that cashews are well-known, popular and widely consumed by urban populations in Nigeria and West Africa at large. Though perhaps not everyday food, cashew kernels are a mature product in urban West African Markets associated with quality and luxury and widely available in urban settings. Indeed cashews may be consumed in certain upper-class segments of African society with greater frequency than in Europe or America due to a lack of wide range of substitution with similar associations. The semi – industrial faculties supplying the local market have relatively high fixed cost (in terms of building and equipment) and little consistency in their level of operational use. Because the facilities are mostly run at reduced or seasonal production capacity and staff do not have sufficient training or systems to optimize productivity, the cost of operation are higher relative to export oriented faculties. The larger facilities often (but not always) have better access to financial and usually have acquired their working capital at better interest rates. As this study pointed out, most processors and/or roasters/salters distribute their products themselves. Given the small size of the factories and limited number of staff, distribution and marketing is not specialized or approached in a strategic or full-time manner. Limited availability of packaging equipment and materials in the study area and relatively high prices drive up final product prices for ready to eat cashews. Prices are also high due to the low prices paid for broken nuts (if they are sold at all), which forces processors to charge higher prices for whole nuts. Broken nuts comprise 20 – 40% of production for most cashew processors. Cashew has many uses ranging from fruits known as apple to its nuts which is the kernel to the liquid known as cashew Nut shell liquid {CNSL}. The extraction of the nuts, notwithstanding, to the collection of the liquid from the apple and the extraction of the liquid from the CNSL makes for the full economic utilization of the products. Cashew processing and marketing in the study area have these major problems. These includes the following The cashew apples are sold in the local markets resulting in under valuation of the products in monetary terms. And also cashew kernels are normally extracted by roasting which causes breakages during the cracking and thereby reduces the quantity when grading the cashew nut shell liquid {CNSL} is also wasted away in the process of roasting cashew production is seasonal and its produces only once in a year. Therefore, how can cashew products be properly utilized to reduce wastage and increase the economic value of all its products ranging from the nuts to the apple and also the liquid from the CNSL. How can one attain commercial ways of processing and marketing which will increase mass production for continental and global consumption. How can one acquire cashew processing equipment at affordable price. 
1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to analyze through research in the production, processing and marketing of cashew products in the study area. The specific objectives are to: 
i)                   Identify the cashew products; 
ii)                Ascertain the techniques used in cashew products processing;
iii)              Access the channels in which the product  are marketed;
iv)              Identify the problems of processing and marketing of cashew products and; 
v)                Make recommendation based on the findings. 
1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research finding was chosen for Udenu Local Government area of Enugu State as a result of the abundance of cashew producers, processors and marketers in the study area. Cashew has diverse uses and its importance  can not be over emphasized. Cashew nut is a popular snack, and its rich flavour means that it is often eaten on its own, highly salted or sugared. Trees are used in the control of coastal erosion. Cashew apple is eaten fresh which is high in vitamin. Dried cashew trees can also serve as fuel for cooking food. In addition, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), a by product of processing cashew, is mostly composed of anacardic acids. These acids have been used effectively against tooth absceses due to their lethality to bacteria. These products need to be fully utilized for maximum production and minimize waste. Also this study will help to access the techniques used in the processing of cashew products and the grading system used in the standardization of products. The study also helps to know the products being processed and marketed in the study area. The marketing system available to them and also the economic value attached to the sales. Therefore, I hope that the study if carefully examined shall help in the utilization of cashew products as studied and analyzed through this research work. 
1.5    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study or researches were limited by many factors: firstly, the time allowed for this study was short compared to the volume of work requirement to bring out a comprehensive research work. Secondly, finance was one of the major factors to reach the respondents in their various locations in one way or the other requires some costs. Language barrier is another limitation. Many of the respondents were illiterate who could not read out the questions from the questionnaire. Some of the respondents were also griped with fear and doubt about the genuineness of the research. The system of their measurement lacked appropriateness. For example, the products marketed or processed could not be accurately measured. All these really made the research face a lot of inconsistence in obtaining data. In spite of all these limitations, the work or result of this analysis is reliable, accurate and valid.

ECONOMICS OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN YEWA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
In Nigeria, vegetable crops are produced in different agro-ecological zones through commercial as well as small scale farmers both as a source of income as well as food. However, the type is limited to few crops and production is concentrated to some pocket areas. In spite of this, the production of vegetables varies from cultivating a few plants in the backyards for home consumption up to a large-scale production for domestic and export markets (Dawitet. al., 2004). Recently, despite the ups and downs observed, the demand for vegetables especially for export is increasing (Tsegay, 2010). In fact, vegetables can generate high income for the farmers because of high market value and profitability. They also have high nutritive value compared to cereals (EARO, 2000) Vegetables are an important feature of Nigerian’s diet that a traditional meal without it is assumed to be incomplete. In developing countries, the consumption of vegetables is generally lower than the FAO recommendation of 75kg per year in habitant (206g per day per capita) (Badmus and Yekini, 2011). In Nigeria, vegetable production has been on-going for decades, providing employment and income for the increasing population especially during the long dry season. However production is constrained by inadequate infrastructure, agronomic and socio-economic variables (Sabo and Zira, 2008). It has been widely demonstrated that rural women, as well as men, throughout the world are engaged in a range of productive activities essential to household welfare, agricultural productivity, and economic growth. Vegetable crops are grown in many parts of the world contributing significantly to income security and the nutritive diet of many households. According to (Mofekeet al.2003) Vegetable crops constitute 30 to 50 percent of iron and vitamin A in resource poor diet. Vegetable crops such as tomatoes, okra, pepper, cabbage etc. are widely cultivated in most part of the Sub-Sahara Africa, particularly by small scale farmers in most states of Nigeria (Adeolu and Taiwo 2009; Giroh et al., 2010). Global production of fruits and vegetables tripled from 396 million MT in 1961 to 1.34 billion MT in 2003(International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 2005) and Nigeria ranked 16th on the global tomato production scale, accounting for 10.79 percent of Africa’s and 1.2 percent of total world production of tomatoes (Weinberger and Lumpkin, 2007) Protective cultivation has been widely applied due to adverse climatic conditions unfavourable to warm season vegetable production. In many parts of the world, nets or screens are commonly used in crop production for reducing excessive solar radiation, weather effects on produce, and to keep away insects and birds. Vegetable production under protective structures such as netting reduces yield losses from insects, diseases, heavy rains and sunburn which results in higher productivity and returns per unit area (Ramasamy,2011). Protective structures provide protection to vegetable crops against biotic and abiotic stresses (Palada, 2011). Mangmang in 2002, reported that the total fruit yield and high returns of tomato crop was significantly enhanced by the plastic net covers. The net shade greatly reduced insect population by 80% and marketable yields were 1.5 to 2 times greater under than in the open field (Palada and Ali, 2007). Growing cabbage under nets reduced insect incidence by 38-72 percent and resulted in significantly higher returns (Neaveet al, 2011). Green house, the latest word in agriculture is one of such means, where the plants are grown under controlled or partially controlled environment resulting in higher yields than those that are under open conditions (Navale et al. 2003). Net houses and its variants have been used in some European, South American and Southeast Asian countries for producing egg plants (Kaur et al., 2004), leafy greens (Talekar et al., 2003) and cabbage (Martin et al., 2006). In Africa, mobile net houses made of mosquito nets (25- mesh) were effective as physical barrier against the diamondback moths, cut-worms and loopers providing 66- 97 percent control of moths, birds and caterpillars (Martin et al., 2006). Netting is frequently used to protect agricultural crops from excessive solar radiation (shade-nets), improving the thermal climate (Kittas et al., 2009), sheltering from wind and hail and exclusion of bird and insect-transmitted virus diseases (Teitelet al., 2008). The shading of crops results in number of changes on both local microclimate and consequently crop growth and development (Kittaset al., 2009). (Takteet al. 2003) reported that shade nets were used for protection of valuable crops against excess sunlight, cold, frost, wind and insect/birds. They experimented on the effects of shading on crop growth and development, it was found that shading increased leaf area index and total marketable yield production, reduced the appearance of tomato cracking about 50% and accordingly, the marketable tomato production was about 50% higher under shading conditions than under non-shading conditions. (Smith et al. 1984) observed that under shading nets the air temperature was lower than that of the ambient air, depending on the shading intensity. Shade netting not only decreases light quantity but also alters light quality to a varying extent and might also change other environmental conditions. The shade netting determines the commercial value of crop, including yield, product quality, and rate of maturation (Shahaket al., 2004). Poor head formation, leaf twisting, early bolting, and reduced yields occurred when leafy vegetables were grown under hot, high-sunlight conditions without shade net (Sajjapongse and Roan, 1983). Water stress caused by high evapo-transpirative demand, and high air and soil temperatures, appear to be the main causes of poor crop productivity of leafy crops in low-latitude regions (Wolff and Coltman, 1990). In Nigeria, small scale irrigation systems have gone a long way to support dry season farming of crops all over the country. Irrigation farming is relatively low in Nigeria and Africa as a whole, with irrigated area estimated at only 6 percent of total cultivated area, compared with 37 percent of Asia and 14 percent for Latin America (FAOSTAT 2009). Svendsen and Sangi (2009) observed that more than two-third of existing irrigated area is concentrated in five countries namely Egypt, Madagascar, Morocco, South Africa, and Sudan. Giving that irrigated crops yields are more than double of rain fed yields in Africa (Liangzhiet al., 2010), it is important to invest on irrigation developments with particular focus on locations and technologies with greatest potential for irrigation. The effort of the Federal Government of Nigeria, with the support of World Bank and the African Development Fund to develop irrigation systems in the country started with the approval of the implementation of the National FADAMA Development Project (2008- 2016). Dry season production of vegetables is common along the river banks that cut across villages, towns, and cities in Nigeria. Therefore in Yewa North Local Government where the research will be carried out, one of the major activities to be conducted will be to determine the profitability of vegetable production as well as the factors militating against vegetable production among others. 
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria as a country is unable to meet its domestic requirements for vegetables, fruits, floriculture, herbs and spices, dried nuts and pulses. Between 2009 and 2010, Nigeria imported a total of 105,000 metric tonnes of tomato paste valued at over 16 billion naira to bridge the deficit gap between supply and demand in the country (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2006).   Kalu in 2013, attributed this situation to socio-economic constraint surrounding the key actors in the tomato value chain, institutional weaknesses and declining agricultural research. Vegetables are also highly perisha ble as they start to lose their quality right after harvest and continued throughout the process until it is consumed (Kohl and Uhl, 1985). Hence, vegetable productions are risky investment activities. Riskiness of vegetable production may be attributed to several factors that are beyond the control of producers. Biological processes of plant growth and climatic conditions inherent in agricultural production cause random production shocks (Goodwin and Mishra, 2000; Holt and Chavas, 2002) such as harvest failure as a result of drought, frost, floods and other adverse climatic events; policy shocks (Dercon, 2002). Due to perishable nature and biological nature of production process there is a difficulty of scheduling the supply of vegetables to market demand. The crops are subjected to high price and quantity risks with changing consumer demands and production conditions. Unusual production or harvesting weather or a major crop disease can influence badly the marketing system. While food-marketing system demands stable price and supply, a number of marketing arrangements like contract farming provide stability (Kohl and Uhl, 1985). Hence, knowledge of small-scale crop producers perception towards risk is important in designing strategies and formulating policies for agricultural development (Ayindeet al., 2008). On the other hand, lack of market infrastructure is one of the limiting factors causing low returns in vegetable cultivation. Profitability is not only determined by the use of input resources but it is also dependent on the availability of proper logistic for transporting the farm produce from farm gate to the market. Vegetable production is also influenced by the location of the farms due to the fact that the farms near to input market are in a better position to purchase different inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, etc. at the appropriate time. In Yewa North Local Government, some of the major problems faced by vegetable farmers include the following; lack of capital, lack of storage facilities, climatic conditions, pest and diseases. Another problem that I perceive farmers are facing in the study area and in Nigeria as a whole is, the lack of standard measure for vegetables/pricing. The questions of interest in this study are: ·        What are the socio-economic characteristics of the vegetable farmers in the study area? ·        What is the level of profit generated from vegetable production in the study area? ·        What are the determinants of income generated from vegetable production in the study area? ·        What are the constraints militating against vegetable production in the study area? 
1.3 Objective of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to determine the profitability of vegetable production among the rural household farmers. The specific objectives are to:
1. Describe the socio-economic characteristics of the vegetable farmers in the study area; ·        
2. Examine the level of profit generated from vegetable production in the study area; ·        
3.   Analyse the determinants of income generated from vegetable production in the study area; and 
4.   Describe the constraints militating against vegetable production in the study area. 
1.4 Justification of the Study
The agricultural sector is one of the main stay for many households in Nigeria. On its diversity, the Nigerian agriculture features tree and food crops, forestry, livestock and fishery. In 1993 and 1984, constant factor cost, crops (the major source of food) accounted for about 30 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), livestock about 5 percent, forestry and wildlife about 1.3 percent and fisheries are accounted for same as vegetables and fruit. Therefore, the study is aimed at the following: 1) To the stakeholders, especially the policy makers to make the well managed decisions about the formulation of future strategies for the development of the livelihood of vegetable growers. 2) To the public, to know the profitability level of vegetable production and also the cost of production in other to live standard. 
1.5 Plan of the Study
This research was divided into five chapters, chapter one consists of introduction, research problem, objective and justification. While chapter two consists of literature review and conceptual framework, chapter three consists of research methodology, sampling techniques, method of data collection and method of data analysis. On the other hand, chapter four consists of result and discussion and chapter five was summary, conclusion and recommendation.

EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN THE NORTH WEST ZONE OF NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Agriculture has been recognized as the most important sector of the economy of developing countries. Developments in this sector have therefore, frequently attracted attention of governments, scholars, and citizens of these countries as well as international organizations. This has been particularly true in Nigeria where declining productivity and rising population in the last two decades have led to a growing concern over the need and opportunity for agricultural development (Atala, 2006). However, not enough effort has been invested in research to design and implement effective extension programmes that are appropriate to the needs of the majority rural farmers, who are the producers of the bulk of the country food and raw materials.

Agricultural Extension is an informal educational process which aims to teach farmers how to improve their level of living by their own effort, through making wise use of natural resources at their disposal for better systems of farming and homemaking, for the benefit of the individual, the family, the community and the nation at large. (IAR Extension Roll-Up (2013)

In the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru mandate covering the North-west states, the Agricultural extension services was established to develop and maintain strong research extension farmer linkages for the purpose of effective dissemination of research results to end-user to; Provide knowledge and skill training programmes for extension staff of State Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs), Agricultural agencies and selected farmers through regular Technology Review Meetings (TRMs) and specialized in-service courses, Workshops, Seminars etc., Disseminate Agricultural research-based information to ADPs, Federal and State ministries, agro-industrialist and agricultural producers. Perform community services including consultative diagnostic/advisory services. Collaborate with National Agricultural Extension Research and Liaison Services (NAERLS) and other relevant Institutes and organizations on extensions activities.

There are some components/activities in agricultural extension services, they include:- Technologies Review Meeting (TRMs), Trainings, Cropping Scheme Meeting, Zonal Steering Committee Meeting, Zonal Technical Committee Meeting, Zonal REFILS Workshop, SIWES/ITF Coordination, Diagnostic/Consultative Services, Publications, Radio/T.V. Programmes, Field Days, Farm Walks, Exhibition/Fairs, Agric Shows, Adoption Villages/Demonstration Schools and Monitoring/ Evaluation.

At present, there has been little or no change in the agriculture of Nigeria. About 70% of Nigeria’s estimated population of 140.0 million lives in the rural areas. Although Nigeria is Africa’s second largest economy (after South Africa) with a GDP of about US $40.0 billion, yet, about two-thirds of the population live below the national poverty line (FGN 2006). Nigeria has continued to record huge food deficit on yearly basis. According to FAO (1997), Nigeria is one of the 43 nations in Africa that have been classified as “low income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs)”. Thus, the country thrives only on international assistance in terms of food aids and programmes. Agriculture is still dominated by small holder farmers who are still responsible for a sizeable proportion of total (Olubanjo, 1996). There is currently a low level of use of modern and appropriate technology and much more appropriate methodology for technology dissemination and an attendant high level dependent on nature. Manual labor, simple farm tools and local planting materials among others are still been extensively used.

Nigeria has the largest National Agricultural Research and Extension System (NARES) in Sub Saharan Africa today, made up of: 17 Commodity-based Research Institutes, a specialized National Agricultural Extension Institute, 18 Faculties of Agriculture in regular Federal Universities; 3 specialized Universities of Agriculture, 19 Federal Colleges of Agriculture, 8 Faculties of Veterinary Medicine and four International Agricultural Research Centre (IARC) (Chikwendu, 2009). Yet, there is no significant and sustainable agricultural growth that would ensure national and household food security and improved rural livelihoods. Inadequately trained extension agents, low morale of extension agents due to poor career prospects, as well as poor work environment has been identified as the problems of agricultural extension. The capacity and competence of the few extension agents is highly questionable; hence the need for efficient capacity building system that can withstand the test of time.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The agricultural extension systems in place today are operating simultaneously with other organs of agricultural farming systems without giving enough or attention consideration to information dissemination processes and the roles of agricultural visual instructional materials in agricultural practice. Perhaps the most important aspect of these systems is the fact that little or no empirical evaluation research has been carried out to determine the problems affecting their performances and to propose solutions to them. The agricultural extension systems are fast spreading all over the country even though the success of the previous effort has been inadequate and its replicability on a wider scale in the North-west zone is yet to be ascertained.

The study situation suggests that the role performance of extension agents is problematic and contributes to the general problems in Nigerian agriculture. One of the key issues in the ineffectiveness of Nigerian agricultural extension is impact in the farming systems of the North-West agro-ecology. The roles and impacts of extension materials‟ and agents‟ activities vary and are often ineffective (Atala, 2006). The problem becomes that of explaining the differential roles and impacts of agricultural extension system, and this provides the rational and quest for undertaking this study.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The study sought to know the evaluation and the roles of visual instructional materials in agricultural extension services in the north-west zone of Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to;

i.   examine the components on agricultural instructional materials such as posters, flyers and banners being delivered to farmers.

ii.   evaluate the impact of agricultural extension visual instructional materials on the quality of rural agricultural practices and rural life.

iii.   assess the role of training agricultural extension agents and farmers on the use of agricultural instructional materials in the North-east zone of Nigeria.

1.4       Research Questions

i.   What are the components on agricultural instructional materials such as posters, flyers and banners being delivered to farmers?

ii.   What is the impact of agricultural extension visual instructional materials on the quality of rural agricultural practices and rural life?

iii.   What is the role of training agricultural extension agents and farmers on the use of agricultural instructional materials in the North-east zone of Nigeria?

1.5       Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.6       Scope/Limitations of the Study 

This study is on the evaluation of the roles of visual instructional materials in agricultural extension services in the north-west zone of Nigeria.

Limitations of study

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.7       Definition of Terms

Evaluation: The making of a judgment about the amount, number, or value of something; assessment.

Role: An actor’s part in a play, film, etc.

Visual: Is something such as a picture, diagram, or piece of film that is used to show or explain something.

Instructional materials: Refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities. 

Agricultural Extension: Is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.

AGRICULTURE, TRADE REFORM AND POVERTY REDUCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The WTO Ministerial Declaration at Doha in November 2001 places considerable emphasis on development (WTO, 2001b), although the outcome is not guaranteed. Many developing countries – particularly in Africa – are skeptical that they will receive sufficient gains from that MTN to warrant the inevitable costs of negotiations and adjustments. These countries and some donors also still need to be convinced that such trade reform will alleviate rather than add to poverty and food insecurity in developing countries. Some are concerned about the loss of trade preferences as developed countries’ MFN tariffs are reduced. Net food-importing countries are especially worried that they will be made worse off by having to pay a higher food import bill following agricultural trade reform.

Trade policy does not deal with income distribution issues, because in virtually all countries they can be handled more efficiently by more direct policy measures (Corden, 1997, Ch. 4). Nonetheless, it is important to be aware of the distributional consequences of trade (and other) policy changes and to check that measures are in place or, are introduced to deal effectively with any vulnerable groups who may be made worse off by those trade reforms abroad and/or at home.

It is estimated that between 350 million and 1.2 billion people live on less than US$1 a day, most of whom are in rural Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (Sala-i-Martin, 2002; Collier and Dollar, 2002; etc). This study looks at the likely effects of the current WTO negotiations on poverty alleviation with a particular focus on agriculture and rural households in developing countries, especially those in Africa. The reason for the rural focus is not just because that is where most of the world’s poor live and work, but also because agricultural markets are the most distorted in the world and hence any across-the-board cut in trade distortions would bring down the relative price of agricultural products in international markets.

There is a large body of empirical evidence showing that trade liberalization – easing tariffs and other import restrictions as well as reducing or eliminating domestic supports and export subsidies – tends to boost economic growth, at least in the longer term, and this has helped to reduce the number of persons living in absolute poverty(Dollar and Kraay, 2000). In the longer term, and in the absence of externalities, own-country liberalization tends to increase aggregate welfare through improvements in resource allocation and employment generation but, there will always be some who lose in the absence of compensation. However, in the short-term structural adjustment costs and the immediate impact on the poor may be negative, particularly in developing countries that do not have the resources, institutions or infrastructure to facilitate the changes nor the social safety nets to cushion the negative effects. Changes in trade policies in other countries also have an impact through altering a country’s terms of trade, which again can generate winners and losers within each developing country. If the combination of the effects of reforms at home and overseas is pro poor, it will reinforce any positive growth effects of trade reform on the poor; but for countries where those changes are not likely to be pro-poor, governments may need to amend domestic policies or boost public investments to prevents  a deterioration  in  the welfare of vulnerable groups. To achieve this, the developing countries are likely to need some leeway and external support through the provision of resources to build “soft” and “hard” infrastructure.

The many African countries that are heavily dependent on exports of farm commodities can anticipate being better off following WTO-induced trade reform, particularly by the developed countries, which use an array of instruments to support their farm sectors and limit access and entry to their markets. The elimination of these trade distortions would level the playing field, and make it more feasible for African countries to contemplate undertaking their own reforms that would otherwise expose their fragile sectors to unfair competition. Those African countries whose food imports represent a large part of their foreign payments could face a higher food import bill but, if their farmers can respond to expected increases in international prices – however modest – as export subsidies are reduced by the developed countries, this could have positive effects on food security and poverty alleviation. Therefore, all African countries need to play an active role in the WTO negotiations to ensure that their particular interests are taken into account.

The quantitative analysis in this study shows that about half of the potential global economic welfare gains from trade reform would come from changes in the policies of the OECD countries in the agriculture and processed food sectors. The present analysis also confirms earlier analyses (e.g., Krueger, Schiff and Valdes, 1988) showing that some developing countries have an anti-agriculture, anti-poor bias in their own policies and so are not making the best use of their own resources – although the extent of that has been reducing over the past decade or two (see Jensen, Robinson and Tarp, 2002).

These welfare results are driven by improvements in the terms of trade (e.g. export prices rising more than import prices) and the efficiency effects of improvements in the allocation of resources between different activities. This study looks at changes in prices, outputs and trade balances by sector, which can expose potential adjustment problems and policy dilemmas for developing countries. However, it should be kept in mind from the outset that the results are based on a comparative static analysis, comparing a preand post-liberalization situation, without taking account of transition periods or adjustment costs such as the movement of resources from highly-protected industrial sectors in developing countries.1 The results are also limited in that SPS and TBT barriers and other market entry restraints that developing countries face in their major markets are not modelled, and perfect competition is assumed. The effects of trade reform on poverty are addressed at three levels: first focusing on developing countries as a group; then on different types of developing countries and finally, on different types of households within developing countries.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

There are important gains in agricultural exports as a result of the simulated elimination of all forms of trade intervention, and a decline in net food imports. However, there are important variations as between industries. There are gains in most agricultural sectors (except “other crops” in Sub-Saharan Africa when that region and South Asia are excluded from the reforms). On the positive side, there are also marked net trade gains in the energy and minerals sectors. However, “other” manufactures faces an important trade loss, especially if developing countries join in the elimination of trade measures (mainly industrial tariffs in this case), The counter to this would be corresponding net gains for developed countries but, other developing regions especially in South-East Asia may also be winners.

Does this mean that Sub-Saharan Africa should be indifferent to or should refuse to participate in the WTO negotiations? The answer is certainly not. On the contrary, they would be worse off if their governments did not participate actively in the WTO process. First, these countries would forego the opportunity to safeguard their own trade interests and to seek greater access for their exports to other markets. Second, they would forego the opportunity to obtain economic efficiency gains from reducing the policy biases against their own rural sectors, while still suffering the terms of trade loss from others’ reforms (or lack thereof), since any one of those countries is too small for its own policy choice to alter the terms of trade significantly. The fact that other countries are also undertaking reforms sometimes makes it politically easier for governments to introduce similar changes at home. Thirdly developing countries that face important structural adjustments, tariff revenue and preference losses would be able to argue a case for support for institution-building and the implementation of programmes to facilitate adjustment and to provide social safety nets and compensation from the developed countries that win from the negotiations. It may also be helpful in persuading bilateral donors and the IFIs, under the coherence mandate, to help Sub-Saharan African countries overcome serious supply constraints in the real economy, for example in infrastructure projects and overcoming technical barriers to trade.

1.3              Objectives of the Study

The study sought to know the agricultural trade reform, and poverty reduction: implications for Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, the study sought to;

1.   examine the relationship between trade reform and poverty reduction.

2.   determine the implications of agricultural trade reform in the Sub-Saharan in Africa.

3.   discuss the effect of trade reform and poverty reduction in other developing countries.

1.4       Research Questions

1. What is the relationship between trade reform and poverty reduction?

2. What are the Implications of agricultural trade reform in the Sub-Saharan in Africa?

3. What is the effect of trade reform and poverty reduction in other developing countries?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no relationship between trade reform and poverty reduction.

Ho2: There are no Implications of agricultural trade reform in the Sub-Saharan in Africa.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.

1.7       Scope/Limitations of the Study

This study is on agriculture, trade reform and poverty reduction: Implication for Sub-Saharan in Africa.

Limitations of Study

Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8       Definition of Terms

Agriculture: Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

Trade reform: is to help raise economic growth and employment generation by improving resource allocation and economy wide efficiency.

Poverty reduction:    Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.

Implications: the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Sub-Saharan Africa:  is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Saharan.